# Excel Spreadsheet Formulas by ner17598

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```									 Excel

Sen Zhang
• Spreadsheets have been used for many,
many years in business to keep track of
information such as expenses, help make
decisions and for other calculation
purposes.

• Spreadsheets allow you to organize
information in tables (which are composed
of rows, columns and cells).
The formal definition of the
• A piece of paper with rows and columns
for recording financial data for use in
comparative analysis.
If using paper and pencil
The math that goes on behind the scenes on the paper
If you change the loan amount, you will have to start the
math all over again (from scratch), and you probably will
make mistakes somewhere even with the aid of calculators
and you have to start again.
• Simply put, it is the computer equivalent of
Microsoft Excel software.
• More than simulating the paper-based
is more powerful than the simple
automatic mathematics.

• Excel is an environment that can make
number manipulation easy and somewhat
less painfull than otherwise.

• Excel eliminates the tedious recalculations
required by manual methods.
If using Excel
•All you need to do is to design your formula precisely
once, then formulas will do all the calculation for you,
always precisely and correctly!
•The best thing is that you can experiment with
numbers without having to RE-DO all the calculations.
What makes up a spreadsheet in
Excel?
– COLUMNS. Letters are used to designate each
COLUMN'S location.
– ROWS. Numbers are used to designate each
ROW'S location.
– CELL is defined as the space where a specified
row and column intersect. Each CELL is
assigned a name according to its COLUMN
letter and ROW number. When referencing a
particular cell, you should put the column first
and the row second.
identifiers)
• In computing world, everything is modeled an
object, and every object has a name. (That is
why computers can do things precisely.)
• Operating system manages data in different
files, folders, drives, computers or network
domains etc.
• In Excel, every object here stands for a cell, a
column, a row, a worksheet or a workbook file.
Locate a cell
• For example, the cell in the uppermost left
corner would be "A1." The current cell(s)
will always be listed in the "Name Box,"
which appears on the left below the
standard and formatting toolbars (you can
drag it to different places.)
• You can use the "Up," "Down," "Left,"
"Right," to move (one cell at a time)
throughout the spreadsheet. You can also
simply click the cursor into a cell). The
"tab" button will move one cell to the right.
The "Enter" button will confirm the entered
information and move one cell down.
What can you do with those cells?
• A cell is the basic unit of a worksheet into
which you enter data or information.

• In each cell there may be the following
types of data
– text (labels)
– number data (constants)
–formulae (mathematical equations that
work on number data, always being
prefixed by an assignment sign, “=”.)
Formulas
• They are entries that have an equation
that calculates the value based on the
values of other cells or constants.
• In formulas cells, we DO NOT type in the
numbers; we type in the equation,
because the values of these cells are
supposed to be derived from the values of
other cells.
reference
• This cell reference can either be a
relative or an absolute reference
Use formulas as much as possible!
• When we are entering formulas into a
spreadsheet we want to make as many
references as possible to existing data.

• If we can reference that information we
don't have to type it in again.
Intelligence need to be designed.
• Excel is good at repeating and precise
calculation.
• But Computer is not as smart as human
beings. It is your responsibility to precisely
tell the Excel what you want it to do by
defining right formulas in proper cells.
How can Excel make calculation
easier?
• Excel will keep track of numbers you place
in cells. Furthermore, if you have defined
formula cells to refer to each other, any
changes made in one cell will be reflected
in these referring cells.
• It sounds a bit complicated, but Excel
makes it all a breeze.
Two stages
• Design stage. Implement all business rules
using formulas. You are the designer, not
necessarily to be the final user.

• Production stage. you give your well-designed
Excel workbook which consists of pre-allocated
blank cells and preset formula cells to the final
users, who might or might not be yourself.
• Layout design,
information.
– Numerical data directly input from users.
– Derived data defined by formulas (including both
straight formulas and predefined functions.)
• Format and lighten up the dry data appearance
• Generate charts
• Web support (two ways)
– Save as webpage
An example
• This is what a basic spreadsheet may look like, keeping track of the
grades for five students. As you'll notice, numbers automatically
align to the right, while text automatically aligns to the left. Room has
been allowed at the top and the left for column and row headings,
which have been placed in bold.
• We will show grade 1, 2, 3 can be generated easily.
Simple Formulas:

• "92.67" was not entered as the contents for cell
"E2." The "formula bar" has the following
entered into it:
• =(B2+C2+D2)/3
repeating
• If you wanted to do the same for students
2 through 5, you would enter in similar
formulas for each cell from "E3" to "E6"
replacing the column letters and row
numbers where appropriate.
Copying by dragging fill handler
• An easy method to replicate formulas is to select
the cell which contains the original formula ("E2"
in this case), click the bottom right corner of the
selection box, and drag down several rows (to
"E6" in this example). The formula will be copied
down in each cell, and will change itself to reflect
each new row.
formulas
• Cells information is copied from its relative
position. In other words in the original cell (e2)
the equation was =(B2+C2+D2)/3. When we
paste the function it will look for the three cells to
the left. So the equation pasted into (e3) would
be =(B3+C3+D3)/3. And the equation pasted
into (e4) would be =(B4+C4+D4)/3.
• Sometimes it is necessary to keep a
certain position that is not relative to the
new cell location.
• This is possible by inserting a \$ before the
Column letter or a \$ before the Row
number (or both). This is called Absolute
Positioning.

If we were to fill down with this
A B     C        formula we would have the
1 5 3 =\$A\$1+\$B\$1   exact same formula in all of the
2 8 2 =\$A\$1+\$B\$1   cells C1, C2, C3, and C4. The
3 4 6 =\$A\$1+\$B\$1   dollar signs Lock the cell
4 3 8 =\$A\$1+\$B\$1
location to a FIXED position.
When it is copied and pasted it
remains EXACTLY the same
(no relative).
Relative position & Absolute
position

• Relative position, AB12
• Absolute position, \$AB\$12
• Mixed reference \$A2 with only one dollar sign
before either the column or the row .
• Unless you use absolute positions in your
formula, the smart Excel will take it for granted
that the reference is relative, that means they
will change positions based on its intelligence!
position in formula
• D5 cell contains a formula, which is d4+c4.
• If this formula is copy to d8 what is the
result?
• D7+c7, why.
• D5=d4+c4
• What is the relative position.
• Compared with d5, d4 means same
column, denoted 0; one row above
denoted as -1.
• Compared with d5, c4 means one column
left, denoted -1; one row above denoted
as -1.
• This relative information will be maintained
in new cell
• D8=D7+C7
Absolute position in formula
• D5=\$d\$4+\$c\$4
What are Excel functions?
• An Excel function is a predefined formula.
• Sum, max, average etc.
• Many more
A function example
Generate a random value between two limits

• Enter the following values in cell A1 and A2:
65, 84 (these values will act as the lower and
upper bound limits)
Enter the following formula in cell B1:
=RANDBETWEEN(A1,A2)
A random number between 65 and 84 will be
generated
• Different views ctrl+ ` (accent symbol)
A new Excel Workbook
• Microsoft Excel will automatically open
with a blank spreadsheet spanning many
columns and rows. You will notice a
number of toolbars with many more
options included.
A Workbook window
• Title bar
• Menu bar, tool bars, floating and docking
at top or bottom of the window.
• Status bar
• Worksheet windows
Excel Fundamentals
Worksheet Layout

Standard Toolbar

Formatting
Cells           C6                          Toolbar

Status
B12                                 Bar

6
Excel Fundamentals
Worksheet Layout

• Worksheet Layout, continued              Formula Bar

f

Name
Box

Sheet
Tabs
7
Excel Fundamentals
Excel Capabilities

Use a function to analyze the data ...
Formula Bar                    AutoSum Tool

Formula in
Cell

28
Printing Worksheets

• Select File, then Print
• Always a good idea to select Print Preview
Select Printer

Print
Selection                                         Number of
Copies

Print
Preview                                               ?
7
General Options

• Select Tools, then Options

Manage                           Set the number
“Recently                          of blank
used file list”                      worksheets
Set Standard
Font                             Set File
Location
Set User Name
13
Custom Formats
• Select Format, then Cells
• Select the Number Tab, then Custom. Type the format in the box

Select
Custom

11
Excel Fundamentals
Entering Data
Enter and edit some data ...

Text is
Bold
and
Centered

27
cells across multiple sheets

Formula
Cell D4
“On-Hand”
Worksheet

3
Sorting
• One of Excel’s powerful features is its ability to
sort, while still retaining the relationships
among information. For example, let’s take our
student grade example from above. What if we
wanted to sort the grades in descending order?
First, let’s select the information we want to
sort.
Sorting
• Now let’s select the “Sort” option from the
• A new window will appear asking how you
would like to sort the information. Let’s sort
it by the average grade, which is in
Column E; be sure to set by “Descending”
order. If there were other criteria you
wished to sort by as secondary measures,
you could do so; let’s select “Then by” as
“Grade 3” just for the practice of doing so
(“Descending” order, as well).
Sorting
Sorting
• Excel will sort your information with the
specifications you entered. The results
should look something like this:
•
• Spreadsheets full of numbers can be pretty dry,
so we need some tools to dress them up a little.
• You can add bells and whistles to not only
decorate the appearance of your sheets, but
• We can use most of the tricks in our word
processor to do the formatting of text. We can
use : bold face, italics, underline, change the
color, align (left, right, center), font size, font, etc.
Design for Looks
• Here is some (fictitious) data from an author’s book tour.
• When unformatted, the table is hard to read and understand
2001 Book Tour Results
City      Date       Fee       Attendance Books Sold
New York 23-Jan-01      \$1,180        205        147
Boston     25-Jan-01      \$821        385        146
Washington27-Jan-01     \$1,724        499        151
January Total           \$3,725       1089        444
Miami       4-Feb-01      \$757        221         41
Memphis     6-Feb-01      \$910          93        45
Atlanta     8-Feb-01    \$1,880        149         95
February Total          \$3,547        463        181
Los Angeles 5-Mar-01      \$941        265         47
7-Mar-01
San Francisco             \$904        171        145
Seattle     9-Mar-01      \$934        279        109
March Total             \$2,779        715        301
Grand Total            \$10,051       2267        926
15
Design for Looks
• The same data, with some formatting.
• Give this a try!

2001 Book Tour Results
City             Date      Fee    Attendance Books Sold
New York                23-Jan-01 \$ 1,180      205       147
Boston                  25-Jan-01 \$    821     385       146
Washington, D.C.        27-Jan-01 \$ 1,724      499       151
January Total           \$ 3,725      1089      444
Miami                   4-Feb-01 \$     757     221        41
Memphis                 6-Feb-01 \$     910      93        45
Atlanta                 8-Feb-01 \$ 1,880       149        95
February Total           \$ 3,547      463       181
Los Angeles             5-Mar-01 \$     941     265        47
San Francisco           7-Mar-01 \$     904     171       145
Seattle                 9-Mar-01 \$     934     279       109
March Total           \$ 2,779      715       301
Tour Grand Totals                 \$ 10,051     2267      926       16
Cell Formatting
• You may have noticed that, by default, Excel
will leave as many decimal points as possible
within the cell’s width restraints; as you
increase the cell’s width, the number of
decimal points increases.
• Select “Cells” from the “Format” menu. A new window will
appear with a wide variety of ways in which to customize
• For example, if we wanted to set the percentages fixed to
only two decimal points, you can make this selection
under the “Number” category within the “Number” tab.
You can also set the formatting for things such as the
date, time, currency, etc.
• The “Font” tab will also allow you to change the default
font used on the spreadsheet. The other tabs provide
appearance; experiment with the settings to see what
works best for you.
A picture is worth a thousand
words.
• People communicate all the time in graphical
languages.
• In many cases, you can get a message across
more quickly with graphs, charts, or maps than
with words or tables of numbers.
• Excel allow the users to make information.
graphically articulate.
• Not only chart, but you can also add picture, art
work and so on.
Chart Wizard
• Excel allows you to create basic – to –
intermediate charts based of information
• Let’s create a column chart from the
student grade data from before. First,
highlight the data.
• Next, select “Chart” from the “Insert”
• A new window will appear asking which
type of chart you would like to create. For
this example, let’s do a basic pie chart.
Select “Column” from the “Chart Type” on
the left side, and pick the first sub-type on
the right (a normal, 2D column chart).
• Click “Next.” In this window, you’ll be asked to
select your “data range”; this is the area of your
spreadsheet that you wish to generate a chart
from. Since you’ve already selected the area
before, it should already be entered into the
appropriate area. “Series in” allows you to
choose by which value you want to arrange the
chart. Let’s arrange it by rows; this will break it
down by “Grade” (such as Test 1, Test 2, etc.)
and comparing the student scores next to each
other.
• Click “Next.” In step three you can give the
chart a name (“Chart Title”), label the X
and/or Y axis, etc.
• Click “Next.” The final step will ask
whether you want the chart as an object in
generally, you will place it within the same
• Click “Finish,”
will appear in
your
•
Charts
• The completed chart can be placed to enhance presentation, yet
remains linked to its data source. If the data changes, the chart
will too. In orther words, if you change values in the data source, Excel
automatically updates the chart to reflect the change.
Quarterly Sales

140

120

100

80
\$ Millions

Jan
Feb
Mar
60

40

20

0
NORTH   EAST                     SOUTH   WEST
Region
9
• Pictures
• Cliparts
Web Feature
• Save as a webpage
• More importantly, it can receive alive data
online through web services. (Hot!)
Web queries
• Grab dynamic data from the Internet
through web service support.
• Can retrieve information from the Internet.
• Data -> import data …
Save as web pages
• Static
• Dynamic
Orientation & preview
• Orientation
– Portrait
– Landscape
• Preview
Some unexpected symbols?
• #### Excel use this string of symbols to
represent a value that is so large that it
cannot be displayed within the width of the
cell. To view the value in the cell, you must
either increase the width of the column or
hover your mouse pointer over the cell.
• Something starts with a # sign
• #REF! indicates that there is an invalid cell
reference in the formula
Recognizing Errors

•Excel error messages begin with “#”
•Common Error Messages

•   #####         Cell isn’t wide enough to show the data
•   #VALUE!       Wrong type of data for a function
•   #DIV/0!       Tried to divide by zero
•   #NAME?        Cell name not defined or (usually) misspelled
•   #REF!         Cell reference is not valid
•   #NUM!         Function requires a number
•   #NULL!        Called a non-intersecting range of cells

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• If you enter text or numbers that span further
than the column allows, simply place your
cursor on the line dividing two columns next to
their respective letters, and drag to the right or
left until the desired width is achieved. You can
also double-click this dividing line to have
Excel automatically choose the best width.
Conditional function
• =IF(B2>90,"a", IF(B2>80,"b", "c"))
Conditional Formatting
• Excel can be set to “watch” for certain values in your spreadsheet
• It responds to the values by changing the cells to a format you specify

9
Conditional Formatting, user
friendly appearence
• Apply conditional formatting to “Forecast Example.xls”
• Highlight cells to be formatted (C3 to O26)
• Set values between 0 and 5 to be filled with red, 6 to 10 yellow, and
11 and above green

12
• When additional information is necessary in a worksheet, a
comment can be inserted
• Select Insert, then choose Comment
• A cell with comments is marked by a red triangle at the upper
right corner of the cell

3
• What does a green triangle mean in
Excel?
Windows
• Ctrl + W = close current window
Ctrl + P = print current document
Ctrl + F = find certain text in current
document
• Alt + F4 = quit current program
INTERNET EXPLORER
• Tab = moves selection between address bar
• F3 = find certain text in current document
• F5 = refresh current page (also Ctrl + R)
F6 = set text input to address bar (also Ctrl +
Tab)
• F11 = switch to full-screen mode
• Ctrl + D = add current page to favorites list
• F4 = expand address bar downwards to view list
of recently visited sites
EXCEL KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
•   Ctrl + D = fill up
•   Ctrl + G = go to some position
•   Ctrl + H = find and replace
•   Ctrl + R = fill right
•   Ctrl + 1 (one) = format cells
•   F7 = spelling and grammar
•   Ctrl + K = insert a hyperlink
• Renaming worksheet name
• Options & customization
Goals

• After completing this lecture you will be
able to:
– Do math by typing simple formulas to add,
divide, multiply, and subtract.
– Use cell references in formulas, so that Excel
can automatically update results when values
change or when you copy formulas.
– Use functions (prewritten formulas) to add up
values, calculate averages, and find the
smallest or largest value in a range of values.
Excel Exam Study Outline
• Charts and Graphs
• Formatting
• Change print alignment
• Enter text
• Cell alignment (right, center, left)
• Indenting text in cells
• Formatting cells (percent, currency, decimal places, font, text wrap,
fill, etc.)
• Merge and Center command
• Formulas
– Multiplication, subtraction, division, etc. of cells with each other and/or
by constants
– Copying formulas using Relative, Mixed and Absolute cell reference
– Writing complex formulas involving more than one calculation.
• Using the AutoSum feature
• Using common functions
Charts and Graphs
• Accenting data in multiple rows or columns.
• Building a chart using the Chart Wizard
• Changing appearance
–   Move legend
–   Change colors
–   Change title
–   Change background
–   Change font, etc.
• Data labels
• Embedded chart resizing
Entering multiple lines of Text
within a Cell
• Alt+enter
End
• After you try Excel, you'll never
go back to a calculator, pencils
or paper.

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