What is a spreadsheet?
• Spreadsheets have been used for many,
many years in business to keep track of
information such as expenses, help make
decisions and for other calculation
• Spreadsheets allow you to organize
information in tables (which are composed
of rows, columns and cells).
The formal definition of the
• A piece of paper with rows and columns
for recording financial data for use in
If using paper and pencil
The math that goes on behind the scenes on the paper
spreadsheet can be overwhelming.
If you change the loan amount, you will have to start the
math all over again (from scratch), and you probably will
make mistakes somewhere even with the aid of calculators
and you have to start again.
What is an Excel spreadsheet?
• Simply put, it is the computer equivalent of
a paper-based spreadsheet, processed by
Microsoft Excel software.
• More than simulating the paper-based
spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, however,
is more powerful than the simple
spreadsheet for its added bonus of
What is an Excel spreadsheet?
• Excel is an environment that can make
number manipulation easy and somewhat
less painfull than otherwise.
• Excel eliminates the tedious recalculations
required by manual methods.
If using Excel
•All you need to do is to design your formula precisely
once, then formulas will do all the calculation for you,
always precisely and correctly!
•The best thing is that you can experiment with
numbers without having to RE-DO all the calculations.
What makes up a spreadsheet in
• Spreadsheets are made up of
– COLUMNS. Letters are used to designate each
– ROWS. Numbers are used to designate each
– CELL is defined as the space where a specified
row and column intersect. Each CELL is
assigned a name according to its COLUMN
letter and ROW number. When referencing a
particular cell, you should put the column first
and the row second.
More about names (addresses or
• In computing world, everything is modeled an
object, and every object has a name. (That is
why computers can do things precisely.)
• Operating system manages data in different
files, folders, drives, computers or network
• In Excel, every object here stands for a cell, a
column, a row, a worksheet or a workbook file.
Locate a cell
• For example, the cell in the uppermost left
corner would be "A1." The current cell(s)
will always be listed in the "Name Box,"
which appears on the left below the
standard and formatting toolbars (you can
drag it to different places.)
Navigating the Spreadsheet
• You can use the "Up," "Down," "Left,"
"Right," to move (one cell at a time)
throughout the spreadsheet. You can also
simply click the cursor into a cell). The
"tab" button will move one cell to the right.
The "Enter" button will confirm the entered
information and move one cell down.
What can you do with those cells?
• A cell is the basic unit of a worksheet into
which you enter data or information.
• In each cell there may be the following
types of data
– text (labels)
– number data (constants)
–formulae (mathematical equations that
work on number data, always being
prefixed by an assignment sign, “=”.)
• They are entries that have an equation
that calculates the value based on the
values of other cells or constants.
• Formulas reflect business rules.
• In formulas cells, we DO NOT type in the
numbers; we type in the equation,
because the values of these cells are
supposed to be derived from the values of
• This cell reference can either be a
relative or an absolute reference
Use formulas as much as possible!
• When we are entering formulas into a
spreadsheet we want to make as many
references as possible to existing data.
• If we can reference that information we
don't have to type it in again.
Intelligence need to be designed.
• Excel is good at repeating and precise
• But Computer is not as smart as human
beings. It is your responsibility to precisely
tell the Excel what you want it to do by
defining right formulas in proper cells.
How can Excel make calculation
• Excel will keep track of numbers you place
in cells. Furthermore, if you have defined
formula cells to refer to each other, any
changes made in one cell will be reflected
in these referring cells.
• It sounds a bit complicated, but Excel
makes it all a breeze.
• Design stage. Implement all business rules
using formulas. You are the designer, not
necessarily to be the final user.
• Production stage. you give your well-designed
Excel workbook which consists of pre-allocated
blank cells and preset formula cells to the final
users, who might or might not be yourself.
• Layout design,
– text, label and row header and column header
– Numerical data directly input from users.
– Derived data defined by formulas (including both
straight formulas and predefined functions.)
• Format and lighten up the dry data appearance
• Generate charts
• Web support (two ways)
– Some data could be retrieved from Web.
– Save as webpage
• This is what a basic spreadsheet may look like, keeping track of the
grades for five students. As you'll notice, numbers automatically
align to the right, while text automatically aligns to the left. Room has
been allowed at the top and the left for column and row headings,
which have been placed in bold.
• We will show grade 1, 2, 3 can be generated easily.
• "92.67" was not entered as the contents for cell
"E2." The "formula bar" has the following
entered into it:
• If you wanted to do the same for students
2 through 5, you would enter in similar
formulas for each cell from "E3" to "E6"
replacing the column letters and row
numbers where appropriate.
Copying by dragging fill handler
• An easy method to replicate formulas is to select
the cell which contains the original formula ("E2"
in this case), click the bottom right corner of the
selection box, and drag down several rows (to
"E6" in this example). The formula will be copied
down in each cell, and will change itself to reflect
each new row.
Relative addresses used in
• Cells information is copied from its relative
position. In other words in the original cell (e2)
the equation was =(B2+C2+D2)/3. When we
paste the function it will look for the three cells to
the left. So the equation pasted into (e3) would
be =(B3+C3+D3)/3. And the equation pasted
into (e4) would be =(B4+C4+D4)/3.
Absolute address in formulas
• Sometimes it is necessary to keep a
certain position that is not relative to the
new cell location.
• This is possible by inserting a $ before the
Column letter or a $ before the Row
number (or both). This is called Absolute
If we were to fill down with this
A B C formula we would have the
1 5 3 =$A$1+$B$1 exact same formula in all of the
2 8 2 =$A$1+$B$1 cells C1, C2, C3, and C4. The
3 4 6 =$A$1+$B$1 dollar signs Lock the cell
4 3 8 =$A$1+$B$1
location to a FIXED position.
When it is copied and pasted it
remains EXACTLY the same
Relative position & Absolute
• Relative position, AB12
• Absolute position, $AB$12
• Mixed reference $A2 with only one dollar sign
before either the column or the row .
• Unless you use absolute positions in your
formula, the smart Excel will take it for granted
that the reference is relative, that means they
will change positions based on its intelligence!
More examples about relative
position in formula
• D5 cell contains a formula, which is d4+c4.
• If this formula is copy to d8 what is the
• D7+c7, why.
• What is the relative position.
• Compared with d5, d4 means same
column, denoted 0; one row above
denoted as -1.
• Compared with d5, c4 means one column
left, denoted -1; one row above denoted
• This relative information will be maintained
in new cell
Absolute position in formula
What are Excel functions?
• An Excel function is a predefined formula.
• Sum, max, average etc.
• Many more
A function example
Generate a random value between two limits
• Enter the following values in cell A1 and A2:
65, 84 (these values will act as the lower and
upper bound limits)
Enter the following formula in cell B1:
A random number between 65 and 84 will be
• Different views ctrl+ ` (accent symbol)
A new Excel Workbook
• Microsoft Excel will automatically open
with a blank spreadsheet spanning many
columns and rows. You will notice a
number of toolbars with many more
A Workbook window
• Title bar
• Menu bar, tool bars, floating and docking
at top or bottom of the window.
• Status bar
• Worksheet windows
Cells C6 Toolbar
• Worksheet Layout, continued Formula Bar
Use a function to analyze the data ...
Formula Bar AutoSum Tool
• Select File, then Print
• Always a good idea to select Print Preview
Selection Number of
• Select Tools, then Options
Manage Set the number
“Recently of blank
used file list” worksheets
to start with
Font Set File
Set User Name
• Select Format, then Cells
• Select the Number Tab, then Custom. Type the format in the box
Enter and edit some data ...
Linking Worksheets, identifying
cells across multiple sheets
• One of Excel’s powerful features is its ability to
sort, while still retaining the relationships
among information. For example, let’s take our
student grade example from above. What if we
wanted to sort the grades in descending order?
First, let’s select the information we want to
• Now let’s select the “Sort” option from the
• A new window will appear asking how you
would like to sort the information. Let’s sort
it by the average grade, which is in
Column E; be sure to set by “Descending”
order. If there were other criteria you
wished to sort by as secondary measures,
you could do so; let’s select “Then by” as
“Grade 3” just for the practice of doing so
(“Descending” order, as well).
• Excel will sort your information with the
specifications you entered. The results
should look something like this:
• Spreadsheets full of numbers can be pretty dry,
so we need some tools to dress them up a little.
• You can add bells and whistles to not only
decorate the appearance of your sheets, but
also improve their and readability.
• We can use most of the tricks in our word
processor to do the formatting of text. We can
use : bold face, italics, underline, change the
color, align (left, right, center), font size, font, etc.
Design for Looks
• Here is some (fictitious) data from an author’s book tour.
• When unformatted, the table is hard to read and understand
2001 Book Tour Results
City Date Fee Attendance Books Sold
New York 23-Jan-01 $1,180 205 147
Boston 25-Jan-01 $821 385 146
Washington27-Jan-01 $1,724 499 151
January Total $3,725 1089 444
Miami 4-Feb-01 $757 221 41
Memphis 6-Feb-01 $910 93 45
Atlanta 8-Feb-01 $1,880 149 95
February Total $3,547 463 181
Los Angeles 5-Mar-01 $941 265 47
San Francisco $904 171 145
Seattle 9-Mar-01 $934 279 109
March Total $2,779 715 301
Grand Total $10,051 2267 926
Design for Looks
• The same data, with some formatting.
• Give this a try!
2001 Book Tour Results
City Date Fee Attendance Books Sold
New York 23-Jan-01 $ 1,180 205 147
Boston 25-Jan-01 $ 821 385 146
Washington, D.C. 27-Jan-01 $ 1,724 499 151
January Total $ 3,725 1089 444
Miami 4-Feb-01 $ 757 221 41
Memphis 6-Feb-01 $ 910 93 45
Atlanta 8-Feb-01 $ 1,880 149 95
February Total $ 3,547 463 181
Los Angeles 5-Mar-01 $ 941 265 47
San Francisco 7-Mar-01 $ 904 171 145
Seattle 9-Mar-01 $ 934 279 109
March Total $ 2,779 715 301
Tour Grand Totals $ 10,051 2267 926 16
• You may have noticed that, by default, Excel
will leave as many decimal points as possible
within the cell’s width restraints; as you
increase the cell’s width, the number of
decimal points increases.
• Select “Cells” from the “Format” menu. A new window will
appear with a wide variety of ways in which to customize
• For example, if we wanted to set the percentages fixed to
only two decimal points, you can make this selection
under the “Number” category within the “Number” tab.
You can also set the formatting for things such as the
date, time, currency, etc.
• The “Font” tab will also allow you to change the default
font used on the spreadsheet. The other tabs provide
even more ways to customize your spreadsheet and its
appearance; experiment with the settings to see what
works best for you.
A picture is worth a thousand
• People communicate all the time in graphical
• In many cases, you can get a message across
more quickly with graphs, charts, or maps than
with words or tables of numbers.
• Excel allow the users to make information.
• Not only chart, but you can also add picture, art
work and so on.
• Excel allows you to create basic – to –
intermediate charts based of information
and data within your spreadsheets.
• Let’s create a column chart from the
student grade data from before. First,
highlight the data.
• Next, select “Chart” from the “Insert”
• A new window will appear asking which
type of chart you would like to create. For
this example, let’s do a basic pie chart.
Select “Column” from the “Chart Type” on
the left side, and pick the first sub-type on
the right (a normal, 2D column chart).
• Click “Next.” In this window, you’ll be asked to
select your “data range”; this is the area of your
spreadsheet that you wish to generate a chart
from. Since you’ve already selected the area
before, it should already be entered into the
appropriate area. “Series in” allows you to
choose by which value you want to arrange the
chart. Let’s arrange it by rows; this will break it
down by “Grade” (such as Test 1, Test 2, etc.)
and comparing the student scores next to each
• Click “Next.” In step three you can give the
chart a name (“Chart Title”), label the X
and/or Y axis, etc.
• Click “Next.” The final step will ask
whether you want the chart as an object in
your current spreadsheet or in a new one;
generally, you will place it within the same
• Click “Finish,”
and your chart
will appear in
• The completed chart can be placed to enhance presentation, yet
remains linked to its data source. If the data changes, the chart
will too. In orther words, if you change values in the data source, Excel
automatically updates the chart to reflect the change.
NORTH EAST SOUTH WEST
• borders and shading
• Save as a webpage
• More importantly, it can receive alive data
online through web services. (Hot!)
• Grab dynamic data from the Internet
through web service support.
• Can retrieve information from the Internet.
• Data -> import data …
Save as web pages
Orientation & preview
Some unexpected symbols?
• #### Excel use this string of symbols to
represent a value that is so large that it
cannot be displayed within the width of the
cell. To view the value in the cell, you must
either increase the width of the column or
hover your mouse pointer over the cell.
• Something starts with a # sign
• #REF! indicates that there is an invalid cell
reference in the formula
•Excel error messages begin with “#”
•Common Error Messages
• ##### Cell isn’t wide enough to show the data
• #VALUE! Wrong type of data for a function
• #DIV/0! Tried to divide by zero
• #NAME? Cell name not defined or (usually) misspelled
• #REF! Cell reference is not valid
• #NUM! Function requires a number
• #NULL! Called a non-intersecting range of cells
• If you enter text or numbers that span further
than the column allows, simply place your
cursor on the line dividing two columns next to
their respective letters, and drag to the right or
left until the desired width is achieved. You can
also double-click this dividing line to have
Excel automatically choose the best width.
• =IF(B2>90,"a", IF(B2>80,"b", "c"))
• Excel can be set to “watch” for certain values in your spreadsheet
• It responds to the values by changing the cells to a format you specify
Conditional Formatting, user
• Apply conditional formatting to “Forecast Example.xls”
• Highlight cells to be formatted (C3 to O26)
• Set values between 0 and 5 to be filled with red, 6 to 10 yellow, and
11 and above green
• When additional information is necessary in a worksheet, a
comment can be inserted
• Select Insert, then choose Comment
• A cell with comments is marked by a red triangle at the upper
right corner of the cell
• What does a green triangle mean in
• Answer: Error
• Ctrl + W = close current window
Ctrl + P = print current document
Ctrl + F = find certain text in current
• Alt + F4 = quit current program
• Tab = moves selection between address bar
and links on current page
• F3 = find certain text in current document
• F5 = refresh current page (also Ctrl + R)
F6 = set text input to address bar (also Ctrl +
• F11 = switch to full-screen mode
• Ctrl + D = add current page to favorites list
• F4 = expand address bar downwards to view list
of recently visited sites
EXCEL KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
• Ctrl + D = fill up
• Ctrl + G = go to some position
• Ctrl + H = find and replace
• Ctrl + R = fill right
• Ctrl + 1 (one) = format cells
• F7 = spelling and grammar
• Ctrl + K = insert a hyperlink
• Renaming worksheet name
• Adding new worksheet
• Options & customization
• After completing this lecture you will be
– Do math by typing simple formulas to add,
divide, multiply, and subtract.
– Use cell references in formulas, so that Excel
can automatically update results when values
change or when you copy formulas.
– Use functions (prewritten formulas) to add up
values, calculate averages, and find the
smallest or largest value in a range of values.
Excel Exam Study Outline
• Spreadsheet (Functional part)
• Charts and Graphs
• Change print alignment
• Enter text
• Cell alignment (right, center, left)
• Indenting text in cells
• Formatting cells (percent, currency, decimal places, font, text wrap,
• Merge and Center command
– Multiplication, subtraction, division, etc. of cells with each other and/or
– Copying formulas using Relative, Mixed and Absolute cell reference
– Writing complex formulas involving more than one calculation.
• Adjusting column width
• Using the AutoSum feature
• Using common functions
Charts and Graphs
• Accenting data in multiple rows or columns.
• Building a chart using the Chart Wizard
• Changing appearance
– Move legend
– Change colors
– Change title
– Change background
– Change font, etc.
• Data labels
• Embedded chart resizing
Entering multiple lines of Text
within a Cell
• After you try Excel, you'll never
go back to a calculator, pencils