A Profitable Business the Employees Concerns Are by stt16066

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               5 Farm Management for Sustainability                     601




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KNOWLEDGE AREA NAME


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management


Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management

Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management




Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
Economics of Agricultural Production and Farm Management
PROGRAM NAME


Statewide Goat Research Program




Small Farm, Value-Added Enterprises and Rural Families

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management




Pasture Based Dairy Systems




Pasture Based Dairy Systems




Pasture Based Dairy Systems




Profit Focused Agriculture
Profit Focused Agriculture




Profit Focused Agriculture




Profit Focused Agriculture




Profit Focused Agriculture
Biofuels




The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation


The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation




The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation

Plant Protection


Plant Protection

Plant Protection

Plant Protection

Plant Protection
Economics & Commerce

Economics & Commerce

Economics & Commerce

Economics & Commerce

Economics & Commerce

Economics & Commerce

Economics & Commerce


Economics & Commerce
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry




Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Systems


Agricultural Systems

Economics, Marketing, Policy and Community Development

Economics, Marketing, Policy and Community Development
Economics, Marketing, Policy and Community Development




Agricultural Systems
Commercial Horticulture Production




Commercial Horticulture Production




Commercial Horticulture Production


Commercial Horticulture Production


Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Systems


Agricultural Systems


Agricultural Business Management




Farm and Business Management




Farm and Business Management
Farm and Business Management




Farm and Business Management




Farm and Business Management




Farm and Business Management
Economic Systems




Economic Systems




Economic Systems




Small Family Farm Enterprise Financial Analysis, Management, and Marketing




Small Family Farm Enterprise Financial Analysis, Management, and Marketing
Small Family Farm Enterprise Financial Analysis, Management, and Marketing




Small Family Farm Enterprise Financial Analysis, Management, and Marketing




Social and Economic Opportunity

Economics, Markets, and Policy




Feeder Cattle Marketing




Feeder Cattle Marketing
Feeder Cattle Marketing




Feeder Cattle Marketing




Agricultural Systems


Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Systems
Economics and Commerce




Economics and Commerce




Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




Plants and Plant Products
Plants and Plant Products




Analyzing the green industry and related sub-sectors in Tennessee: challenges and prospects




Analyzing the green industry and related sub-sectors in Tennessee: challenges and prospects




Analyzing the green industry and related sub-sectors in Tennessee: challenges and prospects




Analyzing the green industry and related sub-sectors in Tennessee: challenges and prospects
Analyzing the green industry and related sub-sectors in Tennessee: challenges and prospects




Agricultural Systems
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability


Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability
Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability

Economics, Marketing and Policy

Economics, Marketing and Policy
Economic Prosperity of Productive and Sustainable Food and Fiber Systems




Economic Prosperity of Productive and Sustainable Food and Fiber Systems
Economic Prosperity of Productive and Sustainable Food and Fiber Systems

1.1 Agricultural and Horticultural Business Vitality




1.1 Agricultural and Horticultural Business Vitality

1.1 Agricultural and Horticultural Business Vitality

1.1 Agricultural and Horticultural Business Vitality

Sustainable Agriculture Production for Horticultural Crops




Sustainable Agronomic Crop Systems




Sustainable Agronomic Crop Systems




Sustainable Agronomic Crop Systems

Economics of Crop Production

Economics of Crop Production


Economics of Crop Production

Economics of Crop Production
(PSAS )-Crop Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture Systems




(PSAS )-Crop Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture Systems




(PSAS) Forage Based Livestock Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture




(PSAS) Forage Based Livestock Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture




(PSAS) Forage Based Livestock Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture




(PSAS) Forage Based Livestock Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture




(CDE) Entrepreneurship




(CDE) Entrepreneurship


(CDE) Entrepreneurship
(CDE) Entrepreneurship

(CDE) Entrepreneurship

(CDE) Entrepreneurship

(CDE) Entrepreneurship




(CDE) Entrepreneurship


(CDE) Entrepreneurship

(CDE) Entrepreneurship


(CDE) Entrepreneurship

(CDE) Entrepreneurship




VI. ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
VI. ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT




VI. ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems




Improved Management Options to Improve Catfish Production Efficiencies and Lower Costs
Improved Management Options to Improve Catfish Production Efficiencies and Lower Costs




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems




Agriculture & Natural Resources




Agriculture & Natural Resources




Program in Fruit and Vegetable Development, Production and Management
Small Farm Program




Small Island Agricultural Systems
Small Island Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Business Management




(PSAS and SMRR) Wyoming Small Acreages
(PSAS and SMRR) Wyoming Small Acreages




(PSAS and SMRR) Wyoming Small Acreages




(PSAS and SMRR) Wyoming Small Acreages




Food Production
Food Production




Food Production

Food Production




Food Production


Food Production

Food Production




Economics, Marketing and Policy
Economics, Marketing and Policy




Economics, Marketing and Policy




Economics, Marketing and Policy

Agronomic Crop Systems
1.1 Agricultural and Horticultural Business Vitality


Sustainable Agriculture Production for Horticultural Crops


Sustainable Agriculture Production for Horticultural Crops




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems




Sustainable and Economically Viable Food and Biomass Systems
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management

Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management

Agriculture - Sustainable Business Management
Maine Livestock Industry
Maine Livestock Industry




Agricultural Policy and Rural Development




Agricultural Policy and Rural Development


Economic Infrastructure and Commerce


Economic Infrastructure and Commerce


Economic Infrastructure and Commerce

Economic Infrastructure and Commerce

Economic Infrastructure and Commerce

Economic Infrastructure and Commerce

Economic Infrastructure and Commerce

Economic Infrastructure and Commerce

Economic Infrastructure and Commerce
Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam




Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam




Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam
Sustainability of Small Scale Swine and Poultry Farms on Guam




Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center
Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center
Iowa Pork Industry Center




Iowa Pork Industry Center




Dairy Team
Dairy Team




Dairy Team
Iowa Beef Center




Iowa Beef Center




Iowa Beef Center




Iowa Beef Center




Iowa Beef Center
Alternative Crop Production




Small Island Agricultural Systems




Alabama Entrepreneurial Initiative (AEI): A Strategy for Workforce Development
Assisting Small-Scale Farmers and Landowners to Manage Change in Agriculture




Agricultural Systems




Agricultural Systems
Enhancing Citizens Capacity to Transform Communities




1.1 Agricultural and Horticultural Business Vitality


Agronomic Crop Systems


Agronomic Crop Systems




Agronomic Crop Systems




Agronomic Crop Systems


Agronomic Crop Systems
Agronomic Crop Systems


Agronomic Crop Systems




Agronomic Crop Systems


Agronomic Crop Systems




Agronomic Crop Systems




Small Farm, Value-Added Enterprises and Rural Families




Economic Infrastructure and Commerce




Economic Infrastructure and Commerce




Economic Infrastructure and Commerce


Economic Infrastructure and Commerce
The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation




The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation




The New Farmer: Agriculture for the Next Generation

Production, Marketing, Trade, and International Economics

Production, Marketing, Trade, and International Economics
Production, Marketing, Trade, and International Economics
Agricultural Markets, Trade, and Economic/Business Development
Agricultural Markets, Trade, and Economic/Business Development


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture
1.1 Agricultural and Horticultural Business Vitality
Agricultural Markets, Trade, and Economic/Business Development




Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture




Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture




Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture
Agricultural Resources

Agricultural Resources


Agricultural Resources

Agricultural Resources
Agricultural Resources


Agricultural Resources
Agricultural Resources
Natural Resource Business Institute

Natural Resource Business Institute

Natural Resource Business Institute

Natural Resource Business Institute




Natural Resource Business Institute


1.1 Agricultural and Horticultural Business Vitality
Social and Economic Opportunity

Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture




Agricultural Viability
Agricultural Viability




Agricultural Viability
Agricultural Viability




Agricultural Viability
Agricultural Viability
Agricultural Viability
Agricultural Viability




Agricultural Viability
Agricultural Viability




Agricultural Viability
Agricultural Viability


Program in Economic Sciences


Program in Economic Sciences




Program in Economic Sciences


Program in Economic Sciences


Program in Economic Sciences
Program in Economic Sciences


Program in Economic Sciences




Program in Economic Sciences


Program in Economic Sciences




Small Farms




Small Farms




Small Farms




Plant Science
International Trade and Development

Plant Science




Agricultural Policy and Rural Development

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)
Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)


Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)

Sustainable Agriculture (Extension)




Assisting Small-Scale Farmers and Landowners to Manage Change in Agriculture




Conservation Tillage (Extension)




Conservation Tillage (Extension)




Conservation Tillage (Extension)




Livestock Environmental Assurance and Mortality Management (Extension)
Livestock Environmental Assurance and Mortality Management (Extension)




Livestock Environmental Assurance and Mortality Management (Extension)

Agronomic Crop Management and Certified Crop Advisor (Extension)

Agronomic Crop Management and Certified Crop Advisor (Extension)

Agronomic Crop Management and Certified Crop Advisor (Extension)

Agronomic Crop Management and Certified Crop Advisor (Extension)




Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics-OARDC Led
Economics, Markets, and Policy
Economics, Markets, and Policy
Economics, Markets, and Policy
Horticulture
Horticulture
Horticulture

International Trade and Development

International Trade and Development




Small Farm Financial Management and Marketing

Agribusiness/Risk Farm Management
Agribusiness/Risk Farm Management




Dairy




Dairy
Dairy




Dairy


Dairy
Economics, Marketing and Policy




Ag: Dryland Cropping Systems




Economics, Marketing and Policy




Ag: Dryland Cropping Systems
Ag: Dryland Cropping Systems




Ag: Dryland Cropping Systems
Ag: Dryland Cropping Systems

Ag: Dryland Cropping Systems




Fish Marketing (Aquaculture)




Fish Marketing (Aquaculture)




Fish Marketing (Aquaculture)




Farm and Agribusiness Management
Farm and Agribusiness Management




Farm and Agribusiness Management


Maintaining agricultural production systems that are highly competitive in the global economy

Maintaining agricultural production systems that are highly competitive in the global economy

Maintaining agricultural production systems that are highly competitive in the global economy


Assuring the safety, security and abundance of our food supply

Assuring the safety, security and abundance of our food supply

Assuring the safety, security and abundance of our food supply
Economic Development with Emphasis in Rural Areas




Integrated Pest Management


Integrated Pest Management




Integrated Pest Management

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY-BASED AGRIBUSINESS


BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY-BASED AGRIBUSINESS




PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




High Latitude Agriculture- AFES




High Latitude Agriculture- AFES




High Latitude Agriculture- AFES

Agricultural Markets, Trade, and Economic/Business Development
Agricultural Markets, Trade, and Economic/Business Development




Sustainable Agriculture




Sustainable Agriculture




Sustainable Communities




Sustainable Communities




Sustainable Communities
Sustainable Communities




Whole Farm Systems Research
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources




Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources
Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources




Enhancing Economic Opportunities for Agricultural Producers while Protecting Washington's Resources

Community Development


Community Development

Aquaculture

Aquaculture
Food Processing, Protection & Safety
Small Acreages and Emerging Specialty Crops


Small Acreages and Emerging Specialty Crops




Small Acreages and Emerging Specialty Crops




Farm and Ranch Management


Farm and Ranch Management

Farm and Ranch Management




Farm and Ranch Management
Farm and Ranch Management
Farm and Ranch Management


Farm and Ranch Management




Farm and Ranch Management


Economics and Market Policy

Economics and Market Policy


Economics and Market Policy

Economics and Market Policy




Economic Development through Value-Added Products




Economic Development through Value-Added Products


Competitive Agricultural Systems
Economic Development through Value-Added Products




Competitive Agricultural Systems




Competitive Agricultural Systems




Competitive Agricultural Systems




Competitive Agricultural Systems


Aquaculture

Aquaculture
Aquaculture

Aquaculture
Food Processing, Protection & Safety

Food Processing, Protection & Safety

Meat and Dairy Goat Production and Processing

Sustainability and Profitability of Agriculture

Sustainability and Profitability of Agriculture

Sustainability and Profitability of Agriculture

Urban Agriculture

Urban Agriculture




Milk and Meat Production Systems Resources
Milk and Meat Production Systems Resources




Farm and Ranch Management
Small Acreages and Emerging Specialty Crops


Farm and Ranch Management


Farm and Ranch Management

Farm and Ranch Management

Nutrient and Waste Management

Nutrient and Waste Management

Nutrient and Waste Management

Nutrient and Waste Management

Nutrient and Waste Management




Animal Production Systems
Animal Production Systems
Animal Production Systems
INSTITUTION NAME 1       INSTITUTION NAME 2


Florida A&M University




Florida A&M University

University of Vermont

University of Vermont




University of Vermont
University of Vermont




University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont




University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont




University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont

University of Vermont




University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Illinois




University of Guam


University of Guam




University of Guam

University of Maine


University of Maine

University of Maine

University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas


University of Arkansas
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine




University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas


University of Arkansas

University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine




University of Arkansas
West Virginia University




West Virginia University




West Virginia University


West Virginia University


University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas


University of Arkansas


University of Minnesota




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University




North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University




North Carolina State University   North Carolina A&T State University




Alcorn State University




Alcorn State University
Alcorn State University




Alcorn State University




University of Kentucky     Kentucky State University

Purdue University




West Virginia University




West Virginia University
West Virginia University




West Virginia University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University


Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




University of Vermont




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




Tennessee State University




Tennessee State University




Tennessee State University




Tennessee State University
Tennessee State University




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University
University of Vermont

University of Vermont


University of Vermont

University of Vermont
University of Vermont

University of Puerto Rico

University of Puerto Rico
University of Maryland   University of Maryland - Eastern Shore




University of Maryland   University of Maryland - Eastern Shore
University of Maryland          University of Maryland - Eastern Shore

Cornell University              NY State Agricultural Experiment Station




Cornell University              NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University              NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Cornell University              NY State Agricultural Experiment Station

Clemson University              South Carolina State University




Clemson University              South Carolina State University




Clemson University              South Carolina State University




Clemson University              South Carolina State University

North Dakota State University

North Dakota State University


North Dakota State University

North Dakota State University
University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming


University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming

University of Wyoming

University of Wyoming

University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming


University of Wyoming

University of Wyoming


University of Wyoming

University of Wyoming




Southern University and A&M College
Southern University and A&M College




Southern University and A&M College




University of Nebraska




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




University of Nebraska




University of Nevada




University of Nevada




Washington State University
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




College of Micronesia
College of Micronesia




University of Minnesota




University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




University of Wyoming




University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts




University of Massachusetts

University of Massachusetts




University of Massachusetts


University of Massachusetts

University of Massachusetts




Michigan State University
Michigan State University




Michigan State University




Michigan State University

University of Tennessee     Tennessee State University
Cornell University       NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


Clemson University       South Carolina State University


Clemson University       South Carolina State University




University of Nebraska




University of Nebraska




University of Nebraska
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine




University of Missouri




University of Missouri


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University

University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University
University of Guam




University of Guam




University of Guam
University of Guam




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University




Iowa State University
Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University




Iowa State University
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff




College of Micronesia




Tuskegee University
Tuskegee University




Pennsylvania State University




Pennsylvania State University
Tuskegee University




Cornell University        NY State Agricultural Experiment Station


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University
University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




Florida A&M University




University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University




University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University


University of Tennessee   Tennessee State University
University of Guam




University of Guam




University of Guam

Utah State University

Utah State University
Utah State University
New Mexico State University
New Mexico State University


University of California


University of California
Cornell University            NY State Agricultural Experiment Station
New Mexico State University




University of California


University of California


University of California


University of California




University of California


University of California


University of California




University of California


University of California
University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire


University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire


University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire




University of New Hampshire


Cornell University            NY State Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Kentucky     Kentucky State University

University of California




Rutgers
Rutgers




Rutgers
Rutgers




Rutgers
Rutgers
Rutgers
Rutgers




Rutgers
Rutgers




Rutgers
Rutgers


Washington State University


Washington State University




Washington State University


Washington State University


Washington State University
Washington State University


Washington State University




Washington State University


Washington State University




American Samoa Community College




American Samoa Community College




American Samoa Community College




Lincoln University of Missouri
North Carolina A&T State University

Lincoln University of Missouri




University of Missouri

Ohio State University
Ohio State University

Ohio State University


Ohio State University

Ohio State University

Ohio State University




Tuskegee University




Ohio State University




Ohio State University




Ohio State University




Ohio State University
Ohio State University




Ohio State University

Ohio State University

Ohio State University

Ohio State University

Ohio State University




Ohio State University
Iowa State University
Iowa State University
Iowa State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University

North Carolina A&T State University

North Carolina A&T State University




Prairie View A&M University

Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University




University of Wisconsin




University of Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin




University of Wisconsin


University of Wisconsin
Michigan State University




Oregon State University




Michigan State University




Oregon State University
Oregon State University




Oregon State University
Oregon State University

Oregon State University




Langston University




Langston University




Langston University




Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University




Oklahoma State University


Auburn University           Alabama A&M University

Auburn University           Alabama A&M University

Auburn University           Alabama A&M University


Auburn University           Alabama A&M University

Auburn University           Alabama A&M University

Auburn University           Alabama A&M University
University of Nevada




Oklahoma State University


Oklahoma State University




Oklahoma State University

University of Delaware      Delaware State University


University of Delaware      Delaware State University




University of Delaware      Delaware State University

University of Delaware      Delaware State University

University of Delaware      Delaware State University


University of Delaware      Delaware State University
University of Delaware        Delaware State University




University of Delaware        Delaware State University




University of Delaware        Delaware State University




University of Delaware        Delaware State University




University of Alaska




University of Alaska




University of Alaska

New Mexico State University
New Mexico State University




University of the Virgin Islands




University of the Virgin Islands




University of Rhode Island




University of Rhode Island




University of Rhode Island
University of Rhode Island




University of the Virgin Islands
Washington State University
Washington State University
Washington State University




Washington State University
Washington State University
Washington State University
Washington State University




Washington State University

University of Idaho


University of Idaho

University of Georgia         Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia         Fort Valley State University
University of Georgia         Fort Valley State University
University of Idaho


University of Idaho




University of Idaho




University of Idaho


University of Idaho

University of Idaho




University of Idaho
University of Idaho
University of Idaho


University of Idaho




University of Idaho


South Dakota State University

South Dakota State University


South Dakota State University

South Dakota State University




Kansas State University




Kansas State University


Kansas State University
Kansas State University




Kansas State University




Kansas State University




Kansas State University




Kansas State University


University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University
University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia     Fort Valley State University
University of Georgia       Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia       Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia       Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia       Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia       Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia       Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia       Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia       Fort Valley State University




University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico




University of Idaho
University of Idaho


University of Idaho


University of Idaho

University of Idaho

University of Idaho

University of Idaho

University of Idaho

University of Idaho

University of Idaho




Colorado State University
Colorado State University
Colorado State University
INSTITUTION NAME 3   INSTITUTION NAME 4   STATE CODE STATE NAME


                                          FL         Florida




                                          FL         Florida

                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont




                                          VT         Vermont
                                          VT         Vermont




                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont

                                          VT         Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont




VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont




VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont




VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
IL   Illinois




GU   Guam


GU   Guam




GU   Guam

ME   Maine


ME   Maine

ME   Maine

ME   Maine

ME   Maine
AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas

AR   Arkansas


AR   Arkansas
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine




AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas


AR   Arkansas

ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine




AR   Arkansas
WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia


WV   West Virginia


AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas


AR   Arkansas


MN   Minnesota




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
NC   North Carolina




NC   North Carolina




NC   North Carolina




MS   Mississippi




MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi




MS   Mississippi




KY   Kentucky

IN   Indiana




WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia
WV   West Virginia




WV   West Virginia




VA   Virginia


VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia
VA   Virginia




VA   Virginia




VT   Vermont




VA   Virginia
VA   Virginia




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee
TN   Tennessee




VA   Virginia
VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont


VT   Vermont

VT   Vermont
VT   Vermont

PR   Puerto Rico

PR   Puerto Rico
MD   Maryland




MD   Maryland
MD   Maryland

NY   New York




NY   New York

NY   New York

NY   New York

SC   South Carolina




SC   South Carolina




SC   South Carolina




SC   South Carolina

ND   North Dakota

ND   North Dakota


ND   North Dakota

ND   North Dakota
WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming


WY   Wyoming
WY   Wyoming

WY   Wyoming

WY   Wyoming

WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming


WY   Wyoming

WY   Wyoming


WY   Wyoming

WY   Wyoming




LA   Louisiana
LA   Louisiana




LA   Louisiana




NE   Nebraska




AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas




NE   Nebraska




NV   Nevada




NV   Nevada




WA   Washington
AR   Arkansas




FM   Micronesia, Fed States
FM   Micronesia, Fed States




MN   Minnesota




WY   Wyoming
WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




WY   Wyoming




MA   Massachusetts
MA   Massachusetts




MA   Massachusetts

MA   Massachusetts




MA   Massachusetts


MA   Massachusetts

MA   Massachusetts




MI   Michigan
MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan

TN   Tennessee
NY   New York


SC   South Carolina


SC   South Carolina




NE   Nebraska




NE   Nebraska




NE   Nebraska
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine




MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri


TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee

TN   Tennessee
GU   Guam




GU   Guam




GU   Guam
GU   Guam




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa




IA   Iowa
AR   Arkansas




FM   Micronesia, Fed States




AL   Alabama
AL   Alabama




PA   Pennsylvania




PA   Pennsylvania
AL   Alabama




NY   New York


TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee
TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




FL   Florida




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee


TN   Tennessee
GU   Guam




GU   Guam




GU   Guam

UT   Utah

UT   Utah
UT   Utah
NM   New Mexico
NM   New Mexico


CA   California


CA   California
NY   New York
NM   New Mexico




CA   California


CA   California


CA   California


CA   California




CA   California


CA   California


CA   California




CA   California


CA   California
NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire


NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire


NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire




NH   New Hampshire


NY   New York
KY   Kentucky

CA   California




NJ   New Jersey
NJ   New Jersey




NJ   New Jersey
NJ   New Jersey




NJ   New Jersey
NJ   New Jersey
NJ   New Jersey
NJ   New Jersey




NJ   New Jersey
NJ   New Jersey




NJ   New Jersey
NJ   New Jersey


WA   Washington


WA   Washington




WA   Washington


WA   Washington


WA   Washington
WA   Washington


WA   Washington




WA   Washington


WA   Washington




AS   American Samoa




AS   American Samoa




AS   American Samoa




MO   Missouri
NC   North Carolina

MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri

OH   Ohio
OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio


OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio




AL   Alabama




OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio
OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio

OH   Ohio




OH   Ohio
IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi

NC   North Carolina

NC   North Carolina




TX   Texas

MS   Mississippi
MS   Mississippi




WI   Wisconsin




WI   Wisconsin
WI   Wisconsin




WI   Wisconsin


WI   Wisconsin
MI   Michigan




OR   Oregon




MI   Michigan




OR   Oregon
OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon
OR   Oregon

OR   Oregon




OK   Oklahoma




OK   Oklahoma




OK   Oklahoma




OK   Oklahoma
                      OK   Oklahoma




                      OK   Oklahoma


Tuskegee University   AL   Alabama

Tuskegee University   AL   Alabama

Tuskegee University   AL   Alabama


Tuskegee University   AL   Alabama

Tuskegee University   AL   Alabama

Tuskegee University   AL   Alabama
NV   Nevada




OK   Oklahoma


OK   Oklahoma




OK   Oklahoma

DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware

DE   Delaware

DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware
DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware




AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska

NM   New Mexico
NM   New Mexico




VI   Virgin Islands




VI   Virgin Islands




RI   Rhode Island




RI   Rhode Island




RI   Rhode Island
RI   Rhode Island




VI   Virgin Islands
WA   Washington
WA   Washington
WA   Washington




WA   Washington
WA   Washington
WA   Washington
WA   Washington




WA   Washington

ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia
GA   Georgia
ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho
ID   Idaho
ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho


SD   South Dakota

SD   South Dakota


SD   South Dakota

SD   South Dakota




KS   Kansas




KS   Kansas


KS   Kansas
KS   Kansas




KS   Kansas




KS   Kansas




KS   Kansas




KS   Kansas


GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia
GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia
GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia




PR   Puerto Rico
PR   Puerto Rico




ID   Idaho
ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho


ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho




CO   Colorado
CO   Colorado
CO   Colorado
OUTCOME MEASURE
More use of sustainable production practices; Reduction in feed and health costs; Enhanced
marketable products and markets; Greater profitability and competitiveness; Well-trained
graduate and undergraduate students.
Adoption of profitable enterprises and practices; Improved quality of life for rural families;
More efficient use of agricultural chemicals by producers; Increased economic returns for
small farmers; Identification of new value-added enterprises; Well-trained graduate and
undergraduate students.
beef producers report information and services improved their profitability, stewardship
and/or management
customers that receive organic grain production research data will integrate results into
production systems




farmers will make a change by growing oil seed crops, using local on-farm vegetable oil or
biodiesel, and/or planning an individual or cooperative on-farm vegetable oil or biodiesel
facility.
extension and agency personnel gain new skills that can be applied in their work




number of dairy farmers who adopt a best management practice they learned from another
farmer participant
number of farm families who take action on a recommendation made by an Extension team
after the APT plan is developed
number of farmers having a greater understanding of the costs associated with organic
farming
number of farms completing Dairy Stewardship assessment who adopt at least two
sustainable practices
number of sheep farmers demonstrating better livestock management skills who report an
increase in the number of healthy sheep
number of sheep producers who report a reduced parasite load in animals
number of sheep farms who report decreased lamb mortality
number of communities that integrate the participatory modeling tool into long-term town
planning
number of vegetable and berry growers who implement changes in production, pest control,
and/or management practice resulting in the desired outcome




number of growers implementing IPM practices reducing reliance on pesticides
number of farm and forest landowners who report greater understanding of farm and/or
forest transfer issues and options
number of farmers selling directly to consumers implementing marketing, production and
record keeping skills
number of farmers who implement at least one cropping practice to improve productivity,
forage quality and profitability
number of farmers with business plans who use financial statements to address management
problems in farm operation increasing farm profitability
number of participants who maintain direct involvement in promoting the importance of
Vermont Agriculture
participants will begin growing organic grains as a part of their farming operation
participants will have gained knowledge on how to grow organic grains
acres of forest land will be opened for tourism and recreation access
participants will implement information learned from Grain Growing workshops
equine facilities incorporate biosecurity, safety and preventative measures




number of Growing Places graduates make an intentional, informed decision not to start a
business after completing the course
number of Growing Places graduates who go on to start a business within 18 months of
course completion
number of farmers who indicate increased knowledge about grazing practices
number of farmers who create and implement business plans

number of farmers who use financial statements to identify farm management problems




number of participants who have a greater understanding of their expenses and profit centers
number of participants who show a 5% or more increase in farm profitability after
implementing recommended management changes
number of participants will understand what pieces are in a plan, and will have a better focus
for their farm business
number of participating service providers report increased understanding of services
provided by other agencies and organizations

number of program participants who make informed decisions about crop insurance
number of service providers who use the legal guide as a reference

number of farmers who identify and use a tool (such as Quicken) for farm financial records

number of farmers who use financial reports with another person for business purposes
number of farmers who implement a practice that improves soil quality resulting in improved
crop yield and quality
number of beef farmers participating in consignment sales and value added beef markets
who report an increased net profit
number of farmers who implement grazing plans
number of sheep producers who supply lamb to Vermont Quality Meats
Demonstrate advanced business management skills
Demonstrate basic business management skills
Demonstrate how to analyze records for decision making
Demonstrate production recordkeeping
Describe the components of an estate plan
Adopt appropriate management strategies
Develop a business plan
Develop a financial plan
Develop an estate plan for business enterprise
Keep accurate records
Manage business to achieve profit
Use relevant UMCE web-based resources
Adopt business management practices
Adopt environmentally sound technologies that improve economic viability
Adopt practices that maintain long-term productivity
Adopt practice that maintain profitablity
Create Jobs
Decide not to create non-viable business
Establish a business
Increase business revenues
Providing learning opportunities for groups or organizations
Describe an improved quality of life
Demonstrate sound agricultural practices




Number of dairy farms producing milk for less than $10.50/cwt.




Increase the number of dairy grazing farms in Missouri.




Profitability of existing MiG dairies.




Fifty percent of the participants in Annie's Project will develop a strategic plan. A follow-up
survey will be conducted after training is complete.
Two new value-added collective agricultural business organizations will be established
annually. A follow-up survey will be conducted after training is complete.




The improved economic viability of the agribusiness and production agricultural sectors will
significantly affect the state's economy and the viability of rural Missouri. USDA statistical
data on Missouri farmers will be used. Target 5=5 million.




Program participants will report a 50 percent increase in their awareness of existing
resources that will increase the profitability of their enterprise. Evaluation forms will be used.




There will be a 40 percent increase in the program participants' skills related to risk
management and strategic planning. Evaluation forms will be used.
Proportion of the Use of Biomass Relative to Total Energy [Currently at 3-4%]




# of agricultural professionals completing New Farmer training workshop modules


# of farmers awarded and implementing mini grants per year




# of participants in Demonstration Farm workshops and field days

# of Maine blueberry growers using University of Maine's diagnostic services, annually
# of Maine potato growers developing a better understanding of how the use of manure soil
amendments and longer crop rotations affect potato insect and weed pests, and diseases and
well as potato yield, quality, and profitability
# of Maine potato growers learning how to integrate animal-based production systems with
their potato operations
# of alternative pest and soil management systems for potato that are ready for commercial-
scale evaluation
# of commercial-scale demonstrations with significant reductions in pesticide and fertilizer
use and improvements in soil quality
Number of Refereed Journal Publications

Number of producers who have an increased understanding of farm and risk management
Number of producers that implemented changes in management practices as a result of farm
management educational efforts
Number of producers that implemented changes in management practices as a result of farm
policy educational efforts
Number of producers that implemented changes in management practices as a result of
commodity marketing educational efforts
Sustainable, vibrant and globally competitive agricultural sector for Arkansas as indicated by
Arkansas Cash Farm Receipts (NASS)
Sustainable, vibrant and globally competitive agricultural sector for Arkansas as indicated by
Arkansas Net Farm Incomes (ERS)

Sustainable, vibrant and globally competitive agricultural sector for Arkansas as indicated by
"Value of Agricultural Sector Production from Arkansas Farms"
Adopt appropriate management strategies
Create jobs
Develop a business plan
Increase consumption of locally-grown food
Manage business to achieve profit
Use relevant UMCE web-based resources
Describe an improved quality of life
Acquire quality assurance certification
Demonstrate basic business management skills
Describe financial management




Number of clientele who reported knowledge gained




Number of clientele who adopted new practices


Number of clientele who reported an increase in recreational use of land or pond
# of people increasing their understanding of factors affecting the profitability of Maine
farming, annually
# of state-level committees, task forces, or commissions that integrate economic information
into agricultural regulatory activities
# of Maine growers involved in cooperative horse hay-marketing system




Value of agricultural products sold ($1,000): "Other animals and other animal
products."
Increased number of commercial horticultural businesses




Increase local growers' knowledge of new crop varieties.




Growers select better varieties, based on the number of new varieties that are planted. Base
data has not been collected yet.


Decrease chemical inputs.


Acres of crops planted: "Field & Miscellaneous Crops."




Number of Manure Samples analyzed by UA Lab


Number of Soil samples from livestock producing counties analyzed by UA soil lab

Participants will shift business practices based on information in Agricultural Business
Management programs. (Target expressed as a percentage of those reporting change.)




Number of crop and livestock producers who choose marketing, insurance and USDA
program alternatives that are consistent with the risk bearing ability of their businesses and
their personal preferences for managing risk.


Number of female farmers and farm partners who take a more active role in decision making
for their businesses.
Number of agricultural lenders who finance the acquisition of new resources or
implementation of new technology for their borrowers while maintaining liquidity and
controlling financial risks.




Number of beginning farmers who objectively measure the likelihood of meeting their
individual and family goals through entering a farm business.




Number of income tax practitioners that increase the accuracy and efficiency of the farm
returns that they prepare.




Number of producers and other entrepreneurs who increase their awareness of alternative
enterprises or value retained opportunities by either attending an educational program or
downloading educational materials from a website.
Growers Adopting Improved Business Management Practices




New organic and agritourism markets established by individual entrepreneurs




Tax preparers gain needed knowledge for return preparation by attending workshops
conducted throughout North Carolina.




Percentage of farmers that have modified from existing practices or technologies




Percentage of farmers that have adopted new production management practices and
technologies to address current issues
Percentage of Increase in the number of youth applying for farm operation loans




Percentage of decrease in the number of farmers loosing farms




Number of individuals reporting changes in knowledge, opinions, skills or aspirations related
to economic or enterprise development.
Increase gross farm income of Indiana farmers by generating additional market opportunities
for grain, livestock, and specialty crops




Increase in producers adopting nontraditional marketing




Increase of producers participating in USDA Source and Process Verification
Increase value of feeder cattle 10 % over traditional markets




Improved reputation of WV feeder cattle and market access




Number of certified organic farms


Number of acres of certified organic production




Increase in the amount of land subject to best management practices (e.g., nutrient
management plans, conservation plans, etc.)




Percent increase in gross income from non-organic farming agriculture
Percentage of transitional plans completed by farm family program participants




Percentage of farmers, agricultural business managers and leaders, food processors and
agribusiness firm program participants making more informed business and economic
decisions




number of studies describing the sustainability of biofuels production in Vermont




Number of commercial producers educated about new production techniques or BMPs
Number of commercial producers adopting new BMPs




Percentage of program participants with potential problems, knowledge of exports and their
information needs determined




Percentage of program participants with an increase in exports of nursery products and
producers' income




Percentage of program participants with increased sales and income




Percentage of program participants receiving assistance in decreasing knowledge gaps,
marketing and market access
Percentage of program participants with increased knowledge of exports potential and
opportunities by producers




Gross income derived from sales of organic products
increase in number of farmers who reduce production inputs (Action)
increase in number of farmers who use financial statements to identify farm management
problems to increase farm profitability (Action

increase in number of participants report making a change in on-farm production, marketing,
financial management, legal or human resource aspects of their business (Action)

increase in the number of farmers who improve pasture management practices (Action)
increase the number of sheep farmers who implement grazing plans
Number of farmers and agricultural entrepreneurs that adopted one or more economic
practices.
Number of farmers and agricultural entrepreneurs that utilize economic tools to take
effective economic decisions to improve their business.
5. Alternative Crops: Number of: farmers showing an increased knowledge of alternative
crops and enterprises; alternative crops being implemented; new businesses established.




6. Pasture Management: Number of: farmers adopting best management practices and
increasing profitability; new variety trails; NRCS and SWCD personnel trained.
Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test: Number of programs, field
trails and consultations.
# participants who demonstrate knowledge gains related to needs of potential employees
and/or availability of qualified employees. (1.1.3b)

# participants demonstrating knowledge or skill gains re business management, finance,
business planning and marketing, human resource management, risk management,
production economics, inter-generational transfer and other business transitions. (1.1.1b)
# participants documented to have applied knowledge or skills gained to strengthen existing
business operations. (1.1.1c)
# participants reporting improved agricultural/ horticultural business profitability attributed
at least in part to program participation. (1.1.1e)

Number of acres planted to new alternative crops




Number of participants reporting iprofitability gain




Number of acres planted to new agronomic crops




Number of people reporting increased knowledge

Number of producers and others attending workshops, marketing clubs and other events.

Number of participants demonstrating an increase in subject knowledge and skills.

Evidence of producers employing enterprise budgets, using computerized decision-making
tools, writing marketing plans and adopting recommended management tools.

Evidence of producers implementing activities indicated by the management tools.
Pasture land owners and/or managers will be able to recognize indicators of pasture
condition and will possess decision-making skills necessary to make needed management
decisions. Target is number of pasture land owners reporting outcome.


Producers with the resources to irrigate their crops and/or pasture will know and understand
costs and returns associated with their irrigation practices and systems. Target is the number
of producers reporting outcome.




Awareness Created for Wyoming Livestock producers through educational activities. Target
numbers indicate number of producers reached.

Wyoming producers will implement electronic animal identification to gain advantages in
herd management. Target shows that by 2009, 10 percent of producers in Wyoming will have
voluntarily implemented electronic animal identification.


Producers will also gain an understanding of heifer development as well as opportunities for
matching genetic improvement with successful marketing strategies. Targets reflect number
of livestock producers making changes in heifer develoment.
Wyoming producers will benefit through an increased value of livestock and crops related to
improved cropping practices, herd selection and management. Outcomes indicate by 2009,
25 Wyoming producers will report increased sustainability and profitability due to
educational efforts.




Increased rural economic diversification. Target is number of participants reporting change
in practice.




Enhanced incomes and jobs through business expansion or new businesses. Target is number
of new businesses or expanded businesses reported.

Long-term changes in practices (as determined by follow-up surveys with those attending
meetings, events and workshops). Target is number of participants reporting changes.
Improved business planning for realistic business success. Target is number of participants.
Improved management of risk, insurance, and labor. Target is number of agriculture
producers reporting improved management practices.
Improved business/community collaborative work for long-range economic development.
Target is number of collaboratives developed.
Improved ability to manage family quality-of-life concerns. Target is number of participants
reporting change through evaluations.




Improved access to information on nontraditional, value-added enterprises and increased
number of places these curricula are available. Target is number of individuals.

Knowledge and confidence gained (as measured by end-of-workshops forms). Target is
number of participants.

Development of a business plan and establishment of goals. Target is number of participants.

Increased awareness and knowledge of available production and value-added alternatives.
Target is number of agriculture producers.
Improved ability to market, produce, finance, and promote products from new enterprises.
Target is number of firms or indivuals.




1. Percent of clients who gained new knowledge/skills, awareness and/or changed attitudes
2. Percentage of clients who adopt recommendations




3. Percentage of clients who utilized skills to gain positive economic results




Nebraska farmers will increase profitability through adoption of research and extension
information provided by IANR programs (measured by value placed on the information by
clientele).




Number of Arkansans Adopting Management Recommendations
Number of Arkansans Increasing Efficiency, Profitability Through Improved Catfish
Management




Nebraska ranchers and feeders will increase profitability through adoption of research and
extension information provided by IANR programs (measured by value placed on the
information by clientele).


Adoption of 'risk management' knowledge learned to make agriculture production more
sustainable.




Adoption of tef as an viable and economic alternative crop for Nevada producers which also
conserves water.




See below under Evaluation.
Outcomes will be measured by number of farmers participating in the program, number of
farmers assistaned with loan applications, amount of loan funds received as a result of
assistance with application, number of farmers assisted in signing up for Conservation
Programs, amount of conservation funds received by clients, number of farmers assisted in
signing up for Price Support (Disaster, NAP, LAP, LDP, DCP) programs, amount of income
clients received by using programs, number of farmers assisted in using CES
recommendations, economic impact from farmers using CES Programs, and number of
farmers informed about alternative enterprises, and number of farers adding alternative
enterprises to their operation.




Number of persons with increased knowledge on appropriate production technologies.
Number of program participants adopting recommended practices.




FINBIN online database will be enhanced to allow dynamic queries for benchmarking and
comparisons of different production sytems.




Increase awareness, knowledge, skills and aspirations of small acreage landowners for
managing their resources. Target is number of participants reporting outcome.
Improve resource management practices of small acre landowners. Target is number of
participants reporting outcome.




Improved small acreage landowner understanding of Wyoming's laws and regulations of land
management issues (ex. trespass, fence laws, neighborliness). Target is number of
participants reporting outcome.




Increase the proportion of small acreage land managers who are managing their land in a
sustainable manner. Target is number of participants reporting outcome.




Commercial farmers and food producers pursue a broader range of sales and marketing
opportunities
Food producers adopt research-based Best Management Practices related to water, soil, air,
and integrated crop and animal management practices




Food producers improve production efficiencies through education, technology transfer, and
by adopting new and innovative practices
Commercial farmers and food producers acquire the knowledge and skills to better pursue a
broader range of sales and marketing opportunities




Food producers acquire knowledge and skills to improve production efficiencies through
education, technology transfer, and adopting new and innovative practices

Food producers acquire the knowledge and skills to adopt research-based Best Management
Practices related to water, soil, air, and integrated crop and animal management practices
Food producers acquire the knowledge and skills to increase profitability through improved
post harvest efficiencies, packaging, and marketing techniques




Number of research programs to identify current and emerging key public policy issues on
trade, environmental, agricultural and food issues important to Michigan and analyze
responses.
Number of research programs to improve the operations, business and financial
management skills for Michigan producers so they can make decisions that are more sound
financially and environmentally.




Number of research programs to develop a framework to understand and analyze domestic
and international trade policies and assess their impact on Michigan.




Number of research programs to identify and evaluate the policy, technology and marketing
issues faced by Michigan organic growers and develop responses.
Row Crops Production: Number of producers using recommended varieties of soybeans or
corn.
Long-term viability and well being of the agricultural/horticulture industry and rural
communities in Central New York State.


Ability to rapidly screen fruits for pesticide residues


Number of acres affected by ICM




Nebraska farmers and ranchers will have sustainable food and biomass systems through
adoption of best management practices (measured by percent of clientele adopting best
management practices).




Nebraska will have access to a highly trained and educated workforce for economically viable
and sustainable food and biomass systems (indirectly measured by number of undergraduate
and graduate students receiving degrees).




Nebraska farmers will rely on IANR research and extention programs to assure an
economically viable and sustainable food and biomass system (measured by percent of state
acreage represented at education programs).
Describe record keeping and record keeping systems
Enroll in and work with Farms for the Future
Make better decisions using accurate records
Secure financing
Enhance the economic and environmental sustainability of Maine agriculture and
aquaculture.
Enhance the safety, sustainability, and dependability of Maine's food supply.
Improve the lives of Maine citizens through positive human development, healthy lifestyles
and nutrition, and lifelong wellness.
Describe record keeping and record keeping systems
Use grasslands profitably




Improve the understanding of potential consequences of alternative policies under
consideration.




Improved business structures or organizations.
Land Ownership Information Program: Number of African-American landowners who
developed estate plans to reduce the financial and legal risks farm family businesses face as
they transition betwen generations.
Farm Financial Analysis and Planning: Number of farmers and rural business operators who
gained new knowledge and skills through the Quickbooks, fIRM and other record keeping
workshops.
Farm Financial Analysis and Planning: Number of farm families and rural business operators
who implemented partial budgeting decisions (examples include sell calves now or later,
evaluating equitable leasing arrangements and mach
Farm Financial Analysis and Planning: Number of farm families and rural business operators
implementing improved record systems.
Farm Financial Analysis and Planning: Number of farm families who used FINPACK for
developing and implementing whole farm plans.
Farm Financial Management: Number of farmers who increased their knowledge and skills in
farm and financial planning.
Farm Financial Management: Number of farmers who developed financial plans for their
farms.
Farm Fianncial Management: Number of farmers who increased their potential cash income
from their farming operation.
Farm Fianncial Management: Amount (in dollars) that farmers increased their potential cash
income from implementing a farm plan.
# of producers increasing in knowledge and husbandry skills on an integrated to approach to
animal and plant farm operations (short term)




# of producers adopting demonstrated practices




# of producers practicing regular replacements of broodstocks (medium term)
% increase in sustainable small-scale farms (long term)




Number of niche market farms with accurate cost of production records.




Number of swine farms to participate in EMS training sessions (cumulative).
Number of youth participating in the Iowa State Fair swine programs (annually).




Number of crop producers who broaden their agricultural enterprise to include swine
production facilities in order to bring another family member into the business (annually).




Number of pork producers exposed to large pen gestation systems and their management
(cumulative).




Percent of pork producers using manure testing information to manage swine manure
application (cumulative).
Number of pork producers who adopt more competitive production systems and practices




Number of producers who adopt improved animal health protocols or procedures.




Number of new dairy farms established.
Percent of Iowa producers who adopt integrated dairy herd and health management
practices that result in improved profitability, enhanced food quality and safety, and
improved environmental stewardship.




Percent of producers who will increase the awareness and use of interpersonal and
organizational skills when managing family or non-family personnel.
Percent of Iowa feedlots that regularly feed DGS to reduce cost of gain.




Percent of feedlots over 100 head capacity that utilize solid manure settling structures or
alternative technology treatment systems.




Percent of producers who adopt management systems to improve cost control and market
access.




Percent of cowherd producers who utilize technologies to improve enterprise efficiency.




Number of intergenerational transfers.
1)The number of LRFs that adopt vegetable rotations/planting sequences, and insect control
practices developed by this research; 2) number of LRFs that enter ornamental horticultural
production, and 3) number of contact with clientele at workshop, field days, demonstrations,
etc.




Number of established farms and farm related businesses by individuals and cooperatives.




Youth and adults will explore entrepreneurship, economics, law, government and business
ethics. Expand participant's knowledge of math, public speaking, marketing, decision-making
and business leadership.
Participants will gain awareness of new techniques in agriculture and natural resources
management. The number of participants who change attitudes about existing production
techniques will increase.




Number of participants who were evaluated and demonstrated increased knowledge and
skills related to improving agricultural production, profitability, and sustainability




Number of participants who were evaluated in a follow up and who implement/adopt
practices related to improving agricultural production, profitability, and sustainability
Thirty will acquire business and leadership development skills. Twenty business plans will be
developed and 20 will have business loans approved.




Integrated Risk Management Decision Strategies for Dairy Farmers

Additional acres of herbicide-resistant cotton in Tennessee encouraged by the adoption of
conservation tillage.

Additional tons of soil erosion prevented due to adopting conservation-tillage encouraged by
the availability of herbicide-resistant seed for cotton production in Tennessee.




Percentage of farmers using new IPM technology or genetics.




Farm operators using TAES economic research in decisions.


Herbicide-resistant weeds in cotton and soybean
Soybean improvement


Cotton variety improvements




Biotechnology impacts


Damping-off disease in tomatoes




Plant nematode resistance mechanism




Adoption of hot pepper as a value-added crop by small farmers




Tennessee's role in biomass to energy




Veterinary services in Tennessee




Impact of U.S. sod production industry


Agronomic crop studies
# of Chamorro Land Trust Commission lease holders participating in workshops and field day
activities




# of MOUs and MOAs for collaborative program grants




# of farmers adopting recommended demonstrated practices
Number of clients who increase their knowledge of marketing trade, and economic
development.
Number of clients who implement positive marketing, trade, and economic development
practices.
A 1% 12 month increase in manufacturing employment in Utah.
# of research publications
# of Extension publications
Number of farm, ranch and landscaping owner/operators and managers and allied industry
professionals participating in the programs who gained knowledge of aspects of
comprehensive management systems for plant and animal production

Number of farm owner/operators and managers and allied industry professionals
participating in the programs who gained knowledge of cultural practices for crop production
Better Weed Management Improves Profitability for Vegetable Growers
# of trained professionals graduated

Number of farm owner/operators and managers, including small and mono-lingual Spanish
speaking farmers, and allied industry professionals participating in the programs who gained
knowledge on farm management and marketing techniques, including the costs and risks
associated with producing speciality crops
Number of farm owners/operators, including small scale speciality crop growers and family
farmers participating in the programs who intended to adopt superior varieties of crops or
new commercial crops to improve economic viability
Number of members of the public participating in agritourism programs and events who
reported feeling more connected to local farms and increased likelihood of buying local
agricultural products
Number of farm and ranch owners/operators, particularly small scale and minority
producers, participating in the programs who acquired skills in business management
practices and marketing strategies

Number of small farm and ranch owner/operator and managers participating in the programs
who utilized alternative marketing of their crops to local consumers, including farmers
markets, schools, restaurants, community supported agriculture boxes
Number of farm and ranch owner/operators, including small scale and minority farmers,
participating in the programs who realized lower production costs and/or higher return on
investment
Number of acres of tree fruits and nuts being farmed by orchard owner/operators,
participating in the programs, who realized lower production costs and/or higher return on
investment

Number of acres of pistachios being farmed by orchard owner/operators, participating in the
programs, who began to utilize mechanical pruning instead of labor-based cultural practices,
which reduced their management costs from $200 per acre to about $50
Number of avocado and citrus growers participating in the programs who experienced an
economic benefit from growing more profitable speciality crops, specifically pitahaya and
blueberries
Percent of participants who use soil and/or tissue test results to determine crop nutrient
needs
Percent of participants who adopt management practices that improve farm productivity,
quality of life and/or profitability
Percent of participants who implement risk management strategies including crop insurance,
diversification of products and crops, conservation easements, and other risk reducing
strategies
Percent of participants who increase the yield and/or improve the quality of their forage
crops
Percent of participants who adopt recommended practices or technologies such as new crops
or varieties, production systems, season extension techniques and/or greenhouse lighting
Percent of participants implement new marketing practices that increase the number of
customers or sales per customer including changing pricing, products, promotion, layout,
signage, and/or direct sales
Percentage of participants who adopt management practices that improve farm productivity,
quality of life and/or profitability.

Percent of participants who implement risk management strategies including crop insurance,
diversification of products and crops, conservation easements, and other risk reducing
strategies.

Percent of participants implementing new marketing practices that increase the number of
customers or sales per customer including changing pricing, products, promotion, layout,
signage, and/or direct sales
Percent of participants who start, expand or modify a business enterprise
Percent of participants who are active in groups that advocate for an improved natural
resource business environment

Percent of participants who report completing a planning worksheets on a regular basis
Percent of participants who indicate on a post institute survey they gained information
and/or experiences to help reach their personal goals


Percent of participants who start, expand or modify a business enterprise.

Percent of participants who are active in groups that advocate for an improved natural
resource business environment

Percent of participants who report completing a planning worksheets on a regular basis

Percent of participants who indicate on a post institute survey they gained information
and/or experiences to help reach their personal goals

# business owners successfully completing an intergenerational transfer or other desired
dispensation of their business attributed at least in part to program participation. (1.1.1d)
Number of ongoing coalitions with which extension is actively involved.
Percentage of farmers and ranchers participating in the program realizing lower production
costs and/or increased economic sustainability
Short Term
Increases in knowledge and skills of agricultural and horticultural industry professionals will
occur.

<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   Nutrient management
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   Pest management
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   Waste/by-products management and utilization
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   improving water quality and conserving water
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   conserving energy
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   marketing skills
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   labor management
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   risk management
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   policy e.g. farmland preservation
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
Medium Term

   Productive agricultural land is stabilized to meet the needs of the agricultural industry and
the &quot;open space&quot; needs of people of NJ.
   Agriculture remains a relevant and viable economic sector as profits increase (through
reduced costs and/or increased or new sales or revenue streams).
   Measurable reductions in environmental impact (clear and adequate sources of water,
reduced waste, reduced soil losses, reductions in non-point source pollution, etc.) will occur
through the adoption of improved and sound management practices.
   Overall state environmental quality will be enhanced by agriculture, such as through the
utilization and recycling of biowastes generated by the non-ag sector or the enhancement of
air quality.
   The products of NJ agriculture will add to the nutritional quality of New Jerseyans food.
Long Term




  New Jersey's agriculture will remain a viable and important industry.
  New Jersey residents will recognize the importance of agriculture's contributions to
societal well being (open space, quality of life) and will support the agricultural industry
socially, politically and economically.
Short Term - Increases in knowledge and skills of agricultural and horticultural industry
professionals will occur.
- Nutrient management
- Pest Management
-Waste/by-products management and utilization
-Improving water quality and conserving water
- conserving energy
- marketing skills
- labor management
- risk management
- policy e.g. farmland preservation
- sustainable ag and organic ag production methods
- new crops and use/alternative crops.




Medium Term - Productive agricultural land is stabilized to meet the needs of the agricultural
industry and the 'open space' needs of people in NJ.
- Agriculture remains a relevant and viable economic sector as profits increase (through
reduced costs and/or increased or new sales or revenue streams).
- Measurable reductions in environmental impact (clear and adequate sources of water,
reduced waste, reduced soil losses, reductions in non-point source pollution, etc.) will occur
through the adoption of improved and sound management practices.
- Overall state environmental quality will be enhanced by agriculture, such as through the
utilization and recycling of biowastes generated by the non-ag sector or the enhancement of
air quality.
- The products of NJ agriculture will add to the nutritional quality of New Jerseyans food.
Medium Term Productive agricultural land is stabilized to meet the needs of the agricultural
industry and the 'open space' needs of people of NJ. Agriculture remains a relevant and viable
economic sector as profits increase (through reduced costs and/or increased or new sales or
revenue streams). Measurable reductions in environmental impact (clear and adequate
sources of water, reduced waste, reduced soil losses, reductions in non-point source
pollution, etc.) will occur through the adoption of improved and sound management
practices. Overall state environmental quality will be enhanced by agriculture, such as
through the utilization and recycling of biowastes generated by the non-ag sector or the
enhancement of air quality. The products of NJ agriculture will add to the nutritional quality
of New Jerseyans food.
Medium Term Productive agricultural land is stabilized to meet the needs of the agricultural
industry and the 'open space' needs of people of NJ. Agriculture remains a relevant and viable
economic sector as profits increase (through reduced costs and/or increased or new sales or
revenue streams). Measurable reductions in environmental impact (clear and adequate
sources of water, reduced waste, reduced soil losses, reductions in non-point source
pollution, etc.) will occur through the adoption of improved and sound management
practices. Overall state environmental quality will be enhanced by agriculture, such as
through the utilization and recycling of biowastes generated by the non-ag sector or the
enhancement of air quality. The products of NJ agriculture will add to the nutritional quality
of New Jerseyans food.
Medium Term Production agricultural land is stabilized to meet the needs of the agricultural
industry and the 'open space' needs of people of NJ. Agriculture remains a relevant and viable
economic sector as profits increase (through reduced costs and/or increased or new sales or
revenue streams). Measurable reductions in environmental impact (clear and adequate
sources of water, reduced waste, reduced soil losses, reductions in non-point source
pollution, etc.) will occur through the adoption of improved and sound management
practices. Overall state environmental quality will be enhanced by agriculture, such as
through the utilization and recycling of biowastes generated by the non-ag sector or the
enhancement of air quality. The products of NJ agriculture will add to the nutritional quality
of New Jerseyans food




Medium Term Production agricultural land is stabilized to meet the needs of the agricultural
industry and the 'open space' needs of people of NJ. Agriculture remains a relevant and viable
economic sector as profits increase (through reduced costs and/or increased or new sales or
revenue streams). Measurable reductions in environmental impact (clear and adequate
sources of water, reduced waste, reduced soil losses, reductions in non-point source
pollution, etc.) will occur through the adoption of improved and sound management
practices. Overall state environmental quality will be enhanced by agriculture, such as
through the utilization and recycling of biowastes generated by the non-ag sector or the
enhancement of air quality. The products of NJ agriculture will add to the nutritional quality
of New Jerseyans food.
Long Term - New Jersey's agriculture will remain viable and important industry.
- New Jersey residents will recognize the importance of agriculture's contributions to societal
well being (open space, quality of life) and will support the agricultural industry socially,
politically and economically.




Long Term - New Jersey's agriculture will remain viable and important industry.
- New Jersey residents will recognize importance of agriculture's contributions to societal well
being (open space, quality of life) and will support the agricultural industry socially, politically
and economically.
- New Jersey's agriculture will remain viable and an important industry.
- New Jersey residents will recognize importance of agriculture's contributions to societal well
being (open space, quality of life) and will support the agricultural industry socially, politically
and economically.

Number and Quality/reputation of refereed journal publications (mid-tier economics journals
and above

Number and quality of other research bulletins, reports and presentations at major
conferences


Degree of contribution of fundamental knowledge within the fields researched (percent
increase)


Number and value of external grants in support of the research program (units are dollars)


Contribution to improved/new research methods/tools (percent of output)
Relevant knowledge generated for use by policy and decision makers (percent of output)


Number of graduate students trained and placed in the job market




Degree to which overall research funding is increased (percent)

Number of additional institutionally funded and externally funded GRAs that are studying and
researching in the School




Number of farmers growing improved vegetable cultivars




Number of people growing improved budded/grafted or airlayered fruit trees in their back
yards.




Number of pig farmers upgrading their stock

Develop educational programs to encourage minority youth to get involved in farming.
2007: Increase the number of minority farmers by 200.
     Adoption of environmental sustainable crop production practices.
2008: Increase the number of farms adopting production practices by 150.
Number of different NC products exported
Improve small and minority farms income
2009: Increase the average small farm gross income by $5, 000




Policy impacts that are more consistent with intended objectives.
Increase the sustainable agriculture knowledge and skills of Extension Agents, NRCS staff and
other ag professionals in Ohio
Increase the use of the SARE program and resources among farmers, Extension agents, NRCS
staff, and other ag professionals in Ohio

Improve the practices of the farmers of Ohio to include sustainable agriculture approaches}

More Educators will become knowledgeable about sustainable practices, such as cover crops,
organic fruit & vegetable production, sustainable beef production, direct marketing.

More Extension educators will conduct a greater number of programs on sustainable ag topics

Ohio farms will become more economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable




Participants will increase knowledge about crop management, marketing opportunities, and
better environmental management


All participants gain knowledge of conservation tillage topics, including no-till corn, precision
agriculture, controlled traffic, manure management for crops, water management, and cover
crops.
Ten percent of participants not currently using conservation tillage for growing corn will at
least try the practice. We will ask about tillage intentions on our evaluation form, and also
ask about changes made the previous year as a result of attending a previous CTC or another
one of our programs.
A measurable goal is that the acres of corn farmed no-till will increase 5% by 2011, as
determined by a USDA survey. The most recent one in 2004 showed 23% of Ohio corn was
no-tilled, so increasing to 28% is doable. Since 63% of soybeans are already no-tilled, virtually
all of the increase would be in continuous no-till.

Determine detection, monitoring, and sampling systems that reliably indicate the impact and
value of livestock enterprises in concert with the environment. Once the system(s) are
identified to assess impact, programs and education materials targeted toward the key areas
of focus will be developed, distributed, and training programs conducted.
Implementation and increased use of developed, science-based systems models and
technology.




Protect the environment from degradation due to livestock production.
Those who participate in technology workshops will improve efficiency of field activities by
$15 per acre.

25% of Ohio's Corn acres will implement a nitrogen efficiency model for their farm.

25% of crop production acres will implement weed resistance management strategies.
Utilization of appropriate IPM practices for disease and insect will occur on 15% of Ohio crop
acres.

Advanced knowledge of how to market and manage quality attributes of commodities
leading to demonstrated value added/ profits for producers, processors, and distributors, and
reported satisfaction/needs attainment among consumers.
Journal articles
Proceedings
Book chapters
Number of clientele adopting new technologies, strategies, systems, or cultivars.
Number of producers increasing profitability levels.
Number of clientele improving their environmental stewardship.
Percentage of increased income by farmers and businesses served by the International Trade
Center
Percentage of stakeholders who use the information and policy research in their decision
making
Program participants are expected to benefit from the educational training programs,
workshops and technical assistance offered by extension service personnel. This will be
measured by:

Number of farms adapting a record keeping system

Number of farm plans developed

Number of farms with increase in income

Number of farms adopting new management practices

Number of farm loans received as a result of farm business planning
Number of producers adopting recommended strategies in management, marketing, and
government program use.
Number of producers indicating increased profitability due to implementation of
recommended strategies.




Agribusiness professionals and dairy producers will learn strategies that improve dairy
operations.




Farmers, non-farmers and elected officials will increase their knowledge and understanding
of land use planning and livestock facilities site legislation, best practices, and options for
their local communities.
Dairy producers and support businesses will explore, learn and adopt modernization options
and management practices that result in lower costs and/or increased productivity in their
dairy enterprises.




Dairy producers will better understand their Hispanic employees, improve their management
of these employees, and increase their requisite job-related knowledge and skills.

Participants will increase awareness about the importance of the relationships between
agriculture, local government, rural residents and environmental and recreational pursuits.
Number of adult participants trained in economics of agricultural production and farm
management.




Acres of improved wheat varieties planted times the proven economic advantage above the
industry norm (Million $).




Number of adult participants trained in natural resource and environmental economics.




Acres planted to new crops as a result of OSU research and Extension programs times the
proven economic advantage over the norm (Million $)
Established value of application of new technologies per acre time the number of acres
affected (Million $)




% reduction in soil erosion when new technologies are employed.
Percentage of Farmers Using Extension Information.
Value of new processes and products applied because of OSU Extension programming
(Million $).




Number of farmers learning new fish marketing techniques.




Number of farmers using new fish marketing techniques.




Farmers who use new fish marketing techniques to increase their profits.




Number of credentialed board members serving on agricultural cooperative boards
(cumulative)
Number of beef producers applying some level of financial management decision skills
learned through Master Cattleman certification




Number of specialty crop producers and goat producers improving farm management and/or
financial management skills

Market value of agricultural products ($ billion) (2002 = $3.26 bil). Program success will be
indicated if market value of AL ag products stay level or increase. (Medium term outcome)
Number of producers (ALFA cites 48,000, Apr. 2006). Program success will be reflected by
little or no change in size of the population of producers. (Long-term)
Average producer age (2002 = 56.6). Program success will be indicated by declining or no
change in the average producer age. (Long-term)
Decreased incidence of cases of food poisoning (AL state stats, % deaths from Salmonella and
other intestinal infections in 2004 = 1.6%). Program success will be indicated by a decline or
no change in this incidence. (Short-term outcome)

New technology(-ies) developed to monitor microbial contaminants. (Medium term outcome)

New professionals in workforce with training in food safety and security. (Long-term)
Peer reviewed scientific journal articles, publications on economic development,
presentationas at scientific meetings, presentations at stakeholder, native american, health
care, agency and local government meetings,




Peer reviewed research publications and extension publications


Increased use of pest management approaches for targeted cropping system acres




Increase in percent of growers with knowledge of and adoption of Glance n Go aphid
sampling procedure in wheat
Commercial evaluation in agronomic and horticultural settings of genetically modified plants
developed using biotechnology research.
Stronger, more formal links between scientists conducting biotechnology research, extension
specialists familiar with biotechnology applications, and state and regional economic
development agencies and private industry.

Targeted educational programs for farmers focused on cultural practices, marketing, and
environmental aspects of new, high value cropping systems for niche markets, such as
culinary herbs and essential oil plants, greenhouse grown pharmaceutical and nutriceutical
plants, and plants grown as renewable bioenergy sources.
Increased adoption of new innovations in marketing and risk management for farmers and
other producers of plants and plant-based products.
Increased amount of land used to produce high value, niche market crops, such as culinary
herbs, spices and essential oils.

Expansion in amount of land and increased adoption of best management practices for
pasture and forage production systems for the beef, goat, and equine industries.
Commercial scale feasibility studies of greenhouses to produce high value plants that have
been genetically modified, such as those intended for pharmaceutical or nutriceutical uses.

Agronomic and Vegetable Crops: applied research and extension programs on cultural
practices, crop varieties, fertilizer and manure use, precision agriculture, and integrated pest
management will increase crop yields, minimize costs, and protect environmental quality.
Horticultural Systems: Extension programs will provide guidance on management practices
for horticultural plants produced and installed by the &quot;Green Industry&quot; and for
homeowners, important because of the rapid conversion of farmland to urban and suburban
uses.

New Markets: advances in plant molecular biology and genomics will provide new markets
for farmers and commercial-scale horticulture, such as plants for bioenergy, pharmaceutical
and nutriceutical uses. New and creative marketing programs will stimulate diversification
and growth in the production of value-added and niche market crops, such as culinary herbs,
spices, essential oil plants, and specialty vegetables for urban and suburban markets.




Number of golf courses using recommended turfgrass cultivars and management practices.




Number of new crop and animal markets identified and utilized.




Number of new products and new uses of traditional products available for markets.

% of people adopting NMSU policy, economic, or business development recommendations
Economic development increased




Increase in the number of farmers who utilize value added strategies




Increase in the number of farmers who conduct or enhance record keeping practices




Provide information and training to municipal leaders and organizations on management of
natural resources and community assets.




Provide information and training to farmers and rural landowners on estate planning
strategies and economic development opportunities.




Improve viability of agriculture in the state of Rhode Island through farmer
education/information and consulting concerning sustainable agricultural practices, value
added products and agritourism.
Consult with grassroots and municipal bodies to identify planning processes and strategies
that preserve viable farmland, promote sustainability and economic development




Number of local farmers who adopt some portion of model farm
Percentage of educational activity attendees that increased their knowledge about practices
that can enhance agricultural profitability and competitiveness.
Percentage of educational activity attendees that plan to effectively manage the risks of
market price variation, adverse environmental inputs, changing government programs, and
variation in public awareness about nutrition and food safety.
Percentage of educational activity attendees that can recognize and evaluate the economic,
environmental and social opportunities of alternative plant and animal production systems
including production of bio-energy, bi-product utilization, agritourism, and value-added
processing.




Percentage of educational activity attendees that increased their knowledge of organic
production practices, regulations, and marketing opportunities.
Percentage of educational activity attendees that increased their knowledge of effective pest
management practices, conservation tillage systems, and/or riparian management methods
that protect endangered species and the environment and safeguard human health.
Number of Extension faculty and staff creating, implementing and evaluating culturally
competent programs to increase the diversity of Extension program participants and partners.
Estimated reduction dollars spent for chemical pesticides among farms utilizing integrated
pest management strategies.




Number of organic farms and ranches certified in Washington that were assisted by Extension
programming or through partnerships between Extension and other agencies and
organizations.
O: Current and future Idaho Entrepreneurs learn business practices and develop skills needed
for starting a business.I: Percent of participants learning skills.

O: Business owners sustain businesses thus contributing to local economy.I: Number of
businesses still operating after 5 years. (5 yr. follow-up checklist/count).

Number of invited presentations by faculty as a direct result of the success of this program.
Percentage of program participants reporting an increase in skills proficiency in aquatic
animal management and apuatic production systems.
Number of invited presentations at professional society meetings
O: Producers gain knowledge about successful management of a small farm business.I:
Number of graduates in Small Acreage Farming and in Ag Entrepreneurship courses.
O: Landowners and farmers achieve success in protecting their natural resources and/or
maintaining a successful business.I: Number of past class participants who volunteer to host
tours of their farm or speak to new students in classes.

O: New farm businesses have identified goals and conducted a feasibility analysis of the
potential of their business.I: Number of students completing the small acreage farming and
ranching course and/or the Agricultural Entrepreneurship course.




O: Increased understanding of issues, management practices or marketing tools.I: Number of
clientele contacting extension: phone calls, emails, office walk-ins.

O: Use of crop and livestock costs and returns estimates by clientele will increase.I: Number
of CAR estimates downloaded by clientele or distributed on CDs.
O: Increased understanding by clientele on how to develop and used costs and returns
estimates.I: Number of costs and returns estimates distributed.




O: Educational material made available to clientele.I: Number of publications and other
resources distributed.
O: Use of resource material by clientele.I: Number of hits on AERS web site.
O: Increased understanding of issues, management practices or marketing tools.I: Number of
clientele attending educational programs.

O: Increased understanding of issues, management practices or marketing tools.I: Number of
clientele attending educational programs that indicate a change in knowledge.




O: Increased understanding of issues, management practices or marketing tools.I: Number of
clientele attending educational programs that indicate an intention to change a practice.


Number of farmers calculating production costs and returns to storage.
Number of agr-business persons aware of their financial positions and farm business plan
components.

Number of farmers employing marketing strategies and allocating scarce resources
effectively.

Number of agri-businesses with improved profitability.




Number of new bio-based businesses created.




Percent growth in existing value-added business entities.


Number of Kansas farms and ranches increasing awareness of financial performance
Percent growth in income and employment attributed to bio-based agriculture and food
related businesses.




Number of farmers' markets established and/or expanded




Number of livestock producers who demonstrate best management practices (BMPs)
including genetic selection, reproduction, nutrition, health, animal care and well-being,
livestock safety and quality, environmental management, and optimal marketing strategies




Number of soil samples evaluated on Kansas crop acreage




Number of crop acres using soil testing as a basis for nutrient applications
Number of additional direct extension contacts made by volunteers, staff, or county agents
not receiving federal funds as a direct outcome of the work of federally funded faculty
associated with this planned program.
Percentage of program participants who indicated a plan to adopt one or more of the
practices recommended for proper aquatic management.
Number of pond acres in catfish production in Georgia reported annually.
Increase in the farm gate value of catfish production in Georgia. Reported annually in millions
of dollars.
Reduction of incidence of foodborne illness due to better training methods on handling and
processing food safety.
Placement of gradutate students in food related industry, government agencies or
institutions of higher education.
Number of research experiments completed on dairy goat products development, food
quality and economic evaluation.
Percentage of program participants reporting increased knowledge after program
participation.
Percentage of program participants responding to follow-up survey that have adopt one or
more of the practices recommended in this program.
Percentage of program participants responding to survey that indicated an increase in
income using information from this program.
Percentage of program participants reporting increased knowledge after program
participation.
Percentage of program participants who indicated a plan to adopt one or more of the
practices recommended in this program.




Number of participants in field days willing to adopt the RMPs demonstrated.
% market participation of local beef.




O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates relevant to this topic team.
O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates relevant to this topic team.

O: Increased understanding by clientele on how to develop and used costs and returns
estimates.I: Number of clientele contacting extension directly for costs and returns estimates.

O: Ranchers participating in A to Z can determine the benefits of retaining ownership of
calves in the feedlot.I: Number of calves consigned under the A to Z Program.
O: Requests for resource material by clientele.I: Number of clientele contacting extension for
resource material.
O: Use of UI publications in planning and education.I: Number of publications
downloaded/accessed.

O: Use of UI publications in planning and education.I: Number of publications developed.
O: Producers implementing Precision Ag technologies.I: Number of growers attending PA
educational events.
O: Producers implementing Precision Ag technologies.I: Percent of growers using PA
technologies (survey).
O: Producers implementing Precision Ag technologies.I: Percent of acres farmed using PA
Technologies.




Percent of participants indicating change in behavior/ best practices adopted
Economic impact of the change in behavior reported
Number of participants in workshops/trainings/field days indicating an increase in knowledge
gained
OUTCOME TYPE        KA PERCENTAGE - 1862 EXTENSION        KA PERCENTAGE - 1890 EXTENSION


Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome

Action Outcome                                       19

Action Outcome                                       19




Action Outcome                                       19
Knowledge Outcome                                    19




Action Outcome                                       19

Action Outcome                                       19

Knowledge Outcome                                    19

Action Outcome                                       19
Action Outcome   19
Action Outcome   19
Action Outcome   19

Action Outcome   19

Action Outcome   19




Action Outcome   19

Action Outcome   19
Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19

Knowledge Outcome   19

Action Outcome      19
Action Outcome      19
Knowledge Outcome   19
Action Outcome      19
Action Outcome      19
Action Outcome      19




Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19
Knowledge Outcome   19
Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19




Knowledge Outcome   19

Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19

Knowledge Outcome   19

Action Outcome      19
Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19
Action Outcome      19
Action Outcome      19
Knowledge Outcome   60
Knowledge Outcome   60
Knowledge Outcome   60
Knowledge Outcome   60
Knowledge Outcome   60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Knowledge Outcome   60
Knowledge Outcome   60




Knowledge Outcome   10




Condition Outcome   10




Condition Outcome   10




Action Outcome      40
Action Outcome      40




Condition Outcome   40




Knowledge Outcome   40




Knowledge Outcome   40
Condition Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome   20


Action Outcome      20




Knowledge Outcome   20

Knowledge Outcome


Knowledge Outcome

Knowledge Outcome

Action Outcome

Condition Outcome
Knowledge Outcome   10

Knowledge Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10

Action Outcome      10

Action Outcome      10

Condition Outcome   10

Condition Outcome   10


Condition Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome    5




Action Outcome       5


Action Outcome       5

Knowledge Outcome

Action Outcome
Action Outcome




Condition Outcome    5
Action Outcome      100




Knowledge Outcome   100




Action Outcome      100


Condition Outcome   100


Condition Outcome     5




Action Outcome        5


Condition Outcome     5


Action Outcome       10




Action Outcome       60




Action Outcome       60
Action Outcome   60




Action Outcome   60




Action Outcome   60




Action Outcome   60
Knowledge Outcome   30   30




Knowledge Outcome   30   30




Knowledge Outcome   30   30




Action Outcome           30




Action Outcome           30
Condition Outcome        30




Condition Outcome        30




Knowledge Outcome   10    0

Condition Outcome   15




Condition Outcome    5




Action Outcome       5
Condition Outcome    5




Condition Outcome    5




Condition Outcome   10   10


Action Outcome      10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10
Action Outcome      10   10




Action Outcome      10   10




Knowledge Outcome   19




Knowledge Outcome   10   10
Action Outcome      10   10




Knowledge Outcome




Condition Outcome




Condition Outcome




Action Outcome
Action Outcome




Condition Outcome   10   10
Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19


Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      19
Action Outcome      19

Action Outcome      40

Action Outcome      40
Knowledge Outcome   10   10




Action Outcome      10   10
Knowledge Outcome   10   10

Knowledge Outcome    7




Knowledge Outcome    7

Action Outcome       7

Condition Outcome    7

Action Outcome      10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10




Action Outcome      10   10




Knowledge Outcome   10   10

Knowledge Outcome   25

Knowledge Outcome   25


Action Outcome      25

Condition Outcome   25
Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Condition Outcome   10




Condition Outcome    5




Condition Outcome    5


Condition Outcome    5
Action Outcome      5

Action Outcome      5

Action Outcome      5

Action Outcome      5




Action Outcome      5


Knowledge Outcome   5

Knowledge Outcome   5


Knowledge Outcome   5

Knowledge Outcome   5




Knowledge Outcome       20
Action Outcome          20




Condition Outcome       20




Knowledge Outcome   8




Action Outcome          15
Condition Outcome       15




Knowledge Outcome   8




Action Outcome      5




Action Outcome      5




Condition Outcome
Knowledge Outcome        40




Knowledge Outcome   15
Action Outcome      15




Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   14
Action Outcome      14




Condition Outcome   14




Knowledge Outcome   14




Action Outcome      20
Action Outcome      20




Action Outcome      20

Knowledge Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   20


Knowledge Outcome   20

Knowledge Outcome   20




Action Outcome      20
Knowledge Outcome   20




Action Outcome      20




Action Outcome      20

Action Outcome       7   7
Condition Outcome    7


Action Outcome      10   10


Action Outcome      10   10




Knowledge Outcome    8




Knowledge Outcome    8




Knowledge Outcome    8
Knowledge Outcome   60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60
Action Outcome      60

Condition Outcome   60
Condition Outcome   60

Condition Outcome   60
Knowledge Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome




Knowledge Outcome


Condition Outcome   30   30


Knowledge Outcome   30   30


Action Outcome      30   30

Action Outcome      30   30

Action Outcome      30   30

Knowledge Outcome   30   30

Action Outcome      30   30

Condition Outcome   30   30

Condition Outcome   30   30
Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10
Condition Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome   10




Action Outcome   10




Action Outcome   20
Action Outcome   20




Action Outcome   20
Action Outcome   15




Action Outcome   15




Action Outcome   15




Action Outcome   15




Action Outcome   15
Knowledge Outcome        20




Condition Outcome   15




Knowledge Outcome        25
Knowledge Outcome        10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10
Knowledge Outcome       25




Action Outcome      7


Action Outcome      7    7


Action Outcome      7    7




Action Outcome      7    7




Action Outcome      7    7


Action Outcome      7    7
Condition Outcome    7    7


Knowledge Outcome    7    7




Knowledge Outcome    7    7


Knowledge Outcome    7    7




Knowledge Outcome    7    7




Action Outcome




Knowledge Outcome   30   30




Condition Outcome   30   30




Knowledge Outcome   30   30


Knowledge Outcome   30   30
Knowledge Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   20




Action Outcome      20

Knowledge Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10
Condition Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome    0
Knowledge Outcome    0


Knowledge Outcome    9


Knowledge Outcome    9
Condition Outcome   7
Knowledge Outcome   0




Knowledge Outcome   9


Knowledge Outcome   9


Knowledge Outcome   9


Knowledge Outcome   9




Action Outcome      9


Condition Outcome   9


Condition Outcome   9




Condition Outcome   9


Condition Outcome   9
Action Outcome   10

Action Outcome   10


Action Outcome   10

Action Outcome   10
Action Outcome   10


Action Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      25

Action Outcome      25

Action Outcome      25

Knowledge Outcome   25




Action Outcome      25


Condition Outcome    7
Knowledge Outcome   10   0

Condition Outcome    9




Knowledge Outcome   50
Action Outcome      50




Condition Outcome   50
Knowledge Outcome   50




Action Outcome      50
Action Outcome   50
Action Outcome   50
Action Outcome   50




Action Outcome   50
Condition Outcome   50




Condition Outcome   50
Condition Outcome   50


Knowledge Outcome


Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome


Knowledge Outcome


Knowledge Outcome
Knowledge Outcome


Action Outcome




Action Outcome


Condition Outcome




Action Outcome       7




Condition Outcome    7




Condition Outcome    7




Knowledge Outcome        15
Action Outcome

Action Outcome           15




Condition Outcome

Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10


Knowledge Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10

Condition Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome        10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Condition Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome    5
Action Outcome       5




Condition Outcome    5

Action Outcome       5

Action Outcome       5

Action Outcome       5

Condition Outcome    5




Action Outcome      20
Knowledge Outcome   20
Knowledge Outcome   20
Knowledge Outcome   20
Action Outcome      10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10

Condition Outcome

Condition Outcome




Knowledge Outcome        50

Action Outcome      40
Condition Outcome   40




Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome   10




Action Outcome   10


Action Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   20




Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   20




Action Outcome      10
Condition Outcome   10




Condition Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10

Condition Outcome   10




Action Outcome           100




Condition Outcome        100




Knowledge Outcome        100




Action Outcome      68
Action Outcome      68




Action Outcome      68


Action Outcome

Condition Outcome

Condition Outcome


Knowledge Outcome   25

Action Outcome      25

Condition Outcome   25
Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome       0


Action Outcome       0




Action Outcome       0

Action Outcome      10   10


Action Outcome      10   10




Knowledge Outcome   10   10

Knowledge Outcome   10   10

Action Outcome      10   10


Action Outcome      10   10
Action Outcome      10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10




Knowledge Outcome    0




Knowledge Outcome    0




Knowledge Outcome    0

Action Outcome       0
Condition Outcome    0




Knowledge Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   20




Knowledge Outcome   25




Action Outcome      25




Condition Outcome   25
Condition Outcome   25




Action Outcome
Knowledge Outcome   10
Action Outcome   10
Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Action Outcome   10
Condition Outcome   10




Condition Outcome   10

Knowledge Outcome   10


Condition Outcome   10

Action Outcome      11   11

Action Outcome      11   11
Knowledge Outcome    4    4
Knowledge Outcome   10


Condition Outcome   10




Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   45


Condition Outcome   45

Action Outcome      45




Knowledge Outcome   45
Action Outcome      45
Knowledge Outcome   45


Action Outcome      45




Action Outcome      45


Knowledge Outcome   37

Knowledge Outcome   37


Knowledge Outcome   37

Knowledge Outcome   37




Action Outcome       0




Action Outcome       0


Condition Outcome   20
Condition Outcome    0




Action Outcome      20




Action Outcome      20




Action Outcome      20




Condition Outcome   20


Knowledge Outcome   11   11

Knowledge Outcome   11   11
Condition Outcome   11   11

Condition Outcome   11   11
Action Outcome       4    4

Condition Outcome    4    4

Knowledge Outcome    0    0

Knowledge Outcome   20   20

Action Outcome      20   20

Action Outcome      20   20

Knowledge Outcome   10    0

Knowledge Outcome   10    0




Knowledge Outcome
Condition Outcome




Action Outcome      45
Action Outcome      10


Knowledge Outcome   45


Action Outcome      45

Knowledge Outcome   45

Knowledge Outcome    0

Knowledge Outcome    0

Knowledge Outcome    0

Knowledge Outcome    0

Action Outcome       0




Action Outcome      33
Knowledge Outcome   33
Knowledge Outcome   33
KA PERCENTAGE - 1862 RESEARCH        KA PERCENTAGE - 1890 RESEARCH        PLAN START YEAR


                                                                     20               2007




                                                                     30               2007

                                24                                                    2007

                                24                                                    2007




                                24                                                    2007
                                24                                                    2007




                                24                                                    2007

                                24                                                    2007

                                24                                                    2007

                                24                                                    2007
24   2007
24   2007
24   2007

24   2007

24   2007




24   2007

24   2007
24   2007

24   2007

24   2007

24   2007
24   2007
24   2007
24   2007
24   2007
24   2007




24   2007

24   2007
24   2007
24   2007

24   2007




24   2007

24   2007

24   2007

24   2007

24   2007
24   2007

24   2007

24   2007

24   2007

24   2007
24   2007
24   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007
60   2007




     2007




     2007




     2007




     2007
2007




2007




2007




2007
15   2007




     2007


     2007




     2007

 1   2007


 1   2007

 1   2007

 1   2007

 1   2007
10   2007

10   2007

10   2007

10   2007

10   2007

10   2007

10   2007


10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007




 5   2007




 5   2007


 5   2007

11   2007

11   2007
11   2007




 5   2007
     2007




     2007




     2007


     2007


 5   2007




 5   2007


 5   2007


20   2007




60   2007




60   2007
60   2007




60   2007




60   2007




60   2007
30        2007




30        2007




30        2007




     30   2007




     30   2007
     30   2007




     30   2007




30   16   2007

15        2007




          2007




          2007
         2007




         2007




10   0   2007


10   0   2007




10   0   2007




10   0   2007
10    0   2007




10    0   2007




24        2007




10   10   2007
10   10   2007




     50   2007




     50   2007




     50   2007




     50   2007
     50   2007




10    0   2007
24        2007

24        2007


24        2007

24        2007
24        2007

          2007

          2007
10   15   2007




10   15   2007
10   15   2007

 7        2007




 7        2007

 7        2007

 7        2007

10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   10   2007

 0        2007

 0        2007


 0        2007

 0        2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




 5   2007




 5   2007


 5   2007
5        2007

5        2007

5        2007

5        2007




5        2007


5        2007

5        2007


5        2007

5        2007




    20   2007
    20   2007




    20   2007




8        2007




    15   2007
    15   2007




8        2007




         2007




         2007




1        2007
     0   2007




13       2007
13   2007




20   2007




14   2007
14   2007




14   2007




14   2007




     2007
     2007




     2007

     2007




     2007


     2007

     2007




16   2007
16   2007




16   2007




16   2007

 0   2007
 7        2007


10   10   2007


10   10   2007




 8        2007




 8        2007




 8        2007
60        2007
60        2007
60        2007
60   2007

60   2007
60   2007

60   2007
10   2007
10   2007




35   2007




35   2007


15   2007


15   2007


15   2007

15   2007

15   2007

15   2007

15   2007

15   2007

15   2007
     2007




     2007




     2007
     2007




10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007




20   2007
20   2007




20   2007
15   2007




15   2007




15   2007




15   2007




15   2007
     20   2007




13        2007




          2007
     2007




10   2007




10   2007
    2007




7   2007


0   2007


0   2007




0   2007




0   2007


0   2007
 0        2007


 0        2007




 0        2007


 0        2007




 0        2007




     30   2007




15        2007




15        2007




15        2007


15        2007
     2007




     2007




     2007

10   2007

10   2007
10   2007
15   2007
15   2007


 1   2007


 1   2007
 7   2007
15   2007




 1   2007


 1   2007


 1   2007


 1   2007




 1   2007


 1   2007


 1   2007




 1   2007


 1   2007
2007

2007


2007

2007
2007


2007
    2007
    2007

    2007

    2007

    2007




    2007


7   2007
30   16   2007

 1        2007




50        2007
50   2007




50   2007
50   2007




50   2007
50   2007
50   2007
50   2007




50   2007
50   2007




50   2007
50   2007


 5   2007


 5   2007




 5   2007


 5   2007


 5   2007
 5        2007


 5        2007




 5        2007


 5        2007




 7        2007




 7        2007




 7        2007




     15   2007
     10   2007

     15   2007




35        2007

10        2007
10   2007

10   2007


10   2007

10   2007

10   2007




     2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




 5   2007
 5        2007




 5        2007

 5        2007

 5        2007

 5        2007

 5        2007




15        2007
20        2007
20        2007
20        2007
10        2007
10        2007
10        2007

     10   2007

     10   2007




          2007

40        2007
40   2007




     2007




     2007
2007




2007


2007
16   2007




     2007




16   2007




     2007
           2007




           2007
           2007

           2007




     100   2007




     100   2007




     100   2007




50         2007
50        2007




50        2007


 5    5   2007

 5    5   2007

 5    5   2007


25   25   2007

25   25   2007

25   25   2007
 8        2007




 5        2007


 5        2007




 5        2007

10   10   2007


10   10   2007




10   10   2007

10   10   2007

10   10   2007


10   10   2007
10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   10   2007




10   10   2007




 5        2007




 5        2007




 5        2007

15        2007
15   2007




     2007




     2007




25   2007




25   2007




25   2007
25   2007




30   2007
2007
2007
2007




2007
2007
2007
          2007




          2007

20        2007


20        2007

 0   11   2007

 0   11   2007
 4    4   2007
 0   2007


 0   2007




 0   2007




30   2007


30   2007

30   2007




30   2007
30   2007
30   2007


30   2007




30   2007


37   2007

37   2007


37   2007

37   2007




10   2007




10   2007


15   2007
10        2007




15        2007




15        2007




15        2007




15        2007


 0   11   2007

 0   11   2007
 0   11   2007

 0   11   2007
 4    4   2007

 4    4   2007

 0    5   2007

20   20   2007

20   20   2007

20   20   2007

10    0   2007

10    0   2007




 5        2007
 5        2007




30        2007
 0   2007


30   2007


30   2007

30   2007

10   2007

10   2007

10   2007

10   2007

10   2007




10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
                           1862 EXTENSION    1890 EXTENSION    1862 RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE TARGET        OUTCOME MEASURE   OUTCOME MEASURE   OUTCOME MEASURE


                       0




                       0

                      15 y

                      50 y




                  100 y
                  120 y




                       3y

                      10 y

                      30 y

                      30 y
 20 y
 20 y
 20 y

  2y

150 y




 80 y

243 y
    90 y

    64 y

    32 y

    85   y
    20   y
   120   y
100000   y
    75   y
     0   y




     8y

    10 y
  36 y
   6y

  20 y




  45 y     y

 143 y

  45 y

  40 y

1750 y
   0y

  24 y

  15 y

  25 y

  30   y
  40   y
  30   y
   2   y
  30   y
  45   y
  30   y
  15   y
  25   y
  15   y
 225   y
  10   y
  55   y
  10   y
325 y
    y
    y
    y
    y
    y
    y
    y
    y
    y
    y
    y




  0y




  0y




  0y




  0y
0y




5y




0y




0y
      4     y




      4y


      4y




     60 y

    100     y


     20     y

     20     y

      0     y

      0     y
     20 y   y

    300 y   y

    300 y   y

    300 y   y

    300 y   y

7203858 y   y

3242643 y   y


7458315 y   y
     70 y
     y
  20 y
     y
     y
 300 y
     y
 100 y
  40 y
 110 y




 500 y   y




 300 y   y


  25 y   y

 250     y

   0     y
  10     y




6196 y   y
      0y




      0y




      0y


      0y


7496000 y   y




   3400 y   y


   5000 y   y


     90 y




    500 y   y




     10 y   y
 100 y   y




  25 y   y




1000 y   y




 300 y   y
2000 y   y




  10 y   y   y




 650 y   y




  10     y




  10     y
   10     y




    3     y




30000 y       y

    0y        y




  200 y




  200 y
   0y




   0y




 120 y   y   y


6000 y   y   y




   0y    y   y




   8y    y   y
 60 y       y




 60 y       y




    y       y




500 y   y   y
50 y   y




 0




 0




 0




 0
      0




6000000 y     y   y
        y

          y


          y

          y
          y

     30 y

     10 y
 300 y




1500 y
      y

    0y        y




    0y        y

 4000 y       y

 2500 y       y

15000 y   y




  150 y




10000 y




 3000 y

 5000 y

 2500 y


15000 y

 7500 y
100 y




 50 y




500 y   y




  0y




 10 y




  0y




  0y




  0y


  0y
 5y

25 y

 2y

20 y




25 y


25 y

 5y


25 y

10 y




80     y
       50     y




       30     y




133400000 y       y




        5
       4




81262000 y     y




           y




           y




       0       y
 500     y




2400 y       y
1200 y   y




     y   y




 100 y
25 y




25 y




 0y




  y
    y




    y

    y




    y


    y

    y




2       y
   8     y




   3     y




   1     y

1800 y
        y   y


    0       y


30200 y     y




   70 y     y




  100 y     y




   64   y   y
   20   y
   15   y
   45   y
    25 y

     0y
     0y

     0y
    30 y
    90 y




     0         y




     0         y


   600     y


  2000 y


  2000 y

  2000 y

  1000 y

  2000 y

  1000 y

  2000 y

150000 y
 40 y




  4y




 25 y
  4y




 30 y   y




400 y   y
500 y   y




 25 y   y




125 y   y




 25 y   y
 y   y




 y   y




8y   y
20 y   y




10 y   y
70 y   y




20 y   y




10 y   y




10 y   y




10 y   y
 10




  0y       y




200    y
  110     y




25000 y       y




 3000 y       y
     70   y




              y


 450000       y


1600000       y




     25       y




   1000       y


              y
y


y




y


y




y




y




y




y


y
  20 y




   2y




   4y

3000 y

1500 y
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     y   y


     y   y
y   y
    y




y   y


y   y


y   y


y   y




y   y


y   y


y   y




y   y


y   y
50 y

30 y


30 y

20 y
50 y


30 y
   y
10 y

25 y

50 y

80 y




  y


25 y
 2100 y   y

   20 y   y




30000 y
35000 y




40000 y
y




y
y   y
y
y




y   y
y   y




y   y
         y   y


    25       y


    30       y




     5       y


750000       y


     5       y
 50         y


 12         y




 10         y


  3         y




 10 y       y




150 y




 25 y




200     y
  2

  0     y




  0         y

  0y
  0y

  0y


  0y

  0y

200 y




        y




  0y




  0y




  0y




  0y
   0y




   0y

   0y

   0y

   0y

   2y




   0         y
  10         y
  10         y
   2         y
5000 y       y
4000 y       y
2000 y       y

   5

   0




 175     y

 500 y       y
 400 y   y




3300 y




1900 y
12000 y




  100 y


97000 y
732 y   y




  1y




435 y




  5y
 1y




 5y
40 y

 2y




50     y




10     y




 5     y




40 y
   75 y




   25 y


    0     y

47900     y

   56     y


    0     y

    0     y

    0     y
  20         y




   2y        y


3600 y       y




   0y        y

   0y    y   y


   0y    y   y




   0y    y

   0y    y

   0y    y


   0y    y
 0y    y   y




 0y    y   y




 0y    y




 0y    y   y




10         y




50         y




 2         y

40 y
 0y




 5y




20 y




 5y




 1y




 1y
1y




0    y
75 y
25 y
50 y




85 y
85 y
20 y
1000000 y




     50 y

     40 y


      0y

      2     y

     75     y
      1
 30 y


  1y




 15 y




 50 y   y


100 y

200 y




140 y
250 y
 100 y


  75 y




  40 y


 200 y   y

  50 y   y


  10 y   y

   5y    y




   0     y




   5y


3000 y   y
    5           y




        y




  500 y




10000 y




30000 y


  700 y

   65       y
 2300 y

    0y
 0y

 1y    y

 1

75 y

55 y

50 y

75 y

55 y




20     y
13     y




 2     y
     2y


    50 y


   100 y

   155 y

   300 y

     5y

    50 y

    15 y

    15 y




    50 y   y
300000 y   y
60 y
1890 RESEARCH
OUTCOME MEASURE   ACTUAL AMOUNT


y                                   0




y                                   0

                                    0

                                    0




                                    6
                                  190




                                    0

                                   18

                                    0

                                   28
10
 0
 0

 1

 0




 0

 0
178

 27

 43

 30
  7
600
  0
 10
  0




 12

  0
312
 20

129




 15

 11

  1

  0

  0
  0

  0

 17

  0

  0
 22
  0
  0
 20
 37
 92
 28
995
 45
 15
  5
 15
120
37825
   92
  280
 3389
  659
   79
   11
   76
   36
   63
    0
   20




    5




    3




   18




    0
0




5




0




0
      4




     14


      4




    180

    152


      0

      0

      0

      0
     32

    573

    263

     12

    316

6146069

1950873


6980599
    995
    79
    45
   173
   120
 37825
    31
    12
    20
     5




   218




    57


    28

   250

     0
     0




135000
    0




    0




    0


    0


20000




  641


    0


   98




12620




 2295
 2927




  294




10001




 4529
3720




  75




1720




  10




   1
    1




    0




34596

 1182




  200




  230
   0




   0




 120


3264




   5




   1
       45




       75




        1




y   22702
    1586




y      0




y      0




y      0




y      0
y         0




    4300000
         20

        129


         87

         70
          2

         45

         15
y    857




    1223
  384

    0




    0

 2631

 1234

33583




  111




  796




10205

 5000

 2500


15000

 7500
241




 41




627




  0




 25




  0




  0




  0


  0
 0

 0

 0

 0




16


60

 0


40

 0




80
y          55




y          40




    140000000




y          38
y         13




    58000000




           0




           0




           0
 500




1900
345




  0




813
 50




 45




813




230
1250




 352

 100




 740


1600

 100




   8
   7




   3




   3

2004
     0


     0


180391




    77




   370




    80
     0
     0
     0
     0

     0
     0

     0
     0
     0




     0




     0


    33


   465


   722

   371

   152

  1516

   105

    60

500065
 50




  3




 20
  0




 44




334
1213




 220




 150




  50
41631




  132




   40
29




12
79




20




 1




50




10
y     1




     80




    250
   76




13225




 5959
     70




      0


 590000


1190000




     25




      0


      0
    0


    0




    0


    0




    0




y   0




    0




    0




    0


    0
   13




    1




    5

 7341

 2533
    2
   29
    6


 1182


12423
    0
    8




25384


  296


 2100


  280




  326


14521


34000




50000


  160
73

40


40

30
40


15
  0
 82

100

 62

 81




  0


  0
2700

   0




   0
0




0
0




0
0
0
0




0
0




0
      0


     32


     53




      5


1541828


      5
     75


     10




     14


     11




     94




     25




      4




y   170
y     0

y     0




      0

    113
  67

  20


 113

 246

  25




  76




  63




  37




   0




1180
         490




         825

    37500000

          25

          20

           5




           0
           0
           0
           0
        7256
        5805
        2902

y          0

y          0




         193

         600
 480




3475




 183
 7852




  445


10279
733




  1




569




  6
      2




      5
     55

      2




y   150




y    10




y   150




    335
      350




      150


y       0

y   47900

y      56


y       0

y       0

y       0
         6




         7


    225000




         8

y        0


y        0




         0

         0

         0


         0
y   0




y   0




    0




y   0




    3




    2




    1

    0
 0




 5




23




 5




 1




 1
1




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70
61
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85
85
62
    11600000




         200

         100


           0

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y          2
  32


   7




  61




 190


  78

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2025
3600
 507


  27




  18


 200

  30


  70

 650




   2




   5


3110
      5




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    725




  78319




4700000


   1708

      0
   2708

      5
     0

     0

y    0

    65

     0

     0

    89

    88




    14
    18




     1
    0


    0


    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0




   73
85000
41
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - ISSUES




Vermont farms may derive an economic benefit from developing on-farm energy sources and
using pressed seeds from these crops as a valuable component of cow feed. Feeds
containing 30-60% available protein (as these by-products contain) can be valuable
commodities. Such plans could increase energy independence, promote rural economic
development, and enhance farm profitability. As fuel costs rose, farmer interest in on-farm
bio-fuels grew.




The changing economics of Vermont agriculture.
Increase the level of knowledge and use of IPM for various agricultural products. To teach
growers improved practices and skills related to IPM tools and methods, and the safe and
judicious use of pesticides and alternatives, including organic options.
IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical,
and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks.
Farmers seek to understand and manage their farms finances. While UVM Extension has
reached hundreds of farmers over the past year, survey data showed more in-depth farm
business and management education was needed




The field of agriculture is a complex, multi-dimensional area. Agriculture involves an array of
diverse issues, such as human treatment of animals, watershed protection, and consumer
concern for the safety of our food supply; farmers need to understand agronomy, animal
science, horticulture, nutrition, hydrology, and resource economics. In today's competitive
market, business owners must be savvy marketers, thorough business planners, efficient, and
able to identify niche markets.
Farmers need markets for products. Entrepreneurs need ready and marketable products.
Consumers need useful, effective, and safe products. UVMs Ag Innovations helps all of these
parties achieve their needs. Cheesemaking produces a whey by-product. UVM researchers
created value-added products from whey, ranging from a safe whey-based wood finish to
incorporating whey into a number of IPM strategies. New products may be less detrimental
to health and environment than current products.
The key to Missouri's dairy future is optimizing use of the forage base to reduce feed costs.
During the past several years, dairy producers have experienced large variations in milk price.
The average price received was $13.25 per hundredweight in 2006 and approximately $19.45
in 2007. At the same time, input costs for items such as feed, labor, machinery and supplies
have continued to increase. High input costs have affected profit margins and forced many
dairy producers to explore alternative management strategies to remain competitive.
Declining profit margins have forced hundreds of dairies out of business in Missouri and
across the southeastern United States. Missouri's dairy industry remains a critical component
of the state's total agricultural economy. Missouri's dairy farmers earned $298 million in cash
receipts from milk sales in 2005.
A pasture-based dairy must be not only profitable but also sustainable. An important
component of this process is to collect and analyze economic data from the dairy operation.
This provides a tool to evaluate current management and identifies areas needing
modification to enhance profitability.




The 2002 USDA Census of Agriculture reported 10,818 Missouri women as farm operators,
which was up 34 percent from the 1997 census. The need for practical risk management
education is increasing, as women take on management roles in farming. Annie's Project
targets farm women with the desire to be empowered with management skills, knowledge
and critical decision-making capabilities to use information to actively participate in the farm
business and contribute to a viable, profitable business.
The future economic viability and quality of life in rural Missouri are based on the
development of a "new agricultural economy" that will add value to the commodities raised
there and develop new business models for Missouri producers.




In 2006-07 the growing biofuels industry began to affect Missouri's agricultural production
sector. A major issue was whether this new market would have a positive or negative effect
on Missouri crop and livestock sectors.




Locating resources that can improve profitability is a time-consuming task. Sources of
information are numerous and may be confusing, out-of-date, of questionable quality, new
or unknown. Extension can help producers become more profitable by helping them locate
good sources of information for making management and marketing decisions.


Weather and economic conditions were major challenges in 2006-07. A hard freeze over the
entire state in late April 2007 and extreme weather events of rain and drought affected
farmers statewide. Fuel and input prices increased across the nation. Grain prices were high --
 good for grain producers, bad for livestock producers. Adjusting production and marketing
strategies or changing business arrangements to manage risk and take advantage of new
opportunities was critical for many.
Alternative energy sources play an important role in supporting national economic growth,
national energy policy, and increasingly important environmental goals.

Agriculture support agencies on Guam are small and lack the breadth of expertise that would
be found in analogous agencies on the mainland. Island-wide the expertise pool is probably
adequate to meet the island's needs but is fragmented among several agencies.
Consequently, farmers have difficulty accessing information they need, or finding the
expertise to explain key concepts to them when they seek advice.

To test new conservation practices and alternatives to improve practices. Farmers, producers
and consumers as well as the whole Guam community are affected.

Demonstration farms are an important tool in educating our stakeholders in conservation
programs and practices. A lack of farm community exposure to conservation programs and
practices due in part to the absence of demonstration sites that farmers can easily visit has
limited our efforts.
Many agricultural producers and private landowners seek ways to generate income from
alternative agricultural. For example, goats are one of the fastest growing livestock
enterprises. Outdoor recreation and agritourism are also important. Examples of alternative
enterprises are organic vegetable and fruit production, pen-raised game birds, pine straw,
shiitake mushrooms, herb production, small livestock (e.g., goats, rabbits, backyard poultry),
and wildlife-recreation/fee fishing enterprises.




An understanding of the actual level of adoption of recommendations is key to reaching
program objectives.

Producers and landowners can incorporate recreational use of their land or pond into an
economic enterprise.




The Alternative Agricultural Enterprises program educates producers about non-traditional
practices with the potential for providing supplemental income to their farming operation.
Rabbits, backyard chickens, pen-raised game birds are a few examples of alternative livestock
products.
In West Virginia, horticulture is a growing industry. Commercial growers need good practical
information to increase their production, marketing skills and therefore profits. Farmers
markets are becoming an important source of locally-grown, fresh produce.




Most horticulture producers are very small scale, farming for supplemental income, and
often retired. They need help gaining new knowledge about new crop varieties.

The economic viability of vegetable, fruit, ornamental and specialty crop production in WV
can be developed through effective marketing strategies. This would include the expansion
of existing farm markets as well as helping growers grow better varieties and create new
markets.

Homeowners need current information about how to best manage their property, soil, water
and pesticide use in order to decrease chemical inputs and improve the environment.

Many producers across the State are interested in small scale alternative operations including
nut crops, bee hives, and other crops not counted elsewhere.

To maximize to fertilizer value of manure and minimize environmental risks, sampling is the
recommended practice to determine nutrient content of manure. Quantifying the number of
samples analyzed is the best way to measure implementation of this recommendation.
However, while this recommendation is appropriate for standard confined livestock farms, it
is not practical for alternative unconfined livestock farms.
To maximize fertilizer value and minimize environmental risks, manure and soil sampling are
recommended in balancing manure management, crop production, and environmental
protection concerns.




Farm operators are faced with uncertain commodity prices, input prices and crop yields each
year. These factors have a large impact on their net income and the long-term financial
viability of their businesses. Farm landowners also must adjust their rental arrangements to
fit current levels of profitability in agriculture. Finally, agricultural professionals such lenders
and insurance agents must be able to provide informed advice to their clientele.
Female farm operators and farm partners have many questions and concerns about the
financial management of their businesses and economic decisions that affect their
businesses. They are often reluctant to attend mixed-gender educational meetings or to
voice their questions and concerns.
Agricultural lenders need to understand the legal steps needed for making new farm loans,
how to analyze and evaluate new loan applications, how to service and monitor existing
credits, and how to meet the credit needs of beginning farm operators and new enterprises.




The next generation of agriculturalists was identified as one of the top areas in both the
survey and listening sessions held by Extension. The major concerns are the lack of young
people on the farms, transitioning farms from one generation to the next and the difficulty
getting started in today‚'s capital intensive agriculture. Iowa land owners are aging and there
will be a major shift in wealth over the next several years. Much of Iowa‚'s land will be
owned by people who do not live in the state.




For over thirty years, the Iowa State University Farm Income Tax Schools have been
conducted to educate agricultural business professionals, farm accountants, and attorneys on
the legal and technical tax issues involved in preparing farm income tax returns. Nearly all
farm income tax returns filed in the state are completed by attendees at the seven schools.
The schools are extension based and reach nearly 1200 people every year.




Commodity agriculture is historically a high volume, low margin industry. High land and
machinery costs make entry into commodity agriculture difficult. Interest, therefore, is
increasing in alternative agricultural farming operations including, but not limited to: organic
agriculture, fruit and vegetable production, and various livestock enterprises. Profit margins,
however, vary a great deal and are based on what product is grown and how it is priced.
Potential farmers need assistance in evaluating which alternative enterprise makes sense to
them.
Livestock and crops farmers must strive for the optimum in enterprise selection,
management of resources, and decision making in order to maximize profits for a viable and
sustainable farm business.




Organics have emerged as an important opportunity for North Carolina farmers. There has
been an increase in the number of organic dairies (5) with two local plants distributing
organic milk. NC is a leader in organic egg and chicken markets. Also, sales of locally raised
pork (and other meats and livestock products-cheeses, eggs) at farmers markets has
increased dramatically. One market reports a tripling of vendors selling meat products in the
market (from 5 to 16) in the past two years. NCA&TSU and NCSU are working with Farmers
Market Managers, NCDA&CS and non government groups to promote safe food handling.




NC taxpayers and professional tax preparers are concerned with tax law changes that affect
their businesses and those of their clients. Professional continuing education is also desired.
Farmers are facing difficulties in understanding farm practices because of the lack of
knowledge/skills of current techniques and information. Some farmers are unable to read
and write. Utilizing hands on demonstrate, the farmer will gains and maintain and
comprehends the information presented to them.




Various farmers were in need of training in Farm Management because some farmers lacked
management skills to keep records to document production of crops. Farmers have difficulty
qualifying for funds from USDA due to the lack of production history developed when a
farmers keeps farm production records.
A number of youth today lack decision-making skills of being responsible and managing
money. These skills will help youth prepare to own and operate a small business that could
contribute to paying for college and their becoming future small business owners.

Each year, hundreds of acres of land belonging to small and limited resource farmers are lost
because of the lack of knowledge about prevention or minimizing risk, taxes not being paid,
and no formal document indicating that property is transferred.




Knowing how to produce commodities without knowinghow to get them into the hands of
the consumer has been the demise of many entrepreneurs.




Smaller farmers lack the critical mass required for many marketing strategies. Graded feeder
cattle sales only solve part of the problem. When calves are sold, producers do not earn
extra income from better cowherd management. Additionally, many cattle are not weaned
or vaccinated, and there have been increases in the number of cattle with health problems.
A summary of the WV quality assurance sales compared to the traditional in-barn feeder calf
sales presented at the annual convention.




Calves are weaned and graded in the field by WVDA graders, and enrolled in an official
Process Verification Program (PVP) for source and age.
The cattle market is cyclical in nature and is characterized by periods of increased prices
followed by periods of decreasing prices. Any program that attempts to evaluate its success
by measuring continual increases in calf prices will surely fail to accomplish its goal. The
estimated costs associated with obtaining higher prices for preconditioned calves can vary
greatly depending on management, but the costs of vaccination and post-weaning feeding
have been historically estimated to average $38.00 per head and can vary widely depending
on the type and intensity of the feeding program.




The market hype to add value to the Quality Assurance Feeder calves by managing them to
qualify for the all-natural markets failed to meet expectations in 2007. The Morgantown Pool
explored the mechanics of weaning and feeding calves for the all- natural market and
collected performance data for future comparison.


Understanding the process to transition from traditional agriculture production systems to
organic and sustainable systems is difficult. Very little guidance is provided by in-state
agricultural organizations. Producers need timely and accurate recommendations to help
them transition to economically viable organic and alternative agriculture systems.

Organic production techniques and the associated ability to market products as certified
organic can increase the value associated with these products.

The Chesapeake Bay Program and cooperating states seek to achieve large reductions in
nutrient loadings to the Bay by 2010. In seeking to meet the Commonwealth's 2010 targets
for nutrient loss reductions from crop farms, a number of best management practices
(BMP's) were recommended and producers receive cost share funding to implement most of
them. Specifically, five BMP's have been targeted for adoption because they are believed to
offer the greatest potential benefit.

Improved financial security of individuals, families, and agricultural businesses is critical for
the long-term economic health of Virginia. Profitable and successful farms and small
businesses are the cornerstone of robust families and the communities in which they live.
Crop and livestock producers need to balance farm and feed resources to maximize profits.
Asset ownership and management control is changing as the U.S. farm population ages. In
the next 20 years 70% of Virginia farms will change hands as the current generation of
farmer/landowners retires or die. Most farmers have incomplete or nonexistent succession
plans and transitioning the farm to the next generation is more involved than a traditional
estate plan. Without a concerted effort, transitioning to the next generation can fail.




Virginia's farmers, agricultural business managers and leaders, food processors, and
agribusiness firms are faced with uncertainty about enterprise selection, management of
drought, demand for their products and services, and long term environmental concerns.
The overall economic health of agriculture is also of concern to the public and private sectors.




Biomass energy sources can reduce energy usage impacts on the environment. The
production of electricity and fuels from biomass resources reduces pollution, greenhouse
gases, energy usage and dependence on foreign energy. Vermonts agricultural economy is
causing some traditional dairy farms to look at diversifying towards enterprises such as
organic farming, and nursery and bedding crops. Energy produced from crops such as hay,
corn soybeans or canola could keep Vermont agricultural viable.


For the Mennonite community in the Shenandoah Valley and the 400 families who rely on
dairy and poultry as their primary farming operation, economic pressures and environmental
challenges have made it more difficult and expensive to get into and remain in agriculture.
Produce auctions have proven successful in establishing produce growing as a viable
alternative enterprise in other plain communities.
Wheat production has historically been part of the row crop agriculture cropping rotation
scheme in the lower middle peninsula of Virginia and accounted for over 7,500 acres of
cropland in 2007. A 33% increase is expected in 2008. Interest in wheat production has
increased due to prices and the use of no-till practices. Producers need information they can
use to produce high quality, no-till wheat to take advantage of prices while improving carbon
sequestration and reducing erosion.




Growers and green industry related businesses that are concerned about the long term
growth and profitability of the industry. The project will study and evaluate the various
issues that impact the green industry and its underlying trend. The more they are aware of
the potential problems of exports and opportunities that exist the more they can explore
their options.




This project targets growers and green industry related businesses that are concerned about
the long term growth and profitability of the industry. The project will study and evaluate
the various issues that impact the green industry and its underlying trend. Nursery producers
care about export which is important because it gives them access to additional market
outlet and income.


This project targets growers and green industry related businesses that are concerned about
the long term growth and profitability of the industry. The project will study and evaluate
the various issues that impact the green industry and its underlying trend. Given that the
nursery business is one of the fastest growing sub-sectors of Agriculture, increased sale and
income is important for the business and jobs.




This project targets growers and green industry related businesses that are concerned about
the long term growth and profitability of the industry. The project will study and evaluate
the various issues that impact the green industry and its underlying trend. It is important for
participants to receive assistance in decreasing knowledge gaps in order to be competitive.
This project targets growers and green industry related businesses that are concerned about
the long term growth and profitability of the industry. The project will study and evaluate
the various issues that impact the green industry and its underlying trend. Increase in
knowledge will enable businesses to penetrate foreign markets rather than depending on
domestic market.


Organically raised products often garner a premium from consumers enhancing producer's
profitability.
The majority of farms in St. Mary's County County, Maryland are considered small farms, with
the average farm size of 62 acres and gross income of $33,906.00. The majority of these
farmers relied on tobacco as their chief source of income. In the year 2000, the state of
Maryland initiated a tobacco buyout program which resulted in 86% of eligible Maryland
producers exiting the tobacco industry. In addition, the general population base has
increased by 37% in the last 15 years. The rural landscape is irrevocably changing, leaving
new, beginning and transitioning small farmers searching for enterprises to sustain their small
farms. Due to the increased demand for locally produced wine and wine grapes in Maryland,
transitioning farmers expressed interest in raising grapes; however numerous questions
arose as to the feasibility of the crop including growing techniques, profitability, risk
assessment, labor requirements, and cash flow projections. An extension program was
created to educate small farmers regarding the potential for grape production. A research
vineyard was established to evaluate varieties and as a teaching tool. Numerous education
events were conducted including twilight tours, workshops, on-farm demonstrations and
individual site consultations. The extension program collaborated with the regional
Agricultural Development Commission to develop a matching grant program for purchase of
grape vines. Over 600 new or transitioning small farmers received information on grape
growing. A grape growing association has been formed and 29 operators participated in the
grape grant program with 12 new vineyards planted or planned for 2007-08. When asked to
evaluate the overall quality of a 1 day Beginning Grower Workshop attended by 85 small
farmers on a scale of 1-10 (1=not worth my time, 10-excellent meeting), participants
responded with an average rating of 9.33. In addition, 98.3% of the respondents indicated a
4 or 5 rating using a 1-5 Likert scale when asked to rate the specific topics presented.




Nearly one third of the state's milk supply is from Washington County in addition we rank
third in beef cattle and sixth in sheep. Our producers strive to produce a high-quality product
in an ever increasing competitive market. Urban sprawl leads to high land values placing
added pressures for a decreasing farmland base, increase traffic on county roads, and
increased scrutiny on environmental issues such as water and air quality. To compete with
the large farms being constructed in the mid-west and west, our farmers must become
efficient in other ways - reduced labor cost, reduced feed cost and increased revenues from
value-added products
Genetic improvement is vital to the success of any agricultural industry, yet the meat goat
industry lags behind other animal industries in the use of performance data and other genetic
technologies. A central performance test is where animals from different herds are brought
to one central location where performance is recorded. The rationale is that observed
differences are more likely due to genetic differences, which will be passed onto offspring,
rather than environmental differences, which will not be passed onto offspring. The goal of a
central performance test is to identify genetic differences among animals.




There is a need to reduce negative environmental impacts of horticultural cropping systems.




There is a need for improved profitability and reduction of negative environmental impacts of
agronomic cropping systems and a yield of high quality supplies of food and fiber products.

There is a need for improved profitability and reduction of negative environmental impacts of
agronomic cropping systems and a yield of high quality supplies of food and fiber products.




There is a need for improved profitability and reduction of negative environmental impacts of
agronomic cropping systems and a yield of high quality supplies of food and fiber products.

Meetings will be provided.

Increase in subject knowledge and skills.

Enterprise budgets, computerized decision-making tools, and marketing plans are essential
marketing tools.

Producers need to implement new management tools.
Forage-based animal agriculture is the only basic industry found in all 23 Wyoming counties.
Grazing animals convert grass from rangeland and forage (including alfalfa and crop
aftermath) from cultivated lands into marketable products. Therefore practices which
improve pasture conditions are critical for agriculture producers.

Water availability, efficient use, and conservation are important issues in Wyoming.
Agriculture producers using irrigation for crops need research based information on best
practices to make the most efficient use of resources. The Wyoming Crop Improvement
Association and agriculture stakeholders identify this as an important issue.

Livestock producers throughout Wyoming face an ever changing industry with issues such as:
increasing cost of production, increasing pressure for individual animal identification,
changing requirements for marketing knowledge. Livestock accounts for approximately 78
percent of statewide agricultural cash receipts.


There is increasing pressure for individual animal identification. The Wyoming Livestock
Board and livestock producers need information regarding requirements and benefits.


Livestock makes up 78 percent of Wyoming cash receipts. Helping livestock producers gain
understanding of heifer development as well as matching genetic improvement with
successful marketing stragies will improve profitability.

Wyoming major agriculture industry is livestock based. Most livestock feed on forage.
Improved production of forage crops will reduce cost for livestock producers and increase
profitability.

Wyoming is vulnerable because of its historical dependence on agriculture and extraction
industries, coupled with its sparse population. Thus diversification is imperative for the
survival of many communities. Although many rural people have skills and talents that could
potentially generate income, they often do not have the information that can help them to
develop economically viable alternative enterprises. Area advisory committees identified
niche marketing as an important issue within the state.


Wyoming is vulnerable because of its historical dependence on agriculture and extraction
industries, coupled with a sparse population. Entrepreneurs need the capacity to explore and
start small or home-based businesses with emphasis on value-added agriculture, eco/agri-
tourism, forestry, home trades, crafts, services, etc. Area advisory committees constituency
groups and the general public identified diversification and small business development as
important issues within the state.
Wyoming is vulnerable because of its historical dependence on agriculture and extraction
industries, coupled with its sparse population. Area advisory committees, constituency
groups and the general public, identified diversification and small business development as
important issues within the state.
Diversification is imperative for the survival of many communities in Wyoming. Area Advisory
Committees have identified diversification and small business development as important
issues within the state.




Diversification is imperative for the survival of many communities in Wyoming. Area advisory
committees, constituency groups and the general public have listed this as a need.




Louisiana suffered economically and socially as a result of earlier dependency on depressed
petroleum and agricultural industries, devastating impact of the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and
Rita, and lack of incentives for business investment. The state was ranked among the top five
states for poverty and for the opportunities of mainstream America. Louisiana's poverty rate
(17 percent) was higher than the national average (12 percent). The poverty rate in rural
Louisiana was as high as 27 percent in some parishes (counties). Despite the impressive
growth of community based organizations in Louisiana during the past decade, they faced
several human and organizational deficiencies and challenges.
Louisiana suffered economically and socially as a result of earlier dependency on depressed
petroleum and agricultural industries, devastating impact of the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and
Rita, and lack of incentives for business investment. The state was ranked among the top five
states for poverty and for the opportunities of mainstream America. Louisiana's poverty rate
(17 percent) was higher than the national average (12 percent). The poverty rate in rural
Louisiana was as high as 27 percent in some parishes (counties). Despite the impressive
growth of community based organizations in Louisiana during the past decade, they faced
several human and organizational deficiencies and challenges.




Louisiana suffered economically and socially as a result of earlier dependency on depressed
petroleum and agricultural industries, devastating impact of the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and
Rita, and lack of incentives for business investment. The state was ranked among the top five
states for poverty and for the opportunities of mainstream America. Louisiana's poverty rate
(17 percent) was higher than the national average (12 percent). The poverty rate in rural
Louisiana was as high as 27 percent in some parishes (counties). Despite the impressive
growth of community based organizations in Louisiana during the past decade, they faced
several human and organizational deficiencies and challenges.




To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska farmers and related agribusiness representatives must obtain and incorporated
new research based knowledge as quickly as possible in order to gain efficiencies, be better
stewards of our natural resources, and take advantage of new opportunities.




Increasing feed prices and declining catfish prices in 2007 ahve created financial difficulties
for many catfish farmers
Increasing feed prices and declining catfish prices in 2007 have created financial difficulties
for many catfish farmers.




To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska ranchers and feeders and related agribusiness representatives must obtain and
incorporated new research based knowledge as quickly as possible in order to gain
efficiencies, be better stewards of our natural resources, and take advantage of new
opportunities.




Agriculture sustainability is of key concern to producers.




Agriculture producers in Nevada are looking for economical and viable alternative crops
which conserve water resources.
Many socially disadvantaged farmers (SDFs) fail to use USDA Programs due to various reasons
such as: past problems with USDA, unfamiliar with USDA programs, or reluctant to visit local
office. This has caused SDFs to lose millions of dollars that could have been used in their
operations and as a result of this, many SDFs have lost their farms. Also most SDFs also do
not use the Cooperative Extension Service (CES). They get their crop and livestock production
information from other farmers or the local farm supply store. As a result, most SDFs do not
use CES recommendations and this may be contribituting to lower yields on their farms. If,
SDFs are to maintain their farms they must use both USDA Programs and CES production
information.




School children, youth, farmers and officials from government agencies had increased
knowledge and awareness on importance of conservation and preservation of different
varieties of root crops in Palau, use of tissue culture technique as method for the rapid mass
propagation of taro, control of pest of crops using IPM techniques with the aim of preserving
environmental health. They also became aware of new ways to control animal waste that
flows down to water sources and protects the environment and rainwater catchments.

The program educated and provided awareness to young and old, farmers and non-farmers,
government and private businesses, health and environmental agencies in order to protect or
preserve our plant genetic resources, and the pristine natural resources of the island. There
is now continuous availability of information related to current technologies in agricultural
science, promotion of clean water conservation, and prevention of animal waste and
contaminants from polluting our water sources and environment. In addition, the Dry Litter
Waste Management Project was adopted and constructed for demonstration to swine
operators on Palau because the traditional swine operation uses lots of water to clean the
pens that washes away the animal waste to the water sources and the environment. This
project promotes water conservation and prevents animal waste contaminants to the
environment and water sources.

At CMI-CRE, food security and water quality and quantity have always been important issues
that needed to be addressed. Extension staffs have worked hard as a team to find
At PCC-CRE, planting materials of root crops were distributed to farmers to increased their
food production capacity and biological control agents were released in farms infested with
insects that were affecting the growth and development of their crops. These activities
hopefully would improve their productivity and yield in their farms. Ways to test, clean and
decontaminate rainwater catchments are now available to the school children and the public.
 The dry litter waste management project has served as a model for swine farmers to
promote water conservation and prevent environmental pollution.

At CMI-CRE, recent studies have stated that one of the leading causes of death for
Micronesians is diabetes. Therefore, it is important that people begin eating and living
healthy. Bacterial tests have indicated that 50% of the previous water tests indicated that
the communities' collected rain water were not safe for drinking and cooking.

At COM-FSM-CRE, about 30 youths and adults have started establishing their farms and
gardens, cultivating different varieties of banana, colocasia taro, sweet potato and noni. Nine
youth teams (78 youths) were taught environmental science through water testing and later
shared their information with adult members in the communities.




To make good business decisions, farmers need access to high quality, uniform farm
management benchmarking information.




Wyoming and the Western U.S. are undergoing a very rapid shift in land use. Thousands of
acres of former ranch, farm, or wild lands are being subdivided into small acreage parcels. As
this occurs, the number of small acreage landowners is growing. Small acreage landowners
are eager for information that will help them live their desired lifestyle while being good
stewards of their resources.
Wyoming and the Western U.S. are undergoing a very rapid shift in land use. Thousands of
acres of former ranch, farm, or wild lands are being subdivided into small acreage parcels. As
this occurs, the number of small acreage landowners is growing. Small acreage landowners
are eager for information that will help them live their desired lifestyle while being good
stewards of their resources.




Wyoming and the Western U.S. are undergoing a very rapid shift in land use. Thousands of
acres of former ranch, farm, or wild lands are being subdivided into small acreage parcels. As
this occurs, the number of small acreage landowners is growing. Small acreage landowners
are eager for information that will help them live their desired lifestyle while being good
stewards of their resources.




Wyoming and the Western U.S. are undergoing a very rapid shift in land use. Thousands of
acres of former ranch, farm, or wild lands are being subdivided into small acreage parcels. As
this occurs, the number of small acreage landowners is growing. Small acreage landowners
are eager for information that will help them live their desired lifestyle while being good
stewards of their resources.

Since 1997, the overall number, acreage and cash receipts of Massachusetts farms have
declined (by 17%, 10% and 21% respectively). Of the remaining farms (more than 6,000), 80%
are still family owned and most of these fit the definition of 'small farms' as expressed by the
US Department Agriculture. The average farm in Massachusetts is only 85 acres. Farmers
therefore need to manage for high returns on their investment per acre. Aside from
traditional agricultural products, Massachusetts farmers have expanded their offerings to
include farmstead-made cheeses, maple syrup, wine, cranberries and exotic livestock, which
together present tremendous, statewide financial growth potential. Farms and other food
production operations can add significantly to the quality of life in Massachusetts and New
England. The most obvious contribution is to open space through their scenic and historic
vistas, but it is also well known that regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, and
dairy products leads to better human health.
For farmers and other food producers to stay in business, it is necessary that they maintain
long-term environmental sustainability by striving to expand species diversity and better
understand farm ecology.




We are facing intense global competition for the products that are grown or produced in
Massachusetts. Improved production efficiency, new marketing opportunities, and constant
evaluation of profitability are needed to ensure survival.




We are facing intense global competition for the products that are grown or produced in
Massachusetts. Improved production efficiency, new marketing opportunities, and constant
evaluation of profitability are needed to ensure survival.




Public policy has taken on a considerable importance to the future of agriculture. The
farmer's historic struggle was with the forces of nature and the marketplace, and
government policy played a minor role. Government policy at all levels now is a major player
in agriculture, especially related to agriculture as an important economic asset, the
sustainability of a productive agricultural sector balanced with the preservation of
environmental quality, and the importance of prime farmland with respect to the continued
viability of the rural economy and of rural lifestyles.
Research that enhances knowledge and informs risk analysis and management strategies and
tactics related to the causes and effects of price, yield and revenue risk in U.S. agriculture and
the costs of alternative strategies is critical to the long-term sustainability of the agrifood
industry.




The ability to understand the economic, cultural and political factors of domestic and
international trade policies to determine the likely changes in the domestic and international
trade policies and their consequent market impact is critical to a competitive, sustainable
Michigan economy




The number of certified organic farms and the acres of farmland in certified organic
production in the U.S. more than doubled from 1992 to 2005. In 2005, just over 8000 U.S.
farmers had more than 4 million acres in certified organic production. Michigan has 205
certified organic farmers and 45,500 certified organic acres. For these reasons, it is important
for organic growers to understand production, processing and marketing issues and to raise
awareness among Michigan lawmakers about the value, importance and needs of organic
agriculture.
As technology, market and economic conditions change agricultural and rural business are
faced with the need to transition there businesses to deal with these changes. In addition
new business owners or existing businesses adding new enterprises need training and
assistance to adapt and thrive. The Rural and Agricultural Business Enterprise Center of
Central New York provides the needed training and assistance to help them be successful.

Consumers increasingly want fruits free of pesticide contamination and the new method will
reduce costs and allow a larger percentage of samples of fruit to be screened.

There is a need to inform producers on environmentally sound horticultural practices and to
reduce negative environmental impacts of horticultural cropping systems.




To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska farmers, ranchers, and related agribusiness representatives must obtain and
incorporated new research based knowledge as quickly as possible. Clientele expressed
intent to implement changes based on the new information presented at UNL sponsored
events is a strong indication that the information presented was timely and of value to the
agricultural industry.


To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska farmers and related agribusiness representatives must have access to a highly
educated and trained work force in order to take advantage of new information, incorporate
new technologies, and adjust to changing economic, social, and environmental conditions.




To remain economically viable and environmentally compatible in a rapidly changing world,
Nebraska farmers, ranchers, and related agribusiness representatives must obtain and
incorporated new research based knowledge as quickly as possible. For the University of
Nebraska to effectively serve the needs of our clientele, our education efforts must reach a
significant portion of the farming, ranching, and related agribusiness industry in the state.
Applied agricultural economics is needed to help decision-makers understand the effects of
policies and the implications of recent developments on commodity markets and agricultural
producer welfare.




Analyzing alternative business structures can give insight into factors which promote or
inhibit firm viability and growth in agricultural related fields.
Farmers depend on imported resources to sustain small farm operations. Resources such as
local feedstuffs and nutrients from animal waste are not fully utilized. Income from
operations are not maximized.




Producers adopting practices are low due to expenses related to making improvements in the
farm.

Replacement of breeders (swine and poultry) is always a challenge since replacement stocks
have to be imported from Hawaii or the US mainland. It is expensive and bureaucratic.
Adopting practices for regular replacement of broodstock will save time and money, allowing
farmers to extend production stages of breeders.




It is essential for any pork production enterprise to accurately know their cost of production.
Unfortunately, many of our clients have been so busy with the activities of a diversified farm
that they have not focused on this area, and do not know their cost of production.




Swine producers are undergoing increased scrutiny from external partners in a number of
areas. Concerns about the environment, animal well-being and food safety are major areas
of interest to the consumers, retailers, processors, as well as, producers of pork. Increasingly
pork producers are being asked to document their performance in these areas, in many cases
with third party verification of the results. A "Quality Management Systems" approach has
been found to be most effective in meeting the producers needs in these areas, as well as,
having other benefits such as increased market access, lower cost of production and
enhanced employee management capabilities.
Today's young people need to know how important livestock and crop production is to the
world and learn how they can have an active role in maintaining our state's agricultural
leadership. In order to be successful in agricultural production, youth must be well educated.
We use a variety of methods to provide to youth accurate, timely and unbiased information
in the areas of swine production and consumer information. In addition to personally useful
information, we also encourage consideration of post-secondary enrollment at Iowa State
University in animal science and human science fields.

It is important to develop and maintain a 'sustainable' agriculture industry in Iowa.
Sustainability has various components, such as economic viability, social acceptance and
environmental impact. The best way to accomplish all three areas of sustainability is to
integrate the crop and livestock industries of Iowa. Livestock are the primary users of Iowa
grown crops. Livestock produce highly valuable nutrients that are needed by the crop
producers to fertilize the land and produce the high levels of product needed for economic
viability. And the inclusion of livestock production (such as a swine finisher) in the business
plan of a crop farmer adds both diversity to the operation, and is a mechanism for a young
beginning farmer to enter agriculture. In addition, these swine production enterprises add to
the tax base of our rural communities and create jobs where the proceeds stay in the
community.




The pork industry is under attack from activist groups with an agenda against animal
agriculture. One way they have attacked the animal industries is the method of penning
females during reproduction. The traditional method of housing sows in environmentally
controlled individual crates has been a target of criticism and legislative action (to ban such
pens). As a result, pork producers need to be aware of alternative group sow housing
systems and their strength and weaknesses.




Livestock nutrients are a valuable resource to farmers, supplying essential nutrients required
for crop growth. However, it is also no secret that too much manure or manure improperly
handled or land-applied can also be a detriment to soil and water quality. The agriculture
community recognizes the need to provide information on regulations, best management
practices, and neighbor relations to Iowa's farmers.
Pork production, like all other agriculture enterprises, requires an ever increasing level of
efficiency and product quality to survive and prosper. To accomplish this, pork producers
must continually improve their production systems and practices to meet these goals. As a
Land Grant University, Iowa State University has a broad mission which includes discovery of
new technology, assist our client‚'s adoption of these technologies, and to educate our
students and industry clients in why these new ideas might help them and how to implement
them.




An essential part of efficient production of profitable pork is to maintain a healthy herd. With
the increasing oversight over food safety and the tightening profit margins, it is imperative
for pork producers to adopt optimal animal health programs and procedures for their herds.
Information on these improved animal health protocols and procedures must come from
unbiased source of information who works with the most advanced discovery teams.




Iowa leaders and rural citizens recognize the positive economic impact of keeping or
increasing livestock agriculture, including dairy farms, a part of the Iowa economy.
Regionally, these operations contribute to rural community economic viability by keeping
families and trade nearby. Economists estimate that for every 100 cows, approximately 2
jobs are created on farm, and 1 off-farm. When factoring the full value of goods and services
required to serve dairy operations, it is estimated that each cow generates $13,000 in
economic activity. In short, dairy operations have a strong positive impact on local and state
economy, and efforts to retain existing farms and bring in new farms and new farmers
contribute to the Iowa economy.
Good herd management and herd health management are necessary to achieve productive,
profitable herds. Dairy owners and the general public both benefit from efforts to keep Iowa
herds healthy. Herd management measures that result in good cow health typically translate
to successful production parameters such as low cull rate due to sickness or death, good
reproductive performance, high quality milk, and average to above average volumes of milk.
These production parameters affect the profitability of the dairy herd business. Healthy herds
produce wholesome milk going to milk processors and ultimately to the general public in the
form of fluid milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream.

Controlling mastitis is an important strategy to achieving quality milk production. Mastitis is
estimated to cause $1 billion loss to dairy industry annually. 50% of mastitis begins in dry
cow phase and can manifest during cows‚' lactation phase as clinical mastitis, with resulting
lost milk production. Additionally, research shows that 50% of heifers calve already with
mastitis.




One of the most frequently reported information gaps that owners of expanding dairy farms
identify is information about employee training and management. As farms expand to
achieve business advantage or quality of life, the need to hire employees increases, yet many
dairy owners have had little or no prior experience or training in this area.
Corn co-products are increasing in supply as the ethanol industry grows in Iowa. These
products are excellent feed for cattle. The wet product is better than the dry for cattle, it
saves energy by not drying, and is cheaper for corn at locations near the plant. It is a win-win
situation for the plant and cattle producers.

Iowans are increasingly concerned about water quality, and small, open feedlot cattle
operations often contribute to this concern. DNR and NRCS are charged with improving
water quality through regulation and technical assistance, respectively. Producers have a
strong stewardship ethic, but are often not aware of the specific risk caused by their
operations. Solid settling and practical treatment of feedlot effluent are necessary to protect
the water quality from open feedlots.

Cost control continues to be a priority in production agriculture. Beef producers in particular
face rising land and feed prices, but they may have opportunities to reduce costs by using
corn co-products and innovative management. Price premiums are being offered for cattle
with proven age or production practices. However, proof based on an accredited third-party
provider will be necessary to capture the higher prices.




Beef cow herds face a double challenge from the emerging ethanol industry. The higher price
of feed results in lower prices for the calves they sell, as feedlots have higher feeding cost.
Land prices and rent, a major input, are driven up with higher grain prices. Cow herds must
find ways to improve their efficiency to remain sustainable.




Iowa cattle producers, as a segment, are younger than all farmers, and a relatively high
percentage of them anticipate that a son or daughter will continue the cattle enterprise into
the future. Both generations need to prepare and implement a well thought-out plan to
ensure success.
The limited resources farmers. To get maximum benefit and profit following proper rotation
and selecting high yielding cultivars for growing alternative crops.

At PCC-CRE, the demonstration farms showcased the importance of proper nutrient
management and other cultural technologies for successful banana production as well as
preventing environmental pollution, conserving water resources and having a good source of
compost material for crop production. Farmers are always interested to learn new
production technologies.

In the Marshall Islands, imported fruits and vegetables are very expensive. Land space is
limited in the Marshall Islands. Trainings are provided to interested people who want to start
a garden in their backyards.

In the FSM States, most people are farmers in their own rights because that is the only way
they can sustain their livelihood and stop depending on the outside world and most of them
(men, woment and children) engaged in farming of staple food crops such as banana,
breadfruit, taro, cassava and varieties of green leafy vegetables. Individuals and families
formed farmers cooperatives to sale their surpluses at the local and export markets.




Alabama's Black Belt Region is the targeted twelve counties programming areas for Tuskegee
University Cooperative Extension Program. Persistent poverty in this region is being
perpetuated by financial distressed schools systems, lack of economic development, unskilled
labor forces, high unemployment rates, high school drop out rates, and excessive number of
social services participants. Alabama Entrepreneurial Initiative is an effort to provide
informational community-based experiential educational opportunities to rural youth and
young adults interested in exploring entrepreneurial endeavors as a career opportunity.
Small-scale producers, their fiamilies, and their communities face a lack of resources, lack of
marketing opportuities, low profitability, and other production challenges. Emphasis is place
on livestock management and marketing opportunities. Also, youth interested in agriculture
(livestock) were concerned.




Pennsylvania farmers are increasingly competing in a global market. This has led to increased
consolidation of cropping and livestock systems, increased agricultural inputs, and increased
animal waste. Thus, farmers face not only increasing competition, but increasing
environmental regulation. To maintain viable agricultural systems that are environmentally
compatible, farmers need help learning about ways to reduce inputs, market more
effectively, and farm in a more sustainable manner.




Increased competition in global markets for PA farmers has led to increased consolidation of
cropping and livestock systems, agricultural inputs, and animal waste. Increasing
environmental regulations has led to PA farmers seeking ways to reduce inputs, market more
effectively, and farm in a more sustainable manner.
Many individuals interested in business development in our service area have faced
challenges associated with a persistent poverty environment that traditionally has hampered
successful enterprises in the Alabama Black Belt Counties. Traditional Extension programs
have not been successful in providing proper framework for providing skills needed by young
entrepreneurs in order to develop successful loan applications. There has been a need to
continue educational workshops centered around business plan development, and
augmented by one-on-one teachnical assistance follow up, non-traditional sources of
microloans, and environments for incubation by start-up businesses that can not afford high
costs of starting or doing a business in small, rural communities.




As dairy producers continue to move toward a more market-oriented environment, it is
necessary to gain a better understanding of the various sources of risk facing dairy farmers,
and to identify effective and efficient management strategies for the transfer and reduction
of risk.

Herbicide-resistant cotton encourages the use of conservation tillage, because weeds can be
better managed.


Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion over conventional tillage practices.


Use of integrated pest management and new genetics increases crop yields. However, as
currently stated, this outcome is too broad to be accurately measured, and will be removed
in future plans.




Incremental per-acre cost differences in management, weed and insect control, variety
selection, and plant and harvest timing make huge differences when multiplied by vast state
acreages of various crops.
If a major weed pest, Palmer pigweed, develops resistance to glyphosate, as there are few
other good herbicide options, it could be devastating to cotton and soybean producers in
Tennessee.
Continued soybean improvement is critical to Tennessee producers.

Tennessee cotton producers have indicated that variety test results are the single most
valuable UT cotton research product to them.




The effects of biotechnology are important to consumers, producers, the general public, and
the environment.

Organic pesticide products must control insects and diseases on plants to compete with
traditional synthetic pesticides.




Plant nematodes are a significant horticultural problem.

Our stakeholders have identified the need for speciality crops which would give them higher
economic returns. Limited resource farmers, vegetable producers and home gardeners make
continuous requests for information on propagation material and growing of hot peppers.
For some producers, it has become a potential value-added crop.




Research in biomass to energy is paying dividends as ethanol and biodiesel facilities have
announced Tennessee plans.




Tennessee livestock producers have expressed concern regarding access to veterinary
services.

Many problems in the nursery industry relate to economic and environmental constraints.
Environmental constraints revolve around water and soil quality, weather related stresses,
and aesthetic and biological requirements. Economic constraints include changing resources,
costs (such as land, labor, and chemicals), and demand for landscape plants.

Cotton and corn are major components of the U.S. agricultural system; biomass crops (like
switchgrass) are of increasing importance.
The need for outreach programs on traditional and innovative conservation and production
practices is highlighted by the number of new farms on Guam spurred by the Chamorro Land
Trust agricultural lease program. These new farmers have limited farming experience.

Sustainable conservation innovation and education through inter-agency collaborations aims
to pioneer innovative solutions using new conservation practices that are unique to the
island community. Collaboration with agencies such as Guam Department of Agriculture,
NRCS, Chamorro Land Trust Commission and the Soil and Water Conservation Districts have
been established to leverage expertise and other resources such as field outreach staff and
field demonstrations among government and non-government entities in an effort to
improve outreach and education of stakeholders.

The absence of sites demonstrating conservation best management practices, awareness of
financing options along with limited farmer-to-farmer discussions on the "nuts and bolts" and
benefits of implementing conservation best management practices limits farmer ability to
capitalize on new and innovative ways to farm. Because Guam is a small island our land area
for farming and limited water supply is threatened by harmful farming practices. Producers,
consumers and the whole island community will be affected when water supplies decrease or
become contaminated by chemicals and other substances. It is crucial to educate farmers
and producers on conservation practices as well as source and access funding for them to
employ and adopt the best management practices that conserve natural resources while still
yielding an economic benefit.
Crucifer crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts are significant and
valuable products, grown by over 400 NY farms. With an industry valued at up to $80 million
annually, NY is the second leading cabbage producer in the nation. These valuable crops are
threatened by weeds, which can harbor insects and diseases, as well as reduce crop yields,
quality and harvest efficiency. Effective weed management is an important strategy for
growers, which includes accurate weed identification and knowledge of effective techniques
and tools.
New Hampshire soils are diverse and soil testing is important for field/forage crops and
pasture production to maximize yields and keep input costs at a minimum. To attain
ecological and economic sustainability, NH fruit, vegetable, and ornamental growers must 1)
make judicious use of farm inputs, 2) minimize crop production costs, 3) maintain high crop
quality and yields, and 4) have reliable and consistent markets for their products.
Management of nutrients, water, and pests are key components to profitability; as plant size,
quality, and time to saleable product are dependent on appropriate nutrition, irrigation and
pest control.
The ornamental horticulture industry includes at least 935 businesses in New Hampshire that
generate $438 million or more annually in sales and services, according to a recent New
England survey. Greenhouse and nursery crops are the fastest growing component of
agriculture in this state, having increased by 87% between 1992 and 1997 (USDA Agricultural
Census, 1997). Over half the firms identified landscape and tree services as an important part
of their business. Over 80% of the income comes from sales and services within the state,
making horticulture an integral and important part of the state's economy.

New products, technologies, and growing systems are continually needed in order to sustain
the growth and profitability of the industry. Management of nutrients, water, and pests are
key components to profitability; as plant size, quality, and time to sale-able product are
dependent on appropriate nutrition, irrigation and pest control. Because of high capital
operating costs, as well as increasing competition, quantifying the fixed and variable costs of
production is also key to ensuring profitability.
About half of State's farmers consider farming their principal occupation. For these and many
of the part-time farms, the family relies on agricultural activities to provide money for an
adequate standard of living. New Hampshire's farms need to be profitable if they are to
continue to exist. Agricultural producers continue to seek information and resources to help
them improve the profitability of their existing businesses and farm enterprises as well as to
assess the potential profitability of new enterprises.

Nature, weather conditions, market changes, escalating asset values, costs of funds,
legislation, legal challenges and personnel issues are among the factors which impact the
viability of New Hampshire and Northeast farms. These factors pose considerable risk of
economic loss and damage to the farm and family. Management tools and techniques to
reduce, minimize and transfer production, marketing, financial, human resource and legal
risks can stabilize farm income and improve net worth

Further, direct marketing to consumers in NH has increased significantly, as evidenced by the
rise in the total number of farmers' markets which now stands at 55 up from fewer than 30
five years ago. In addition two NH counties rank 34th and 37th nationally in direct purchase
of food items by consumers. Needs assessments have identified that NH producers seek to
build their skills in direct marketing and seek to augment their farm profitability through the
sale of their products and services directly to consumers. Two additional factors dictate an
increase in programming in this area: 1) the loss of wholesale markets for specialty crops as
evidenced by the loss of the wholesale apple market and the impact this had on NH apple
growers; 2) the rise in the "so called lifestyle farmers" who have chosen farming as a second
occupation yet often have little farming background. These constituents need to earn a
premium price with limited production and need assistance with marketing plans.




Businesses directly or indirectly involved with farming, fishing or forestry enterprises not only
make significant contributions to the New Hampshire economy, but also provide stewardship
of the state's natural resources and a working landscape benefiting citizens and attracting
tourists. If the present natural resource businesses are to continue and new ones start, they
need to carefully evaluate their personal goals, resource base and enterprise options. UNH
Cooperative Extension is familiar with and especially positioned to assist natural resource
businesses through a natural resource business institute.
Viable agritourism enterprises differ from traditional tourism attractions in that family farm
locations are usually not easily accessible from population centers and major transportation
routes. The critical need for additional access signage for increased profitability was targeted
by state and regional agritourism networks.
Northeast Small Farm & Rural Living Expo & Trade Show

The Northeast Small Farm & Rural Living Expo and Trade Show (a.k.a. Expo) is an educational
program designed, planned and delivered by Extension Agents from three universities--
Rutgers, Penn State and Cornell. The scope of the Expo is to provide a vertically integrated
educational program for the relatively new and ever growing "small farm" interests in the
northeast served by the three universities. The vertical integration of the Expo is designed to
provide multiple programming in Extension educational based workshops and lectures
combined with demonstrations from existing service related industries and small farm
entities. Many of the new small farm audience due to their non agricultural background, do
not know about Extension and the Extension mission(s) that can assist them as they pursue
their small farm experience. Additionally, the small farm producers bring non-agricultural
resources and dollars to the regional agriculture infrastructure and economy. Extension can
provide valuable education and guidance to the small farm producers to help them be
successful in their small farm endeavors.




Reducing Greenhouse Energy Use by Investing Current and Alternate Technologies


Controlled environment plant production systems (greenhouses and growth chambers) are
used worldwide to produce high quality plant material (produce, floriculture-, and nursery
crops). Rising energy prices have made a significant impact on the profitability of many
greenhouse operations. Engineering information and solutions can help growers reduce
energy use and operating costs. Alternative energy sources need to be investigated for
potential applicability and economic return. Some of the technologies involved require
relatively high initial investment costs. Therefore, research is needed to determine the best
possible applications before growers are able to make informed investment decisions.
Peach Production with Emphasis on Variety Development

The six county area served produces approximately 7,100 acres of peaches and nectarines
(fuzzless peaches) with a 2007 production value of $33,000,000 and a tree value of
$135,000,000. Approximately 45 commercial peach growers grow and market peaches for
the wholesale and retail market. Ninety five percent of the peach crop is grown in this 6
county area.
New Jersey has a long history and tradition of producing peaches. The state for many years
has ranked 4th or 5th in production measured by acreage and yields behind California, South
Carolina and Georgia. In 2007 New Jersey was actually number 2 in the nation in total peach
production.
New Jersey's climate and environment is conducive to the production of high quality
peaches. The tree thrives and produces well in our temperate climate. Our sandy loam soils
are ideal for the adaptability of peach trees. We generally have abundant rainfall to meet the
crops moisture needs and have ample surface and ground water to supplement rainfall.
Southern New Jersey is very close to large population centers that are a major advantage in
marketing our crop profitably.
In spite of our climate we have difficulties with tree longevity since many of our peach soils
have been planted with 3-4 generations of peach trees. Virgin peach soils are hard to find
and some of our best peach land is now planted in houses. We also have a wide range of
insects, diseases, nematodes, weeds and wild life that not only reduce peach tree health but
also blemish and damage the fruit.
   To sustain profitability and viability of our industry we must try and understand short life
problems and all pests. Our orchards must be efficient and productive. We must also
produce quality fruit of the best cultivars since competition is keen in our markets. The
marketing season is only three months in southern New Jersey and peaches have a very
Specialty Crop Production and Marketing

Economic opportunities have arisen in the last decade for specialty crop agriculture catering
to the diverse consumer markets along the eastern coast of the United States. The rapid
expansion of ethnic populations and a consumer demand for specialty and organically grown
foods presents significant opportunities for fruit and vegetable producers in the region to
take advantage of the comparative advantages associated with close proximity to densely
populated areas. In response to a need for East Coast farmers to remain economically viable,
a U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Research Initiative study was initiated to
document and quantify the current available market opportunities so that farmers may
engage the market by growing crops targeted from a demand perspective. In response to
strengthening NJ commercial specialty crop production and marketing, an NJVGA grant was
awarded for specialty tomato research which is needed to counteract the crashing markets
for commodity tomato varieties.
Preserving Farmland in Bergen County

Farmland in Bergen County has been disappearing at an alarming rate. Pressures for
development have brought about the loss of Bergen's farmland at a rate higher than the rest
of the state due to higher value per acre of developable land. According to USDA census of
agriculture Bergen has lost over 13% of its farms in the past 15 years. In 1992 there were 70
farms; in 1997 there were 63; in 2007 there are 61. Looking at the past century, there were
1600 farms in 1890 occupying more than half of the county's land. The agricultural legacy of
Bergen County as a supplier of crops is lost to history.

While the ornamental industry and allied professions maintain a strong and viable presence,
there is precious little farmland and much is in eminent peril of being lost.




Enhancing the Economic Opportunities of the New Jersey Blueberry Industry


New Jersey has approximately 8,000 acres of highbush blueberries and is ranked second in
total production and value in the USA. The value of this industry was $90.2 million in 2007
and is one of the most viable agricultural industries in New Jersey. The top priority for the
program is to provide New Jersey blueberry growers with all they need to remain viable and
stay on the cutting edge of technology. Blueberries are being grown in more parts of the USA
and the world than ever before and as a result competition for markets is ever increasing.
New Jersey growers must remain on the cutting edge of production methodology. Extension
personnel are the primary source of this information.
Weed Management Systems Intergrating the Use of the New Herbicide Flumioxazon in Field
and Container Ornamental Production




Weed management in field and container ornamental production represent one of the
largest economic inputs in terms of labor and herbicides for ornamental producers. The
development and integration of new, more effective herbicides will reduce these economic
inputs and provide environmental benefits by decreasing herbicide use. In addition,
glyphosate resistant marestail is rapidly spreading throughout New Jersey nursery
operations. Alternatives strategies for the control of this weed need to be researched and
identified.




Identification, Evaluation, and Intergration of New Herbicides for Selective Control of Annual
and Roughstalk Bluegrass in Cool-Season Turfgrass.

Poa annua (annual bluegrass) and Poa trivialis (roughstalk bluegrass) are two of the most
problematic and difficult to control weeds on golf courses, athletic fields and sod farms.
Infestations of these weeds reduce playability of athletic fields because they will thin and die
out under heavy traffic. The value of cultivated sod infested with these weeds is greatly
reduced and may not even be able to be sold. Most importantly, golf course fairways, tees
and putting greens infested with these weeds require greater fungicide and water inputs to
maintain an acceptable playing surface during summer months. The identification and
evaluation of potential new herbicides for selective control of Poa annua and Poa trivialis in
cool-season turfgrass would be beneficial when integrated into an overall weed management
plan.
Resistance Managment for Fresh-Market and Processing Vegetable Crops Grown in New
Jersey




The development of fungicide resistance in important fungicide chemistries used in vegetable
production has been documented in New Jersey and the mid-Atlantic region. A number of
these commonly-used chemistries have a high-risk for resistance development if they are
overused or used improperly. Vegetable growers in NJ, as well as, the rest of the mid-Atlantic
region need more information on fungicide chemistries (FRAC codes) in order to manage
fungicide resistance development properly. Once resistance has developed, the efficacy of
the fungicide, in most cases, is greatly reduced or lost. A great emphasis has been put on
teaching vegetable growers in the state the importance of knowing and understanding the
importance of FRAC codes in fungicide resistance management in vegetable disease control.
In 2007, fungicide resistance management guidelines were developed for all 30 crop groups
listed in the 2007 commercial vegetable production recommendations guide for the five mid-
Atlantic states (NJ, PA, VA. MD, DE) to help vegetable growers manage potential fungicide
resistance development. This guide helps growers make decisions about which fungicides
should be used to control specific diseases to help reduce the chances for fungicide
resistance development.

There has been a very large influx of young faculty who are just starting their professional
careers, and are at the very beginning of the process of publishing in journals.
This is a medium for outreach and engagement, both in terms of state and regional clientele,
and for participation in high economics and agricultural economics professions, addressing
real world issues and unit reputation.

Contributing to the economics and agricultural economics disciplines through expanding the
fundamental conceptual knowledge base is necessary for improving the quality and
effectiveness of future economic analyses of real world economic problems.
Expanding external support for the research program of SES is important for expanding the
scope of issues that can be researched, as well as the number of graduate assistants that can
be supported, and leverages federal dollars.
Contributing to the economics and agricultural economics disciplines through developing new
research methods and tools leads to improving the quality and effectiveness of future
quantitative analyses of real world economic problems.
Factors affecting the State and Regional markets, economies, and society change, the
problems/issues and priorities relating to them change.
Placement of well-trained graduate students increases human capital, and associated high
quality research and/or teaching capability at colleges, universities, businesses, and
government organizations throughout the nation.
Increasing the overall level of research funding expands the scope of issues that can be
addressed by the research programs of the SES faculty, allowing more priority issues to be
explicitly addressed. This also allows for an expansion in the number of graduate students
supported and trained.
Funding GRA's is essential for maintaining research capacity in the School, as well as to
maintain a critical mass of graduate students in order to have a vigorous and sustainable
graduate program.




Farmers care because it reduces their costs. Consumers care because they purchase a safer
and cheaper product. Both Farmer and consumer benefit.




Available fruit varieties in the back yard. Parents are concerned that their children have
enough fresh fruits to eat. Ag students polish their plant propagation skills.

Pig farmers are concerned because of inbreeding of their stock which has manifest itself in
lower production, due to increased mortality and overall slower growth. There is a need to
introduce biodiversity in the local pig gene pool, not only from an inbreeding perspective but
a homeland security one as well.




Small-scale agriculture can provide economic viability to communities and contribute to the
reduction of poverty.




Policy can have unanticipated consequences. Analysis is needed to anticipate possible
unforeseen or unintended outcomes of alternative policies under consideration.
Small-scale producers, their families, and their communities face a lack of resources, lack of
marketing opportunities, low profitability, and other production challenges. Emphasis is
placed on crop management, forest land management, and marketing opportunites. Also,
home owners interested in home gardens and pest control are in need of the same
opportunities.

Cover crops and manure management are two rising issues. Cover crops reduce erosion and
sequester leftover nutrients, both important to environmentalists. Manure nutrients are
more valuable because of the rising costs of chemical fertilizers and application on no-till
ground potentially affects the quality of water, air and soil.




No-till acres should increase for several economic and environmental benefits.




The general public wants lower cost food produced without environmental degradation.


{ Recycling animal manure nutrients in an economic, environmental and social manner is a
concern for food animal production facilities and neighbors within proximity and associated
communities.
{ Manure nutrient recycling practices are scrutinized more closely by various individuals in
proximity of food production facilities.

{ Recycling animal manure nutrients in an economic, environmental and social manner to
protect water quality is a concern for food animal production facilities and neighbors within
proximity and associated communities.
Precision agriculture can speed planting and harvest - the timing of both h¡ve great impact on
yield.
Due to price increases and management education, growers understood reduced need for
nitrogen for corn.
Awareness of weed resistance increased in Ohio. Fall weed surveys indicate increasing acres
with problem weeds.

There is an increase in acres infested with the variant Western corn rootworm.




Many farmers lack the skills necessary to grow and prosper. Because small farmers are such
an important economic factor in rural communities, it is imperative that they thrive.
Americans spent just over ten percent of their disposable income on food in 2003. This
amount is well below the peak level of 25.2 percent experienced in 1933. The percentage of
disposable income Americans dedicate to food purchases has consistently fallen since 1947.
This research focuses on a long-asserted source of the comparatively low proportion of
consumer income devoted to food in the U.S., agricultural commodity policy.




Mastitis is the most costly disease of dairy cattle, reducing protein in milk, cheesemaker
yields, shelf life, palatability, and dairy farm income. Treating mastitis and discarding the milk -
- or culling the cow from the herd -- can cost farmers dearly. In most developed dairy
countries, milk quality is measured by the somatic cell count, and the bacterial count
("standard plate count" or SPC) in pre-pasteurized bulk tank milk. Somatic cells are mainly
white blood cells that function as early warning signals when bacteria such as those causing
mastitis invade the udder. Commercial buyers consider milk containing less than 200,000
somatic cells per milliliter (SCC/ml) "good" quality.




To curb conflict and protect water resources as suburbs and dairy farms expand, the
Wisconsin legislature enacted the Livestock Facilities Siting Law -- Wisconsin Act 235,
implemented in 2006 by predictable uniform standards defined in Wisconsin Administrative
Code Chapter ATCP 51. This law can only be applied where communities adopt zoning
ordinances for siting large dairy or livestock operations with 500 or more animal units -- at
1,000 pounds per AU, about 360 Holstein cows.
For Wisconsin's 10,000 farmers still milking in old-fashioned tie stall barns, staying in business
means replacing or converting aging buildings. Yet reinvesting hundreds of thousands of
dollars in a new milking parlor, freestall barn and manure handling system remains cost-
prohibitive for some and too great a risk for others.




As dairy producers update their facilities and add more cows to their herds, they need
consistent, reliable employees trained in modern dairy practices. Needs Assessments
conducted in Brown and Outagamie Counties confirmed that farm safety is a major concern,
yet no safety program existed. Skid steer farm accidents are common, sometimes resulting in
death. As more farms employ Spanish-speaking workers and run skid steer loaders around
the clock, bilingual safety trainings are also needed.


n/a
One example is FIRM Area of Expertise evaluation where they addressed the needs of farms
to remain a viable component of the Michigan economy, business succession and transfer is
important for their future.




Variety selection is the most important management decision made by growers. Selecting
varieties that are adapted to the local environment and combine a high level of pest
resistance with high yield potential are essential for the economic viability of wheat
production in Oregon.




The Michigan Forage Council and the state Grasslands Forage Specialist for NRCS have
identified the need to work with dairy producers to improve their profitability by using
natural grasslands.


Growers are constantly looking for new crops, varieties, and management techniques that
will increase farm profitability. With the planning and construction of a bio-refinery in
eastern Oregon, the production of barley varieties with unique starch characteristics (waxy) is
sparking a large amount of grower interest.
Dryland production systems are major contributors to the economies of many NE Oregon
communities. Challenges include maintaining profitability, effectively managing pests and
perserving water quality. The overall goal is to improve the economic and environmental
sustainability of dryland cropping systems by employing appropriate production techniques
and technologies.




Conventional fallow is a tillage-based practice used to increase soil water storage in low
percipitation zones. The primary disadvantage of conventional fallow is the potential for soil
erosion caused by wind and water. Soil erosion can be reduced by delaying and minimizing
tillage operations or by eliminating tillage completely




Channel catfish producers need additional marketing opportunities to offset low prices from
processors and competition from imported catfish products. Consumers want more product
choices, including kinds and sizes of live fish, vs. fish processed by any means.

Channel catfish producers need additional marketing opportunities to offset low prices from
processors and competition from imported catfish products. Consumers want more product
choices, including kinds and sizes of live fish, vs. fish processed by any means.

Channel catfish producers need additional marketing opportunities to offset low prices from
processors and competition from imported catfish products. Consumers want more product
choices, including kinds and sizes of live fish, vs. fish processed by any means.




The board of directors of an agricultural cooperative has responsibility for strategic decisions
and for safeguarding the organizations assets. Agricultural cooperative board members are
producers who are elected by the membership to serve with only token remuneration. In
recent times, all board members, including cooperative board members are under intense
scrutiny. The incidence of legal proceedings against board members has increased
dramatically. These litigations are typically initiated by owner (member) groups and they
focus on the competency and diligence of the board. The severe repercussions from errant
business decisions and the intense scrutiny of board member competency have created a
critical need for educational programs.
Production management, business planning, risk management and marketing are major
issues for the beef producers who comprise Oklahoma's #1 agricultural industry.




The meat goat industry has been rapidly expanding in Oklahoma and the United States. Meat
goat numbers in Oklahoma have gone from not even being counted by USDA to 94,000 in
2007, ranking 5th in the U.S goat numbers. This rapid expansion in goat numbers has created
a need for meat goat production education. In addition to the differences between goat
production and other livestock production systems, many goat producers are relatively new
to livestock production. These producers not only need education on goat production
practices but also education on how to do the simple management techniques such as ear
tagging, castrating, and body scoring that many livestock producers take for granted.
According to Nevada Agricultural Statistics, 94.9% of all land in Nevada is devoted to farming
and ranching activities. The most important agricultural products in Nevada include cattle and
calf production, which accounted for 46.3% of total Nevada farm cash receipts in 2003, and
hay production, which accounted for 19% of total Nevada farm cash receipts in 2003. There
are currently 2,989 farms operating in the state of Nevada, with at least 1,600 producing
cattle and at least 200 producing hay including alfalfa, timothy, and others.
Next to mining, the livestock and forage industries in Nevada are an essential component of
the economic stability in rural communities. These products are underserved by current crop
insurance programs and are susceptible to large annual price and yield variations due to
market variations and drought conditions. For these reasons, agricultural producers are
always looking to manage the various production, financial, and market risks they face.


Publications are the main means of distribution of new knowledge to other professionals and
to the general public. The use of peer review for manuscripts provides a review to be as
certain as possible that knowledge is fundamentally correct.

IPM tactics have been shown to result in increased efficiencies in crop production through
increases in yield, and/or reductions in costs including those costs for pesticides.

Monitoring crops for insect pests is a fundamental activity for successful IPM programs. The
research based Glance and Go system has been developed to save growers and consultants
time in the field monitoring wheat crops to determine whether insect pests occur and/or
have reached numbers requiring treatment with pesticides.
There are currently 26 golf courses in Alaska. Their locations range in latitude from 56
degrees 27 min. N to 64 degrees 55 min. N (northern most golf course in the U.S.). Each year,
these courses undergo varying degrees of winter injury from disease, suffocation from ice,
and winterkill. The current study was undertaken to evaluate and compare introduced
cultivars from temperate regions with the native Alaska turfgrasses Nugget Kentucky
bluegrass (Kbg) and Arctared creeping red fescue (Crf) as well as the commercially-used
roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis) on sand-based greens and fairways.




The potential for diversification of Alaska's economy lies in the use of its lands. The projects
proposed here show potential for utilization of Alaska's available land base that may provide
entry into new markets for products from the land. There is high potential for value-added
processing of high value products for the food and non-food market.


Alaska's commercial fishing sector is central to the socio-economic well being of the state.
Spiny dogfish are an exciting opportunity for the state to expand its commercial fishing sector
through development of a new directed commercial fishery.
Producers, agriculture professionals, farmer organizations, home gardeners, farm family
households, and residents are all concerned about the seasonality of our tropical fruits and
the best growing seasons for the production of certain vegetables. This leads to gluts on the
market for specific crops during certain predictable times of the year. This results in loss of
produce due to spoilage, inadequate handling and storage, low prices, unavailability of
markets. Produce not meeting the requirements to be considered market grade is also a
concern. The economic viability of farm operations is negatively affected.

Agricultural funding agencies; USDA NRCS; USDA FSA; producers; agriculture professionals;
Small Business Development Center; Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture; Virgin Islands
Bureau of Internal Revenue; other governmental and nongovernmental agencies involved in
agriculture all care about the importance of producers keeping proper farm financial records.
This is important to assist all involved in making decisions regarding profitability, volume and
value of production, sales, and the status and potential of agricultural operations in the Virgin
Islands. Financing and other agriculture development decisions are made based upon the
availability and accuracy of farm financial records.




The impact of residential and commercial development on rural areas has increased costs of
municipal services/infrastructure and poorly planned growth is also creating spawl pattern
development. This trend has resulted in the loss of farms and open space, placed increased
pressure on soil and water resources and negatively impacts valued rural character.

A key to keeping family farms operating is the successful transfer of the famr to the next
generation. In order to make informed decisions and reduce risk, farmers need information
on strategies and skills to navigate the farm transition process, including family
communication and goal setting, estate and retirement planning, and tools to transfer farm
management and assets.




Input provided by farmers/producers and agricultural service providers show strong interest
among farmers to be more profitable by increasing and diversifying production, introducing
value added products and growing to specialty markets. Uniformly, farmers also cite a strong
need for agricultural technical support, problem solving assistance, information and
consulting services on sustainable agricultural practices, as well as marketing and business
planning.
RI rural communities face challenges of balancing the need for economic growth while
maintaining their valued rural character and natural resource base. Preserving working farms
and planning tourism (a leading RI industry) which is sustainable and preserves rural
amenities are community development strategies that address these planning challenges.




Agricultural production in the Virgin Islands is generally practiced as a part-time activity on
small parcels of land. Under these circumstances youth in the V.I. generally do not see
agriculture as a viable career. Therefore, a larger farm was established for whole farm
systems research and as a model to determine if it could be operated profitably while
providing full time employment to several farm workers. To increase chances for profitability
the farm employed water harvesting and storage and the integration of fish and vegetable
production. If this model was successful and widely adopted, it would be a vehicle to
increase agricultural production in the Virgin Islands, create employment and stimulate the
economy.
Agricultural producers need current information to make appropriate management decisions
about what crops to plant, how to effectively manage plants and animals, how to effectively
market products, and how to mitigate financial and environmental risk. The first step toward
positive impacts such is successful transfer of knowledge. WSU Extension programs must
provide information that is pertinent and understandable to producers.
While risk in inherent to agricultural production and marketing, many steps can be taken to
avoid or minimize it. Risk management involves choosing alternatives that can reduce
negative financial impacts from weather, differential yields, market changes, governmental
policy, global issues, and consumer response to real or perceived issues.
Alternative production techniques can lead to expanded markets, decreased environmental
impacts and an improved image for agriculture when properly applied. However, many of
these techniques are unproven. Therefore careful assessment is necessary in advance of
application. Additionally, producers need to be aware of both the risks and the benefits
associated with conversion to these production processes.




Interest in bio-intensive and organic agriculture is growing rapidly. Research and general
knowledge are lacking in many areas. Producers need current information about general
management of land, plant and animal resources.
Agricultural production near waterways may negatively impact water quality as a result of
leaching of animal waste and agricultural chemicals from the land into waterways.
Additionally, with the average slope of farmland in the Palouse region being about 13%, and
with some tilled acreage exceeding 50%, soil stability is a major issue across this productive
farming region. Conservation tillage and other soil-stabilizing practices are necessary to
reduce soil loss and stream sedimentation. Finally, agricultural pesticides used to control
insects and nematodes are often extremely toxic and may be transported into waterways.
Effective mechanisms are evolving to allow agricultural producers to minimize impacts on
waterways by stabilizing soils, more effectively managing animal waste and by transitioning
to less toxic insect and nematode control mechanisms. These should be rapidly applied to
reduce the environmental impacts resulting from agricultural production while reducing costs
of production and/or creating new income streams.
Immigrants often bring agrarian legacies from their native lands. In Washington State, this is
especially the case with recent immigrants from Latin America, SE Asia and Eastern Europe.
Production of high value crops offers great opportunities for these farmers by maximizing
profit potential on a relatively small land mass. However, production and marketing
techniques must be learned in these new surroundings in order for immigrants to effectively
compete and to create a livelihood for their families.
Research has shown direct relationships between certain weather factors and the
outbreak/occurrence of many plant diseases and pest infestations. The ability to monitor
critical climatological factors, coupled with research based knowledge of weather related
disease and insect surges, allows predictive modeling to be implemented to alert growers
about the optimum times for applying plant protection measures. Additionally, diseases such
as late blight and potato white mold have required substantial applications of fungicides.
Expenditures for such crop protection measures impact the profitability of potato growers in
the Central Columbia Basin of Washington State. Effective integrated pest management
relies on a full complement of plant protection options including effective pesticides. The
search for new and more effective products that are safer and more environmentally
compatible than older products is one of the objectives of applied research conducted by
WSU scientists and extension faculty, supported in part by grants from the Washington State
Commission for Pesticide Registration. Cranberry production has been an area of
concentrated effort, given the aquatic environment in which this crop is grown. Onions are
another crop where plant protection is required for weed control and new, safer products are
being sought.




Organic production systems are rapidly growing in the Pacific Northwest. The research base
supporting these enterprises is often lacking. Producers need best available information to
effectively manage risk and to exploit profit opportunities associated with organic production
techniques.
Frustration with the lack of regional information in the agricultural section of a local
newspaper prompted the Nez Perce County Extension Educator to bring the services of the
land-grant university to provide current, research-based information to the citizens of the
north-central Idaho region through the Ag Page of the Lewiston Morning Tribune (LMT).




Clientele need annual updated information related to the financial condition of Idaho
Agriculture.
Farmers and ranchers need good business management skills in order to maintain a
profitable operation when input prices are escalating and commodity prices are falling or
stagnant. Farmers and ranchers also need timely access to farm management resource
material, resource management tools and unbiased market and management information.




Beef cattle producers in North Central Idaho have historically marketed at local auction
markets. Producers perceived that they were not receiving the true market value for their
calves and wanted to explore marketing alternatives to gain more control of their marketing
program and increase exposure of their calves to more buyers. These producers needed
education on marketing options and how to form a marketing alliance which would allow
them to market their cattle cooperatively.
Commodity price increases and food-fuel trade-off concerns contribute to food price
increases.

Estate planning has been a major educational emphasis, allowing farm assets to be
distributed in a planned manner to the next generation.

Unusually high commodity and input prices, combined with the aility to market farther into
the future have created new management opportunities for farm and ranch families.
Relatively high input costs associated with relatively high returns have created a volitile, high
risk


Ethanol is needed to replace gasoline in the US transportation fuel pool.




US demand for energy is outrunning the capacity for it to be provided by fossil fuel resources.


Financial management issues are huge on farms.
Biofuels have grown rapidly in the last year in response to need for ethanol.


Outreach and assistance to farmers' markets is a priority for the Kansas Center for
Sustainable Agriculture and Alternative Crops. The Center serves as a resource for producers,
organizations, and agricultural professionals in search of information related to sustainable
agriculture.




A major focus of the extension livestock programming in all species in 2007 was helping
producers deal with the rapid increase in ingredient prices. The cost of production for
livestock producers increased dramatically throughout the 2007 calendar year and continues
to escalate through today. Beef, dairy, swine, poultry, and equine producers are all impacted.
Two main avenues to help reduce this impact are lower feed usage and increased
productivity.




Fertilizer costs have increased dramatically in the past 18 months. Soil testing is an excellent
tool to help utilize fertilizers most efficiently and contain production costs.




Phosphorus is a critical nutrient for crop production in Kansas. 53% of the crop acres tested
would be expected to respond to applied P fertilizers. But the remaining 47% would not.
Phosphorus fertilizer prices have increased over 250% in the past two years. Soil testing can
help allocate production resources to minimize production costs.
Livestock production in Puerto Rico competes against animal products imported from lands
where production costs are lower. Increased and improved local livestock production would
benefit several sectors of the economy. Quantitative data of this sort were obtained at only
one of the field days, in which case 14 of 16 producers responding expressed a considerable
disposition to adopt recommended practices.




Better decisions by producers can stabilize or increase revenue for an important PNW
industry whose economic viability is threatened by income variability. The organic production
alternative offers an opportunity to more effectively compete with imported products,
enhance revenue by capturing price premiums, and provide environmental improvements by
using more sustainable fertilization and pest control practices. Agricultural producers need
more effective tools to assess risk management.
Methods of irrigation affect water consumption. This is a critical issue in many parts of the
world including the Pacific Northwest region of the US. Irrigation methods and injection of
nutrients, particularly N, through water (fertigation), also play major roles in apple fruit
quality and production. Irrigation with a drip system uses less water than sprinkler irrigation.
However, irrigation through a micro-jet sprinkler system is extremely important for
development of orchard floor cover grass. Micro-jet sprinklers also create a cooler
environment in the orchards under fruit-growing conditions of Washington and Idaho.
Research has been conducted with orchard fertigation through drip systems in British
Columbia; however, other than our recent work with fertigation of Fuji, information on the
tree growth and leaf mineral nutrients of new apple cultivars under drip or micro-jet sprinkler
irrigation systems in the Pacific Northwest is lacking.




Alternative Energy Education
Sunny Days-The Northeast Colorado Alternative Energy Summit

The economy of the eastern plains of Colorado revolves around farming and ranching. The
climate typically has a low relative humidity, abundant sunshine, light rainfall and moderate
to high winds. Community leaders face the challenge of attracting and keeping young people
in the region. Solar, wind and alternative fuels have the potential to revitalize the economy of
these communities through jobs and industry.
NOTE: This metric needs to be changed to % of participants.

CSU Beef Field Day

Fifteen thousand beef producers in the state help make cattle and calves Colorado's number
one agricultural commodity. Nearly one-third of Colorado's counties are considered
economically dependent on the cattle industry. Information on the latest research and
methods and solutions to the difficult issues facing the cattle industry are provided to
producers throughout the state through CSU animal sciences and the Extension beef team.
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - WHAT WAS DONE




UVM conducted a pilot study to assess the production and processing potential of on-farm oil
seed crops for use as a renewable energy source on a scale that would support small groups
of local farmers working together. Trials of oil seed varieties determined which crops could
successfully be grown here. Two farmers produced all ingredients for biodiesel -- oil and
alcohol. They also grew sorghum to distill their own ethanol. 100 people attended an open
house to learn about the project.




The Vermont Housing & Conservation Board (VHCB) and the Vermont Agency of Agriculture,
Food and Markets started the Vermont Farm Viability Enhancement Program in 2003. Since
its inception, the Program has made grants of state and federal funds to more than 150
farmers. The Farm Viability Program offers assistance to farms that have completed business
plans with the Program and want to implement changes that have been studied through the
planning process.
The UVM IPM Program focuses on priorities identified through participatory assessments
conducted in the state and region. Efforts center on apple, corn, grape, greenhouse
ornamental, vegetable and berry. Methods include one-to-one communication, field
validation trials, workshops, training sessions, presentations, and educational materials
through newsletters and websites. Topics include pest management, record keeping and
pesticide use, safety, and their impact on water quality. Includes training for certified
commercial and private pesticide applicators (PESP).
Financial management services targeted established farmers, new farmers needing financial
management skills, and farmers exploring alternative agricultural opportunities. Services
included:
   1-2
•	 day farm finance management courses; 	
•	 12-session course on business planning for new and prospective farmers;	
•	 Balance Sheet/Budgeting Clinics with farmers;	
•	 Farm visits on topics such as buying or transferring a farm or farm planning.	




Growing Places, organized into six different sessions, each addressing a different aspect of
business development, was developed to assist individuals in exploring the idea of starting a
farm or other ag-related enterprise. Growing Places ideally leaves participants with an
increased level of confidence and clarity regarding their business idea/plan, and a better
understanding of the steps necessary to insure success.
UVM researchers used proteins from whey as the binder to develop natural and safe wood
finish products, patented the product, and utilized the new Ag Innovations project to license
and sell the product through a local merchant. Other research examined the effect of lactose
and nitrogen-containing by-products from whey on the virulence and stability of certain
fungi, and the utility of using whey-based matrices for sprayable and other formulations of
these fungi as part of an IPM strategy.
Comparison of the operating margins of Missouri dairy grazers and the MU Southwest
Research Center dairy with those of the large conventional dairies clearly demonstrates that
smaller dairies can compete on a per cow basis. Grazers continue to maintain strong control
over production costs. Obviously there is ample opportunity for Missouri grazers to lower
their costs when their data is compared with that from Wisconsin.

In the early 1990s, University of Missouri Extension initiated the pasture-based dairy project
and dairies began using new intensive rotational grazing technologies to improve profit
margins and reduce barriers to entry and growth.


Economic data has been collected from participants in the pasture-based dairy project and
the University of Missouri Southwest Research Center dairy on an annual basis.




Missouri trained 11 additional staff members to teach Annie's Project, and in turn offered
more Annie's Project classes throughout the state. In the past year, 12 classes were offered,
with 122 participants (121 female, 1 male). Continuing education takes place through a
newsletter published twice per year. The curriculum covers multiple aspects of risk
management, including financial, marketing, legal, human resources and production.
The Missouri Value Added Center (MOVAC) and five Regional Agriculture Business Counselors
(RABCs) facilitate value-added business endeavors within specific agrographic regions of
Missouri, develop leadership skills, and act as the initial catalyst for assessing funding
opportunities, sourcing resource providers and communicating with regulatory agencies and
decision makers.




Many group events and personal consultations were conducted by regional specialists and
faculty to make farmers aware of opportunities and challenges resulting from the production
of biofuels. (See details under risk management and strategic planning outcomes.) Faculty
members provided price forecasts and analysis to aid producers in strategic planning. These
were posted on web sites, used at farmer meetings and conferences, and relayed to a
national audience by the media.




MU's Agriculture Extension Bulletin Board (AgEBB) web site was updated with current
management and marketing information and links to other sites. Staff demonstrated AgEBB
at field days and conferences and held a computer users conference to demonstrate new
technology and resources. Regional specialists publicized resources available through
newsletters, handouts at events, media releases, web sites and personal contact.


AgBusiness specialists conducted over 165 group events: risk management strategies for
livestock producers, replant /harvest decisions for frost-damaged wheat, changing crop mix
to take advantage of higher grain prices, risks/benefits of producing biofuels, grain marketing
strategies, adjusting rental agreements, fence laws, tax management, machinery and labor
sharing. State specialists provided current price forecasts and analysis for planning and
assisted with 70 events.
Fuels derived from cellulosic biomass [the fibrous, woody and generally inedible portions of
plant matter] offer an alternative to conventional energy sources.


Five 12-hour training modules on sustainable and organic agriculture were developed, used
initially for youth then for adults. Train the trainer workshops were held with agriculture
professionals at the Guam Department of Agriculture. These curriculum have into seven 4-
hour workshops for adults.

Mini grants have been advertised at each workshop that was held. It was also advertised at
the Northern and Southern Soil and Water Conservation Districts meetings.




Workshops at two farm demonstration sites were held this reporting year. Bus tours were
offered to two established farmers who are currently under the EQIP program
A broad range of direct and indirect methods were used to provide information to both
groups and individuals:
Educational meetings
Tours
Field days
Workshops
One-on-one consultations including farm visits and telephone responses.
Articles and media interviews in publications targeting agricultural producers and private
landowners




Educational meetings, field days, and materials were developed to educate clientele about
alternative enterprises. Participants were then asked to report on any practices that they
may have adopted as a result from this education.

Educational programs were developed to help producers and landowners understand the
potential of recreational use as an economic enterprise.




Workshops, field days, and meetings were developed to educate clientele about alternative
agriculture enterprises. According to data gathered by the USDA National Agricultural
Statistices Service, producers did indeed sell these alternative products.
1. Conducted 30 educational activities that offered 104 recertification credits.
2. Conducted a farmer's market training.


1. Training on how to do day neutral strawberry production utilizing white-on-black plastic
mulch and drip irrigation.
2. Providing occasional educational programs relating to horticulture at farmers markets.


1. Training on how to do day neutral strawberry production utilizing white-on-black plastic
mulch and drip irrigation.
2. Providing occasional educational programs relating to horticulture at farmers markets.


1. Worked with the WVU Fruit Farm to provide the Fruit School and Pesticide Credits for this
audience.

Workshops and other educational programs were designed to assist this growing sector of
the agricultural audience.




The manure analysis information for 2007 was analyzed. The data verified the fact that
alternative unconfined livestock farms were not submitting samples for analysis.


Producers were asked to report the number of soil samples submitted to the UA soil lab.




Farm leasing arrangements: 35 county level meetings were held with over 3,000 attendees.
20 radio interviews and mass media articles were disseminated. Approximately 3,000
personal consultations were carried out.
Crop insurance: a one-day continuing education seminar for crop insurance agents was held,
with 275 people attending.


Approximately 12 Annie's Project groups have been started in Iowa, in which farm women
only are invited to attend a series of workshops that address financial and economic issues of
their choosing.
87 agricultural lenders and auditors enrolled in the 2007 Agricultural Credit School conducted
by ISU Extension. They each received 35 hours of instruction on legal requirements of
lending, financing crops, livestock and farm real estate, risk management, financing new
businesses, and problem loan solving.




The AgLink program is a four day seminar for multiple generations. It allows students, their
parents and others with whom they will be farming the opportunity to explore transition
options and plans. The FarmOn program is designed to match unrelated beginning and
retiring farmers. Individual consultations have been provided. Speeches, lectures,
workshops, and short courses have been initiated. Materials have been developed.
Extension has worked with other groups and organizations.


In 2006, the ISU Extension and the ISU Center for Agricultural Law and Taxation conducted
seven schools in Sheldon, Mason City, Fort Dodge, Ames, Muscatine, Waterloo, Atlantic, and
Ottumwa. Attendees are eligible for up to fourteen hours of continuing education credits.
The Center has also been involved in continuing education in the area of taxation in the areas
of women in agriculture, farm estate and business planning, and the Iowa Bar Association Tax
School.




Iowa State University Extension has responded to producers needs a number of ways.
Extension bulletins on vegetable and organic budgets, as well as how to use them in decision
making were developed. A series of informational meetings on organic agriculture and other
long-term rotations, vegetable economics, and using budgets were held throughout the
state. Interactive decision making tools were developed and put on the ISU farm
management website Agricultural Decision Maker. Alternative agricultural information was
added on the website Agricultural Marketing Resource Center.
Extension agents and specialists at both NCA&T and NCSU extension have conducted
numerous business management workshops and other farmer educational programs to
assure that our audiences are adequately educated on efficient management practices,
record keeping, and tax management.




The need exists for development of a sound research and outreach program in organic grain
(both for feed and for direct human consumption) to meet the needs of the seven local
organic milling operations that exist across the state. This has occurred at CEFS in eastern
North Carolina with the leadership of NCSU in partnership with NCA&TSU. The NCA&TSU
outdoor hog program has worked with NCSU, local extension and through the collaborative
project NC Choices. It is also working with NRCS and other agencies to evaluate management
steps to address environmental issues related to outdoor hog production.




Professional education short courses and schools have been developed and delivered
offering continuing education credits. Business owners in the rural sector are also invited to
participate so that the language of tax and their business can be communicated to interested
parties.


The Small Farm Outreach Project demonstrations/exhibits provided to small farmers, limited
resource, and the general public the importance of accurate herd management that minimize
medical and vet expenses.

ASU Small Farm Outreach provided training on the importance of record keeping and
provided small farm record book developed by the project to farmers as an incentive to get
the farmers started to adapting to the concept of farm record keeping. NRCS and Alcorn
provided training on the importance of irrigation and having the proper plant nutrients in the
soil to produce an effective and profitable crop.
The ASUEP Small Farm Outreach Project provided technical assistance in completing USDA
FSA Youth Farm Loan packages to rural youth between the ages of 10 to 20 who want to get
a loan to establish and operate income producing projects of modest size in connection with
their participation in 4-H clubs, Future Farmers of America, and similar organizations.

Participants in the Vendors Borrowers Training Program were trained on legal issues
associated with land ownership, property rights, and estate planning designed to minimize
the likelihood of property or farm being lost due to a variety of factors that can be overcome.




An innovative new web-based system is connecting Kentucky agricultural businesses, farmers
and markets in a unique way to benefit consumers and producers alike. Called MarketMaker,
the system features a mapping function and census data on locales and enable buyers and
sellers of food products to find each other quicker and easier. Sellers use this interactive tool
to identify potential markets and find processors and other businesses they need to
profitably move their products to the market. The program comes to Kentucky through the
collaborative efforts of the UK College of Agriculture, the Kentucky Department of
Agriculture,the Governor's office of Agricultural Policy and Allied Food Marketers. Access to
the Web site is free and open to the public from any computer connected to the Internet.
Kentucky is only the fourth state to become part of this national program developed by
University of Illinois Extension.




Calf pools offer producers an opportunity to move to obtain greater rewards for their effort.
The producers comprising a pool determine time schedules, weaning protocols, herd
management practices and adopt a standard animal health program to cover all vaccinations.
Extension personnel provide technical assistance and advice, deliver educational
programming and extend organizational support to the pools throughout the entire process.




Cost Share assistance for official USDA RFID tags was provided by the West Virginia
Department of Agriculture Animal Health Division (WVDA-AH). Producers received nested
pair tags: the RFID tag and conventional ear tag. The nested pair system allowed producers
to maintain animal records using paper forms, without the needing RFID readers on the farm.
 Tags were allocated to producers prior to weaning calves and these allocations were
recorded in the National Animal Identification System.
To calculate the economic advantage of selling preconditioned calves through a calf pool
each calf in the pools was assigned to a 100 pound weight class (ex: 300-399, 400-499 etc.).
This mimics the manner in which the calf would have been penned for sale in a typical graded
sale. The actual value of the calf in the pool was then compared to its estimated value in the
graded sales using the corresponding average price per pound.

Each year, the marketing pool managers and Extension Specialist are in contact with the
buyers of quality assurance calves. Contact is made with the buyers within two weeks of
delivery to check on health and condition of delivery. Later in the spring and early summer,
marketing tours are conducted with the producers to view the cattle and see how they are
performing. Many of the buyers are beginning to supply the pools with harvest data so that
breeding and selections can be made.

Organic or sustainable agriculture operations have been provided with ongoing assistance
and crop recommendations in an intensive effort to ease their organic and sustainable
production costs and improve profits. Formal trainings and informal educational events have
been held to train workers and stakeholders. Specialists and agents combine to provide
intensive on-site recommendations.
VCE educational events and demonstrations have been conducted to educate stakeholders
and those interested in organic production. Specialists and agents work together to deliver
these programs.

Agents and specialists instituted a number of workshops, meetings, field days, and
experiments that demonstrated BMPs to producers. These events not only demonstrate how
to successfully implement these practices, but help solve production problems that might
otherwise limit adoption. The economic impacts of these practices are evaluated in most
cases. Experimental data are also being collected to support the environmental benefits of
these practices.
Agents and specialists have instituted a number of on-farm demonstrations, field days, and
workshops that demonstrate profitable practices to producers. Crop variety and
management evaluations, profitable dairy production strategies meetings, beef production
programs, and many other specialty crop and animal production meetings and
demonstrations were held.
Extension faculty conducted three five-week, Managing the Farm Transition Workshops. The
curriculum provided farm families with information on inter generational transfer of the farm
by creating a plan to include power of attorney, wills, advanced medical directives, etc. This
series focuses on the actual development of a transition plan by working with small groups of
10 to 15 farms to encourage engagement in planning by multiple generations.


Workshops were held in 2007 to improve decision making of individuals and the business
sector that provides them with services. Participants received training on farm and business
financial planning, cash flow planning, financial aspects of drought management, establishing
direct marketing outlets, effective management and planning of farmers markets, developing
and executing a marketing plan, feasibility of alternative energy production, and information
on management and establishing cooperatives.




UVMs Center for Sustainable Agriculture conducted an ecological and economic assessment
of a biodiesel industry to determine the feasibility and impact of Vermont farmers producing
feedstock crops. They examined the:
•	 economic, environmental, and social sustainability of biomass crops production;	
•	 pros and cons of various feedstock crops; 	
•	 social barriers to production of non-food crops; and 	
•	 economic impacts of a bio-refinery industry, in particular upon potential feedstock
producers.




Through VCE programming and the work of area farmers, the Shenandoah Valley Produce
Auction was formed as an agricultural-based enterprise. In 2007, VCE supported this new
enterprise by providing educational programming and personalized horticultural
consultation. Events for these new growers included workshops on sustainable vegetable
production, nursery and greenhouses, bedding plants, field grown fresh cut herb production,
and commercial vegetable production.
A group of grain farmers met, discussed production topics. and suggested on-farm plots to
help them learn more about topics related to higher wheat yields. Wheat plots are planted in
the fall and evaluated each spring by agents and members of the group. Farmers can see first
hand what varieties and practices work best in an on-farm setting. This group also receives
marketing information through meetings, mailings, and e-mails.

Two surveys were developed, pretested and revised using feedback from stakeholders and
administered (a) to landscape businesses in Tennessee and (b) to nursery businesses to
assess problems and prospects of nursery export from the United States. The survey data on
landscape businesses is currently being analyzed to understand the various contributions
these businesses make and the challenges they face. Results of the export survey were
presented at the Southern Nursery Association conference and published in the 2007
proceedings. The survey provided some insight regarding problems and knowledge of exports
based on a limited sample.

Two surveys were developed, pretested and revised using feedback from stakeholders and
administered (a) to landscape businesses in Tennessee and (b) to nursery businesses to
assess problems and prospects of nursery export from the United States. The survey data on
landscape businesses is currently being analyzed to understand the various contributions
these businesses make and the challenges they face. Results of the export survey were
presented at the Southern Nursery Association conference and published in the 2007
proceedings. The purpose of the survey is to identify destinations of exports, problems and
what should be done to alleviate the problems.
Two surveys were developed, pretested and revised using feedback from stakeholders and
administered (a) to landscape businesses in Tennessee and (b) to nursery businesses to
assess problems and prospects of nursery export from the United States. The survey data on
landscape businesses is currently being analyzed to understand the various contributions
these businesses make and the challenges they face. Results of the export survey were
presented at the Southern Nursery Association conference and published in the 2007
proceedings.

Two surveys were developed, pretested and revised using feedback from stakeholders and
administered (a) to landscape businesses in Tennessee and (b) to nursery businesses to
assess problems and prospects of nursery export from the United States. The survey data on
landscape businesses is currently being analyzed to understand the various contributions
these businesses make and the challenges they face. Results of the export survey were
presented at the Southern Nursery Association conference and published in the 2007
proceedings. The results of the survey provide a summary of export destinations and
identified factors affecting export and is available on the web for anyone interested to access
and use it.
Two surveys were developed, pretested and revised using feedback from stakeholders and
administered (a) to landscape businesses in Tennessee and (b) to nursery businesses to
assess problems and prospects of nursery export from the United States. The survey data on
landscape businesses is currently being analyzed to understand the various contributions
these businesses make and the challenges they face. Results of the export survey were
presented at the Southern Nursery Association (SNA) conference and published in the 2007
SNA conference proceedings. The survey results are made widely available by putting them
on the web for use by all interested.

Organic or sustainable agriculture operations receive ongoing assistance and crop
recommendations from VCE. Specialists and agents conducted a number of training
programs, field demonstrations, and experiments to support producer efforts.
A wine grape research vineyard was established at the Upper Marlboro Experiment Station.
The vineyard was comprised of 27 varieties. A volunteer vineyard team consisting of
interested area producers, extension educators and specialists, and other interested
organizations was formed to aid the care and management of the vineyard. The research
vineyard also served as an excellent teaching and outreach tool as volunteers became
involved in viticultural practices in the vineyard.
A joint collaboration was formed with the Southern Maryland Agricultural Commission to
offer a matching grant program for purchase of vines. Extension developed a set of criterion
for evaluation of each applicant, evaluated each applicant, conducted site visits, organized
the vine order and provided the educational training component.
The program helped to initiate and continues to support a regional Southern Maryland Grape
Growers and Winery Association. This association works to promote the grape and wine
industry in the region and serves as a networking and teaching opportunity.
Hosted and taught educational activities:
Twilight Tour (3),1 day Beginning Grape Growers Workshop, Farm Walking Tours (5), 2
vineyard tours for policy makers,
Field visits and individual on-site consultations, and local/regional conferences.

Teaching Methods:
Numerous teaching methods were employed including conferences, workshops, twilight
tours, demonstration tours, individual consultations, and field visits. New growers first
received a "getting started" list of with suggested references and literature to review. New
growers were invited to participate in the work at the research vineyard as part of the




Organized and taught three county dairy and livestock pasture walks. Cooperated with S.
Fultz to establish a MD Pasture Walk schedule to distribute to Educators in MD, WV and PA
and as well as post on county website. Organized and taught six management workshops
where forage/pasture management was the sole topic or an integrated topic. Utilized results
of applied research and farm demonstrations to prepare teaching materials for seminars,
pasture walks, farm consultations, newsletter articles, and personal column.

Continued work on the cool season perennial grass, annual ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass
variety plots that were established September 2006 at WMREC to compare yields,
persistence, sward density, disease resistance and potential livestock preferences of grass
species and varieties
Each year, up to 50 male goats are consigned to the Western Maryland Meat Goat Pasture-
Based Performance Test. While on the test, the goats are evaluated for growth performance,
carcass merit, and parasite resistance. The FAMACHA system is used to monitor and control
internal parsites in the goats. The top performing goats are sold via private treaty.




190 horticulture crops programs were conducted reaching over 5,761 persons.




Developed and delivered 555 agronomic crop programs, addressing fruits and vegetables,
financial management, and economic analysis of enterprises.




Developed and delivered 555 agronomic crop programs, addressing fruits and vegetables,
financial management, economic analysis of enterprises, and food security.


Developed and delivered 555 agronomic crop programs, addressing fruits and vegetables,
financial management, and economic analysis of enterprises.

Numerous local, county, regional and state level meetings were held.

Extension economists provided new, cutting-edge management and marketing information.

Examples of budgets, computerized decision-making tools and marketing plans were
developed.
Meetings to provide education on new management tools such as Quicken, QuickBooks, Fair
Rent, and FAST Tools were held.
Educational programs, newspaper inserts, newsletters and individual consultations with
producers provided educational information on this topic.




Extension educators conducted educational workshops, classes, wrote articles for
newsletters and provided individual consultations with producers.

CES educators conducted over 45 educational programs including a statewide Ag Profitability
conference in conjunction with Wyoming Stock Growers and Wool Growers Associations.
Animal ID, master cattleman courses, newsletters, newspaper inserts in ag publications,
radio, and applied research are on-going efforts to disseminate information to producers.


CES educators have conducted educational programs to create awareness about the animal
ID program. Articles in newsletters and newspapers have been disseminated.

Educational classes were conducted by the State Extension Beef Specialist and area educators
on heifer development and marketing. Newsletter articles, and presentations at the
Wyoming Beef Cattle Improvement Association were held. UW CES sponsored the Wyoming
Ag Profitability Conference in conjunction with Wyoming Stock Growers winter meeting.


Educational programs conducted by CES educators, newsletter articles, newpaper columns,
applied research, individual consultations.




Educational programs have been conducted on estate planning and entrepreneurship. In
addition a monthly electronic newsletter Enterprising Rural Families is distributed to over 250
individuals monthly.




An electronic newsletter Enterprising Rural Families is distributed to over 250 individuals
monthly.
Enterprising Rural Families is a monthly newsletter distributed via e-mail and also available
on the Enterprising Rural Families Web-site.
Presentations on Enterprising Rural Families CD Course were presented at the International
Farm Management Association Congress in Cork, Ireland and the National Extension Risk
Management Conference in Phoenix, Arizona.




Four educational programs were presented by CES educators to raise awareness of value-
added alternatives.




During FY 2007, SUAREC did the following: worked with non-profit organizations to
strengthen links between businesses, community based organizations, etc; assisted
businesses with planning, market strategies/assessment, and management; recruited aspiring
entrepreneurs and assisted them with the development of business plans and business start-
ups; assisted local farmers to develop alternative enterprise initiatives. Other activities were:
encouraged the development of agribusinesses to include utilization of niche markets;
empower community leaders and residents to develop strategic plans; disseminate
information to customers through extension personnel in the form of publications,
conferences, workshops, field days, and home/office visits; organize grant writing workshops
for individuals, businesses and communities leaders; and, collaborate, cooperate and partner
with local, state and federal agencies, institutions, groups, private organizations/associations.
During FY 2007, SUAREC did the following: worked with non-profit organizations to
strengthen links between businesses, community based organizations, etc; assisted
businesses with planning, market strategies/assessment, and management; recruited aspiring
entrepreneurs and assisted them with the development of business plans and business start-
ups; assisted local farmers to develop alternative enterprise initiatives. Other activities were:
encouraged the development of agribusinesses to include utilization of niche markets;
empower community leaders and residents to develop strategic plans; disseminate
information to customers through extension personnel in the form of publications,
conferences, workshops, field days, and home/office visits; organize grant writing workshops
for individuals, businesses and communities leaders; and, collaborate, cooperate and partner
with local, state and federal agencies, institutions, groups, private organizations/associations.


During FY 2007, SUAREC did the following: worked with non-profit organizations to
strengthen links between businesses, community based organizations, etc; assisted
businesses with planning, market strategies/assessment, and management; recruited aspiring
entrepreneurs and assisted them with the development of business plans and business start-
ups; assisted local farmers to develop alternative enterprise initiatives. Other activities were:
encouraged the development of agribusinesses to include utilization of niche markets;
empower community leaders and residents to develop strategic plans; disseminate
information to customers through extension personnel in the form of publications,
conferences, workshops, field days, and home/office visits; organize grant writing workshops
for individuals, businesses and communities leaders; and, collaborate, cooperate and partner
with local, state and federal agencies, institutions, groups, private organizations/associations.




In 2007, IANR program impact reports indicated over 14,500 farmers, agricultural-
consultants, and other agri-business professionals, representing over 16.5 million acres of
field crops in the state (primarily corn, soybeans, wheat, and sorghum), attended 231
workshops, field days, tours, etc. to gain new research based information to be more
profitable and develop more sustainable farms and agricultural related businesses.

Pond studies and economic models developed continue to be used to refine
recommendations for optimal stocking and feeding of catfish. Mathematical programming
models have been developed to identify profit-maximizing combinations of on-farm
production of catfish fingerlings, stockers, and food fish. Winter feeding studies have been
conducted to compare effects of feeding and not feeding over the winter period.
Budgets for U.S. farm-raised catfish production have been updated, distributed to all farmers,
posted on the web site, and distributed on CDs. Additional tables have been generated of the
effects on production costs of varying feed prices. Instructions on how to interpret breakeven
prices above variable costs, total costs, and net returns above cash costs have been
distributed widely. Spreadsheets that calculate the effect of allocating feed quantities to
meet cash flow needs have also been distributed.




In 2007, IANR program impact reports indicated over 4,500 (plus 50,000 online) ranchers,
feeders, and related agri-business professionals, representing over 4.1 million acres of range,
hay, and crop land, and over 3.5 million head of cattle participated in 152 workshops, field
days, tours, etc. to gain new research based information to be more profitable and develop
more sustainable ranch, feeding, and related agricultural business operations.

"The Risk Management Education for Sustainable Agriculture" is a comprehensive program
that provided risk management programs to over 1001 livestock, forage and speciality crop
producers in Nevada during 2007.




Cooperative Extension is working to help producers explore the viability of tef as one
alternative crop.
To help SDFs use USDA Programs, and the CES, proposals were written to obtain funds to
employ extension associates to help SDFs use USDA Programs and the CES as well as to assist
SDFs using the holistic approach (their entire operation, marketing, production, economic)
with their operation. Also partnerships were established with several USDA and state
agencies to help in delivering their services to SDFs.




At PCC-CRE, farmers, school children, government officials were briefed on programs dealing
with conservation of plant genetic resources, integrated pest management, water quality
education and dry litter waste management during their visits to the R&D Station and also
during civic activities. Thus, they learned new developments and technologies in agricultural
science.

The CMI-CRE agriculture staff conducted workshops, made presentations at meetings, and
visited homes and established demonstration plots to showcase cultivation of certain food
crops.

In the FSM, vegetable variety trials were conducted to identify preferred and adapted
varieties. Collection of local and imported germplasm of banana, sweet potato and taro is
continuing and different types of media formulation and preparation for tissue culture has
been developed for multiplication of these varieties of crops. A survey was conducted to
identify and document plant parasitic nematodes affecting crops in Micronesia.
At PCC-CRE, planting materials of root crops and biocontrol agents were given to farmers.
School children were taught how to test, clean, and decontaminate their rainwater
catchment's systems at home and in school. The dry litter waste management project also
served as a showcase to farmers, school children and government officials on a very efficient
way of preventing environmental pollution, conserving water resources and having a good
source of compost material for crop production.

At CMI-CRE, planting materials and demonstrations on composting have been provided to
interested farmers who have already identified space for their garden. Visits to homeowners
and communities were made to explain to them about their test results and to provide
demonstrations on how to clean their water catchments.

In the FSM, a market survey sponsored by Island Food Community of Pohnpei (IFCP)
indicated an increase of sales of Vitamin A rich banana varieties. Extension staffs have been
collaborating and working closely with the IFCP and other NGOs.




The FINBIN online database is one of the country's foremost data sources for researching
farm profitability and competitiveness. It has been enhanced this year and has expanded to
include data from eight states. The database allows producers and agricultural professionals
to search and query actual farm data from more than 33,000 farms representing more than
3.6 million acres of crop land, over 85,000 dairy cows, 55,000 beef cows, and over 2.4 million
pigs. Participating producers receive individualized instruction in farm financial management,
business analysis, agricultural accounting, and business management. Individual analyses are
complied into the uniform FINBIN database, allowing producers to benchmark their
production and financial performance against peer group performance. The FINBIN online
database has been enhanced to allow dynamic queries for sophisticated benchmarking and
simultaneous comparisons of different production systems. Researchers, educators, and
producers throughout the country have access to the database and the summarized
production and financial data in the database.

To meet the educational needs of small acreage landowners, a collaborative, multi-pronged
approach to land management education was initiated by UW CES. Both Sustainable
Management of Rangeland Resources and Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture initiative
teams partnered with seven state agencies or organizations to form the Small Acreage Issue
Team. The Small Acreage Issue Team publishes a quarterly magazine Barnyards & Backyards
which contains articles written by natural resource experts on topics of interest to rural
homeowners. UW CES educators and partners conduct educational workshops targeted at
small acreage landowners. Each summer through grant funds, the Small Acreage Issue Team
hires college interns who do landowner visits.
To meet the educational needs of small acreage landowners, a collaborative, multi-pronged
approach to land management education was initiated by UW CES. Both Sustainable
Management of Rangeland Resources and Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture initiative
teams partnered with seven state agencies or organizations to form the Small Acreage Issue
Team. The Small Acreage Issue Team publishes a quarterly magazine Barnyards & Backyards
which contains articles written by natural resource experts on topics of interest to rural
homeowners. UW CES educators and partners conduct educational workshops targeted at
small acreage landowners. Each summer through grant funds, the Small Acreage Issue Team
hires college interns who do landowner visits.

To meet the educational needs of small acreage landowners, a collaborative, multi-pronged
approach to land management education was initiated by UW CES. Both Sustainable
Management of Rangeland Resources and Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture initiative
teams partnered with seven state agencies or organizations to form the Small Acreage Issue
Team. The Small Acreage Issue Team publishes a quarterly magazine Barnyards & Backyards
which contains articles written by natural resource experts on topics of interest to rural
homeowners. UW CES educators and partners conduct educational workshops targeted at
small acreage landowners. Each summer through grant funds, the Small Acreage Issue Team
hires college interns who do landowner visits.

To meet the educational needs of small acreage landowners, a collaborative, multi-pronged
approach to land management education was initiated by UW CES. Both Sustainable
Management of Rangeland Resources and Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture initiative
teams partnered with seven state agencies or organizations to form the Small Acreage Issue
Team. The Small Acreage Issue Team publishes a quarterly magazine Barnyards & Backyards
which contains articles written by natural resource experts on topics of interest to rural
homeowners. UW CES educators and partners conduct educational workshops targeted at
small acreage landowners. Each summer through grant funds, the Small Acreage Issue Team
hires college interns who do landowner visits.




UMass Extension provides farmers and other food producers with ready access to current
research information on marketing, post-harvest efficiencies, packaging and business
management strategies. In addition, research programs in the physiological management of
crops and animals give food producers the tools that are necessary to increase production
efficiency while enhancing crop and animal quality.
UMass Extension provides access to current research information on new and alternative
species and varieties, advanced horticultural management techniques, pest-ecology, and pest-
management procedures. Important studies of pest ecology and control techniques provide
approaches to pest management that optimize pest control, reduce chemical use, and
increase crop and animal quality.

UMass Extension provides farmers and other food producers with ready access to current
research information on marketing, post-harvest efficiencies, packaging and business
management strategies. In addition, research programs in the physiological management of
crops and animals give food producers the tools that are necessary to increase production
efficiency while enhancing crop and animal quality.




Farmers and other food producers are provided with ready access to current research
information on marketing, post-harvest efficiencies, packaging and business management
strategies. In addition, research programs in the physiological management of crops and
animals can give food producers the tools that are necessary to increase production
efficiency while enhancing crop and animal quality




Research efforts to identify current and emerging key public policies that address trade,
environmental, agricultural and food issues of particular concern to policy makers,
taxpayers,consumers,business persons and producers; analyze alternative public policies as
to their design, use of economic incentives, cost effectiveness, transaction and administrative
costs, incidence and consequences; and analyze alternative private responses and market
based responses (e.g. trading of pollution credits) to existing and foreseeable public policies.

Research efforts to identify current and emerging key public policies addressing trade,
environmental, agricultural, and food issues; analyze alternative public policies as to their
design, use of economic incentives, cost effectiveness, transaction and administrative
costs,incidence and consequences; and to analyze alternative private responses and market
based responses (e.g. trading of pollution credits) to existing and foreseeable public policies.
Research to identify the more important and critical tactical and operational decisions facing
Michigan agricultural producers and conduct economic analysis; evaluate and develop new
analysis techniques that are appropriate for tactical and operational decisions; and
investigate the role and usefulness of information systems to support and improve the
decision making process by Michigan agricultural firms.




Research to analyze factors that influence the global agribusiness environment; and examine
research from India related to buyer-supplier relationships to inform the development of a
theoretical model of behavioral relationships between retailers and suppliers based on a
firm's degree of market orientation.

To identify and clarify the policy and technology issues of Michigan organic growers in order
to help them articulate research, policy and program needs with respect to production,
processing and marketing issues. To complete a Michigan organic marketing map that
identifies where and how Michigan organic growers market their crops and livestock and that
serves as a starting point for examining how agriculture contributes to rural development in
the state. To develop a transatlantic collaborative research program with colleagues in either
France or Italy in order to: improve our understanding of the societal implications of organic
agriculture; and, contribute to the global network of policy-oriented research on organic
agriculture.
Since its inception in November of 2005 the Rural and Agricultural Business Enterprise Center
of Central New York has provided technical assistance and business skills training to 259
individual businesses. Initial work began with the development of new curriculum to support
the business skills training workshop. This curriculum provided 16 hours of instruction in
marketing, business operations, human resource management and finance. Basic skills in
these areas are covered with additional technical information provided as additional reading
and through guest speakers. Four business skills workshops have been provided with
additional workshops with specific focus on accounting using both QuickBooks and the
Cornell Farm Account Book and Labor Management. One-on-one technical assistance has
been provided to individual businesses in Onondaga, Oswego, Cayuga, Cortland and
Tompkins County.


The investigator has left the university and a new principal investigator is being sought.


190 horticulture crops programs were conducted by agents.




Participant surveys from 132 of the 383 workshops, field days, tours, clinics, and e-delivered
offerings included a variety of quantitative economic and behavioral change questions. Over
17,400 farmers, ranchers, feedlot, and related agribusiness professionals participated in the
132 educational offerings and they represented over 16 million acres of Nebraska crops and
3.5 million head of cattle.

The University of Nebraska offers 27 undergraduate programs of study and two pre-
professional programs in agriculture and natural resources, and 15 Master of Science and 12
Ph.D. programs. Our programs include agribusiness, animal science, agronomy, biochemistry,
biological systems engineering, fisheries and wildlife, food science and technology, pre-
veterinary medicine, professional golf management, etc.




Participant surveys from 132 of the 383 workshops, field days, tours, clinics, and e-delivered
offerings included a variety of quantitative economic and behavioral change questions. Over
17,400 farmers, ranchers, feedlot, and related agribusiness professionals participated in the
132 educational offerings and they represented over 16 million acres of Nebraska crops and
3.5 million head of cattle.
The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) conducts computer simulation
models of the U.S. agricultural economy. Analysts use forecasts on oil, interest rates and
other macroeconomics from the private forecasting firm Global Insight for exogenous
variables in the computer models. A 10 year baseline scenario is developed using a complex
interactive modeling process of all of the major U.S. commodity groups. The baseline
scenario can then be modified using alternative policy considerations and the potential
impacts of the policies can be examined. Current tax policies that support biofuel production
were incorporated into the simulation models. Outcomes on commodity prices varied
significantly depending on whether the current policies supporting biofuels were continued
beyond 2008 and 2010.
Researchers study the impact of "second-generation" biotechnology innovation on the
organization of the agricultural value chain and its effects on small producers. This work is
directed towards identifying existing network and organizational characteristics that impede
or facilitate Missouri and Illinois agricultural producers' adoption of second-generation
biotechnology.
Demonstrations on an integrated approach utilizing plant and animal by-products are
maintained at demonstration site for farmers to observe. Several grants are being conducted
at the site to educate farmers. Local extension publications were distributed to visitors.




Farmers are provided assistance to apply for grants from SARE and NRCS. A limited number of
$500 mini-grants awarded to interested farmers.


A 300 egg incubator has been set up at the facility to hatch eggs from three breeds of dual
variety of poultry. Chicks were sold to local farmers and poultry hobbyists.There are plans to
get a bigger incubator and increase production of chicks.


ISUE has worked with commodity pork producers for many years using the Iowa Swine
Business Enterprise Record system to approximate their cost of production and returns in an
annualized basis. Unfortunately, the expertise in the Economics department that worked
with this system has retired, and as a result, the program has not evolved recently to meet
the needs of a changing commodity pork production system. The ISUE swine field specialists
continue to use this system, on a limited basis, with a limited number of commodity pork
producers. In 2005, the Iowa Pork Industry Center was awarded an NRI grant to work with
niche market producers and assist them in implementing a system to accurately know their
cost of production.




The IPIC has identified QMS as a priority program for the next period of time. Working with
funding from the Smithfield-State of Iowa settlement, a part-time coordinator has been hired
to manage this program. Areas of potential QMS activities include: environmental
management systems, premise ID, national animal identification system, PQA+ certification
of producers, ISO9000/14000 certification and other process verification based programs.
IPIC and ISUE staff coordinate the Iowa State Fair 4-H Derby swine show and work with the
premier swine exhibitor scholarship program; we coordinate with the ISU Animal Science
Department staff in their recruitment effort during the annual 4-H Roundup program; we
coordinate and present three pork-related workshops during the annual Iowa State 4-H
Youth Conference; we encourage enrollment in the ISU Swine Fellows program; we work
with IPPA in its Youth Ambassador Program and arrange youth activities at the Iowa Pork
Congress; and we offer ultrasound scanning services to Iowa county fair shows.




A cash flow model has been developed for use by crop farmers, and others that might be
considering expansion of their business to include finishing of swine. Targeted publications
outlining the possibilities of diversifying farms to increase income and manage risk have been
developed. Also, ISUE Swine Field Specialists have coordinated meetings with county boards
of supervisors and county boards of health to expose them to this important topic of 'Animal
Agriculture'and the benefits of integrated crop and livestock production.


The ISUE Swine Field Specialists held one of their semi-annual in-service training events in
Denmark. Since most of Europe is being forced to use group sow housing, and Denmark has
been a leader in developing these housing systems, the field specialists (and accompanying
faculty) had the chance to learn these systems and evaluate how they might be used in Iowa.
Each field specialist developed a PowerPoint presentation targeted towards group sow
housing that was used for multiple audiences. In addition, this was a topic presented to
producers at our regional Advance Reproductive Management Conferences held in 2007.




ISUE field specialists with livestock and agricultural engineering specialties plan and present
manure management certification meetings annually, and offer specialized manure
management plan educational meetings and sessions on as-needed and as-requested bases
in their respective geographical areas.
Iowa State University has over 50 PhD or DVM scientists working to assist the pork industry
of Iowa. In addition, we have access to technology developed at other locations which may
be of service to the pork producers of Iowa. We also have the largest and most effective
information delivery system in the nation. A coordinated effort between ISU administration,
faculty and staff targeting the pork industry of Iowa is ongoing and extremely successful.




Iowa State University has greatly re-invested in programs involving Food Supply Veterinarians
and the Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine unit. These programs are
designed to integrate a variety of disciplines to effectively address the needs of producers
and consumers, provide veterinary students with needed skills, knowledge and problems
solving ability to serve the needs of the pork industry of Iowa. These areas of discovery,
education and technology transfer are essentially needed by our clients of Iowa.
* Assisted with establishment of new family-owned dairies relocating from Holland via the
new Farm Family Program
* Assisted with remodel and start-up of dairy enterprises for beginning farmers seeking low-
cost start-up strategy
* Provided educational programs or tours to community citizens, leaders, and economic
developers seeking information about potential impacts of new dairy start-ups in their
regions
* Assisted with start-up of new dairy producer organization dedicated to issues of dairy
growth, economic impact on rural communities, support to existing farmers, and
encouragement of beginning farmers
* Conducted educational farm tours for dairy producers to dairy farm sites that have been
remodeled/upgraded through installation of low-cost parlors
Conducted Biological Risk Management assessments in NE and NW Iowa as part of
collaboration of researchers in Iowa and California seeking to understand association
between specific herd health practices and actual herd health performance.

On- farm herdsman and milker training for Hispanic employees on topics of herd
management.

Research project in conjunction with NADC to study transition dry cow nutrition.

Collaboration with industry partners to develop non-antibiotic technologies to prevent and
control mastitis.

Educational meetings and publications to dairy farmers and agri-business on mastitis
prevention and control; monitored impact via industry-wide survey (Hoard's Dairyman).

On-farm troubleshooting on mastitis issues, sometimes involving full-farm investigation and
milk culture analysis.

Developed and used an applied research model to evaluate teat health and effectiveness of
teat dips.


Hosted an Employee Management Seminar for dairy producers and managers from other
industries

Partnered with Midwest Dairy Association to provide training workshop for dairy owners and
agri-business staff to improve communication and positive public relations about the dairy
industry
A total of 2,955 producers, nutritionists, veterinarians and industry advisors attended more
than 60 sessions that addressed feeding, storage, and economics of co-products during a 12-
month period. The meetings were often sponsored by ethanol plants, with IBC specialists
providing the technical expertise. Thus, the meetings were typically not included in the
Extension calendar counts.

Several field days, tours and meetings have been held for producers to better understand the
issue and see practical solutions to common problems. Research is being conducted on
alternative treatment systems, and the results are being shared when available. IBC is a
partner with DNR, NRCS, ICA, IDALS to develop an extensive education program for non-
permitted feedlots. A survey will be conducted to determine the current adoption of
practices and level of environmental knowledge.

IBC has been conducting educational programs and demonstration projects since 2000. IBC
developed and distributed information on Country of Origin Labeling, age and source
verification, and the national animal identification system. Templates and fact sheets were
developed to explain the process, and educational materials were prepared to help
producers prepare for the changes.




There are several practices that can improve efficiency of a beef cow herd, i.e., improved
reproduction, superior genetics, grazing management, and reducing winter feed costs.
Software has been developed and sold, and training has been provided on ration formulation
and estrus synchronization. Genetic evaluation for feed efficiency and overall profitability
has been conducted as well.


A group of 30-40 young cattlemen in Tama, Poweshiek, Benton and Iowa counties were
invited to participate in this project. Young is defined as cattlemen in their 20s or early 30s.
The group members were directly involved in determining their program‚'s needs by using a
typical needs assessment process. Each meeting has consisted of a presentation followed by
a group discussion.
Field and greenhouse experiments, field day, one extension publication and three research
publications.

Study was initiated to identify vegetable rotations for high yields and profit. The treatments
were: Continuous sweet potato - fall greens sequence (SWP followed by SWP); Continuous
squash - fall greens sequence (SQ followed by SQ); Continuous southern peas - fall greens
sequence (SP followed by SP); Continuous sweet corn-southern peas-fall greens (SWC
followed by SWC); SWP rotated with SP; SQ rotated with SP. Boston and Carolina hybrid
cucumber were planted to have 4 leaves. Orange oil was applied using two ratios namely
1:1000 and 1:500. A control plot included in which no orange oil sprayed.




On farm trials have been established for staple food crop production, including new varieties
of taro and banana that were imported and mass propagated by way of tissue culture. The
distribution of planting materials continued to be made to farmers in the communities. Other
demonstrations were established for the dry litter waste management and pig feed projects.
And backyard gardens for the imported sweet potato varieties continued in many of the low-
lying coral atolls for food security purposes with the assistance of agriculture staff.


Tuskegee University Cooperative Extension specialist and agents conducted entrepreneurial
training, workshops, and symposiums based on the Kaufman Foundation Mini-Society and
the National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship. These instructional systems allowed
participants to acquire skills in entrepreneurship, citizenship, and leadership. The Mini-
Society curriculum was implemented at Yoro West Junior High School Campus of Discovery.
Sixteen students learned techniques for setting and achieving personal and business goals.
The National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurial was used with 37 students pursuing
their GED at the Occupational Industrial Center (OIC) in Montgomery. During the annual
Farmers Conference and the Economic Summit over 335 students were exposed to
entrepreneurial awareness materials and entrepreneurial careers in agriculture.
Technical assistance and workshops were provided on beef cattle, goats, and poultry
management. For beef cattle, herd management including health was emphasized. For
goats and poultry, the focus was on management, but with a heavy emphasis on health. In
addition, marketing assistance and information were provided to producers.




Research-based extension programs have been implemented to help Pennsylvania farmers
learn about new integrated pest management methods, crop and soil management practices,
sustainable agriculture systems, and crop marketing and risk management strategies.
Educational programming is also being provided to help livestock producers improve
production efficiency, build better livestock facilities, and manage livestock waste.




Research and extension programming help livestock producers improve production
efficiency, build better livestock facilities, and manage livestock waste. In addition, programs
have been implemented to help PA farmers to learn about new integrated pest management
methods, crop and soil management practices, sustainable agriculture systems, and crop
marketing and risk management strategies.
-Used tailored business development curriculums in Macon, Dallas, Perry, Greene, and
Sumter Counties
-Worked with smaller groups and one-on-one for business plan development, loan
application to the SBA Community Express Loan Program and TuskMac Revolving Loan
Program
-Have assisted struggling businesses and organizations in their organizational restructuring,
other resource development, and market identification and access




This project develops and tests strategies within a spreadsheet application to provide dairy
farmers with an integrated approach to risk management. Production theory implies that
average profits would be greater with more variation in prices if farmers correctly adjust use
of inputs and outputs to changes in prices. An empirical non-parametric analysis of farmers'
profits under price variation over 12 years using an unbalanced panel of dairy farmers was
completed
In the most recent data available (2006,
http://state.tn.us/agriculture/annualreport/ar04.pdf), acreage of herbicide resistant cotton
varieties had more than doubled (from 8% to 17%) in two years.

17% of cotton was herbicide-resistant in 2007, or about 49K acres
(http://state.tn.us/agriculture/annualreport/ar04.pdf).


For two examples of research progress, a soybean variety from our program yields 8 bushels
more than the average of commercial varieties, and our tests identified the top-10 yielding
cotton varieties.




Our economists, agronomists, entomologists, engineers, and others plant thousands of yield
plots on major crops every year, on our research centers and elsewhere. Data from these
trials are then pushed out to the public in a variety of formats and media.

We found fields with Palmer Pigweed in Tennessee with above-average tolerance to the
herbicide.
The glyphosate-resistant soybean developed by our breeding program at TAES ranked #1 for
yield in the 2007 County Standardized test in Tenn. and Ky., and our new edible green
endamame soybean was ranked as having superior flavor.
We identified several new cotton varieties broadly adapted to West Tennessee. Seed
companies showcased new commercial cultivars in head-to-head comparisons under farm
management and growing conditions.

We assessed the competitive value of field mustard, an insect-resistant relative of canola.
Introgressed wheat hybrids containing a Bt gene did not outcompete wild-type canola
(trangenic or not) or non-transgenic introgressed hybrids. Risk assessment data useful to
regulators of biotechnology were gathered from field and greenhouse experiments.

We determined that monarda herbage reduces weeds and also significantly increases survival
from the damping-off of tomatoes in greenhouses by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani.

We applied Meloidogyne incognita (a plant parasitic nematode) to three good plant hosts
where it reproduced well, and to two species with nematicidal characteristics (bee balm and
epazote) that significantly inhibited its reproduction.

Research and extension studies were conducted to establish hot pepper as a potential value-
added crop for small farmers in Florida. Specific cultural practices were deviced to improve
the production; markets were identified for the product and value-added products such as
hot sauce, pepper mash and condiment blends were developed.

We assessed the biodiesel industry; in the last two years, Tennessee had less than ten
facilities producing biodiesel, and 39 biodiesel stations. Capital costs are similar for various
feedstock, but feedstock costs vary, and are the largest part of production costs. Per gallon
biodiesel costs are about $2.98 (soybean oil), $1.67 (yellow grease), and $3.35 (canola oil) vs.
about $1.56 (petroleum). We projected the impacts of a mature cellulosic industry. By 2025,
Tennessee's economy might increase by $13 billion with the development of a reliable
cellulosic feedstock and conversion to energy industry, providing 2.3 billion gallons of ethanol
and nearly 40 billion kWh of electricity.


We evaluated veterinary services in Tennessee. A study of livestock producers found that the
majority did not have problems obtaining veterinary services. Commonly cited problems
were a delay in obtaining services, only treating animals transported to the facility, and costs
too expensive relative to the animal's value.


Several regional studies were initiated to assess the importance of the Green Industry,
including analyzing the horticulture industry and updating cost of production budgets for
nursery growers.
Our research focused on switchgrass optimal seeding, nitrogen rates, harvest and storage as
well as an online nitrogen rate calculator for corn and a review of studies analyzing cotton
fertility.
A "Fruit Tree Windbreak Workshop", Guam Department of Agriculture's Dededo breeding
station open house, and a chicken tractor workshop was held.


A memorandum of understanding was effectuated with Sanctuary Inc. to develop 60 hours of
curriculum on organic farming for youth. A working relationship between the Guam
Department of Agriculture and the Cooperative Extension Service Agriculture and Natural
Resources is in place, eight members of Department of Agriculture and Agriculture
Development Station have signed the MOU committing a percentage of their full-time
equivalency (FTE) to this program.




Workshops and field days were held on three demonstration sites which included bus tours
to other farms. Extension publications were developed and interagency sharing of technical
expertise between the Guam Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service and
NRCS has been extremely effective.
Over a period of 2 years, data on the occurrence and density of weed species was collected in
47 fields of cruciferous crops on 8 farms in western, NY. The data was compared to field
management practices and field history. On-farm herbicide trials were conducted in 2007 for
growers to learn about strengths and weakness of products and to determine successful tank
mixes for broad-spectrum weed control. In collaboration with other Cornell researchers, the
role of cruciferous weeds in harboring the invasive insect swede midge and black rot disease
was studied.
A new UNHCE Soil Testing Program (SAIS) has been completely updated and provides analysis
of samples and fertilizer application recommendations in order to implement nutrient
management decisions that balance production and environmental aspects of cropping
systems - specific to NH soils. An ongoing effort has been necessary to continue to develop
research-based information to support this program.

Agricultural Resource educators and specialists worked with farms - commercial vegetable,
ornamental, and fruit growers, dairy and livestock producers, homeowners, and municipal
officials to provide soil testing services and recommendations.
Farm visits, pasture walks, twilight meetings, workshops, newsletters, etc.
UNHCE Agriculture Extension Educators and Specialists conduct workshops, farm visits,
pasture walks, and twilight meetings; write newsletters, publications, and news articles; and
work with the NH Farm Bureau, NRCS, and other organizations/agencies to deliver a wide-
variety of educational programs.




Curriculum was developed and a 13-week Natural Resources Business Institute was offered.
The goal of this institute was to help build viable natural resource businesses in New
Hampshire, and topics presented included, human and financial resources, equipment and
facility needs, family considerations, record-keeping, legal issues, and enterprise profitability.
The institute was taught be an interdisciplinary team of UNHCE educators from across the
state working closely with government agencies, private businesses, and nonprofit
organizations. Seventeen people completed the Institute.
Extension Agents initiated and facilitated regional agritourism leadership discussions
regarding ammendments to the Cultural and Recreational Signage Program to meet
agritourism enterprise needs. Project partnerships/coalitions were then developed with
Department of Transportation officials, statewide regional agritourism networks, Kentucky
Economic Development Cabinet, Kentucky Agritourism Agency and State Representative-
21st District, Jim DeCesare
- legislative liaison to Kentucky's "Unbridled Spirit" Marketing Task Force. With Extension
agents as advisors the team developed, facilitated and coordinated public policy education
presentations for Cabinet secretaries, tourism officials, transportation program leaders and
legislators.
The Expo has been held annually since 2001 in all three states (twice in New Jersey and New
York and three times in Pennsylvania) and has attracted over 22,000 participants from eleven
states and four countries. The Expo was developed and designed to present educational and
extension research based information combined with hands-on programming and real world
opportunities for a diverse small farm audience across the state and region. Support
agencies and service providers participate as exhibitors and quite often provide added
lectures and demonstrations for the small farm producers. Over the last seven years, the
Expo has presented over 700 educational programs/lectures given by Extension
professionals, industry leaders and small farm producers. Over 900 volunteers have assisted
over the seven years with over 375 businesses and agencies providing support and
networking opportunities for the small farm producers. Extension personnel and support
agency personnel serve on the annual planning committee from each respective state where
the Expo is to be held, along with Extension personnel from the other two state universities.
New Jersey has over 9,000 farms based on the farm tax assessment records of which over 90
% would be considered "small" and over fifty percent or more of them would fall in our
target audience. Generally, the attendance at the Expo has been made up of new producers
who have just acquired small acreage and want to start a small farm enterprise, potential
producers who are just beginning to explore the "small farm dream" and existing small farm
producers and even large farm producers that are looking for new enterprises to
complement or improve on their farming endeavor. Those attending represent traditional,
organic and niche producers. To date over 26,000 participants have attended the seven
Expo's. In 2006, over 15,000 people visited our web page two weeks prior to the event held
in New Jersey. In addition an expanded "youth" program emphasis has been developed to
involve youth at the event, both as participants and as spectators.




Original research was conducted at the open-roof greenhouse located on Hort Farm 3 (Cook
Campus, New Brunswick, NJ) investigating the energy flows associated with the operation of
a greenhouse floor heating system. Extensive measurements were collected and used for a
computer simulation model that evaluates temperatures and heat distribution throughout
the crop environment. The research resulted in the publication of a peer reviewed
publication and a trade journal article, and these recommendations for the design and
operation of greenhouse floor heating systems can directly be applied by greenhouse
growers. Invited presentations on greenhouse energy conservation strategies were
conducted at out-of-state extension meetings/workshops (OFA and PPA in Columbus, OH and
in Hiroshima, Japan). For both OH meetings, energy audit checklists were developed that
growers can use to evaluate their operations and/or to make smart energy decisions about
retrofits and/or new construction. Research was conducted and is continuing on three
alternative energy projects funded by the New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection (landfill gas fired microturbines used for heat and power production at the NJ
EcoComplex greenhouse in Bordentown, NJ), New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (state-wide
bioenergy and related technology assessment), and the Rutgers Equine Science Center
(digestion of horse manure).
NJAES faculty and staff supported the following programs:
Pest Management Research and Outreach: Three specialists conduct applied peach
research in weed science, tree fruit pathology, and fruit entomology all effectively combating
pest problems. Information on their accomplishments and recommendations was delivered
at our Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention and Trade Show to 980 fruit growers. In
depth information by these specialists was also presented at our South Jersey Fruit meeting
to 73 growers. Also held were three twilight and evening fruit meetings and delivered
information to 148 growers. Our early summer tour and fruit research meeting was held for
111 growers.
The IPM fruit program associate and IPM fruit agent were involved in diagnosing pest
problems and reading and making fertilizer recommendations to 50 % of my growers who
produce 80% of the peaches.
Pomology and Soil Science Research and Outreach: The extension pomologist conducted
applied research on the testing and evaluation of fruit cultivars; the post harvest physiology
and evaluation of peaches; the effect of cable girdling on early maturing peach varieties, and
the effect of Retain(r) on peach drop and maturity. We also develop and deliver information
on other horticultural practices. We have also delivered educational information a these
meetings and through our New Jersey Peach Festival with over 30,000 people(including
growers and all our legislators in our district) attending, and our fruit variety showcase with
65 growers, breeders and nurserymen in attendance. Our Fruit Breeder at the New Jersey
Agricultural Experiment Station and our soils specialist at NJAES Cooperative Extension also
participated in one evening fruit meeting and the Fruit Variety Showcase. We are in the
process of introducing 7 new peach varieties with our breeder.
88 field visits to orchards and packing houses were made not only to diagnose grower
problems and make recommendations, but also conduct field research.
Writing and Publication: Educational information is delivered to 80 of the states peach
Analysis of 2006 consumer survey data continued through 2007. New specialty crop
production data from years 2006 and 2007 were assessed to better determine agricultural
activities. The Wats Room Incorporated (WATS), was contracted to conduct 1,355 telephone
interviews using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) technology. Qualified (bi-
lingual) interviewers received on-site Human Subjects Certification Program (HSCP) training,
per Federal-wide Assurance guidelines, in addition to survey-specific training and practice,
prior to conducting actual interviews. Over 13,000 potential interviewee leads were utilized
by WATS in order to meet the sample size requirements.

Despite the competitive disadvantages relative to year-round producers in lower production
cost areas, significant comparative advantages exist for local East Coast growers as a result of
densely populated areas rich in ethnic diversity and subject to rapidly changing food trends.
It has become increasingly necessary for these producers to adopt new crops and create new
value-added opportunities in order to remain economically viable. Growing ethnic crops,
classic vegetables and local organic produce present opportunities for producers to exploit
existing comparative advantages associated with serving densely populated local markets in
order to sustain farming operations and increase profitability. The coordination of
production and marketing are critical to avoid the threats of rapid over-production (which
can quickly lead to an oversupply of a particular product and depressed prices) and overcome
inadequate marketing infrastructure in order to move product into community markets.
Establishing and extending existing cooperative marketing memberships or affiliations along
the East Coast, from North to South, can create an improved market system that provides
appropriate year-round supplies to the area.
The general objectives of our USDA-NRI study were to:
1)identify and estimate the market size for ethnic segments that present significant
opportunities to local growers;
2)assess demand, conduct production studies, and make recommendations for appropriate
To prevent further loss of farmland to development. The County Agricultural & Resource
Management Agent has educated farm families, county government and the general public
about the Farmland Preservation Program (FP) and emphasize the value of farmland for open
space, anti-erosion, wildlife habitat, and air quality enhancement.

He has maintained a high level of activity at the Bergen County Agricultural Development
Board. Activities include:
- Yearly outreach to farmland owners informing them of the Farmland Preservation (FP)
Program and promoting its benefits
- Developing market pieces (brochures and posters) and distributing them yearly to entice
farm families to participate in FP; educate the public about the importance of supporting FP.
- Yearly reviewing of applications for FP and ranking the applicants according to state
guidelines.
- Yearly visits to existing preserved farms and to new applicants.
- Prioritizing applicants and making recommendations to County Agricultural Development
Board, then to State Agricultural Development Board for funding.
- Working with existing farms to help ensure economic viability and success. Providing Best
Management Practices and pest control recommendations to solve problems.




A series of grower meetings is in place. The primary audience for the program objectives are
the New Jersey blueberry growers and aspiring growers. Grower participation has increased
every year at all extension meetings. A blueberry session is held on an annual basis at the NJ
Vegetable Conference in Atlantic City. This first meeting of the year is to provide growers
with an overview of the current research being conducted by Rutgers and USDA personnel.
The second meeting of the season is called the Blueberry Open House and gives the growers
knowledge on all aspects of blueberry growing, including the control of insects, diseases,
nutrition, marketing, and pesticide regulations. A series of twilight meetings is held at various
locations to address timely issues of blueberry production.

A newsletter is sent to growers on a weekly basis with information from Rutgers and USDA
personnel plus IPM scouts. One on one visits are conducted to address any problems that
arise on individual farms.

A blueberry advisory committee has been put together and three meetings took place in
2007 to address research and extension needs and priorities.
Research projects are being conducted to address industry priorities.
Research has assisted in the development and commercialization of the herbicide
flumioxazon (Broadstar, SureGuard) for use in field and container grown ornamentals.
Comprehensive field and container studies were conducted over seven years and
recommendations delivered to the New Jersey ornamental production industry. This research
has demonstrated that flumioxazon provides equal and in many cases superior weed control
of broadleaf weeds then currently used products. We have also determined that flumioxazon
provides excellent control of marestail and Asiatic dayflower, two weeds that have become
increasingly problematic in field ornamental production. Research is currently being
conducted to determine optium application timing for control of these weeds. The
determination that flumioxazon has the potential to control marestail is especially critical
since we have now confimed the spread of glyphosate resistant marestail into New Jersey
nursery operations. In addition, the use rate of flumioxazon is 0.25 to 0.38 lbs ai/A, while
currently used herbicides are used at 1.0 to 2.0 lbs ai/A.
Research has been conducted over the past 6 years to evaluate the potential of many
herbicides, currently labeled for use in agronomic crops, for postemergence control of Poa
annua and Poa trivialis in cool season turfgrasses. This work has led to the identification of
four experimental herbicides; bispyribac-sodium, primisulfuron, sulfosulfuron, and
mesotrione as having potential for selective use in cool-season turfgrass for Poa annua and
Poa trivialis control. Past research studies have focused on seasonal and sequential
application timing effects, soil residual properties and cool-season turfgrass tolerance.
Currently we are conducting multi-year studies to determine the influence of golf course
management practices (mowing height, fertility, use of plant growth regulators) on creeping
bentgrass safety and Poa annua control. We have also determined that spray adjuvants,
especially non-ionic surfactant increase the efficacy of bispyribac-sodium by enhancing foliar
absorption. This may potentially allow application rates to be reduced by up to 50%.

Research has also determined that primisulfuron has the potential to control Poa annua and
Poa trivialis in Kentucky bluegrass. We have determined optimum application timing, number
of applications and rates. A 24c (special local needs) label was granted in Colorado,
Minnesota, and Illinois based upon my research. A 24c label will be requested for New Jersey
and Delaware in 2008.

In the fall of 2005 we initiated research to determine if mesotrione could control Poa annua
at turfgrass seeding. To date we have determined that mesotrione can be safely used at
seeding on Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, and tall fescue. Substantial but not
Over 2,500 A of pumpkin crops are grown annually in New Jersey with an estimated 7.5 M
($3,000 A) going towards production costs. Much of this cost is associated with fungicide
applications for controlling important diseases. In previous years, FRAC code 11 fungicides
were recommended to be applied every 14 days in rotation with a FRAC code 3 fungicides.
Thus, 50% of the fungicides applied to pumpkin crops belonged to FRAC code 11 or FRAC
code 3 fungicides. Reducing the use of fungicides no longer effective in controlling important
diseases, such as cucurbit powdery mildew, will help growers save hundreds of thousands of
dollars per year. From 2005 to 2007, a study was done to determine if fungicide resistance
would develop to two commonly used fungicides (FRAC codes 3 and 11) in cucurbit powdery
mildew production. Results of the study determined that fungicide resistance to the
strobilurin (FRAC group 11) and DMI fungicides (FRAC code 3) could develop on an annual
basis if either of these groups of fungicides were mis- or overused in cucurbit production.
Additionally, in 2007, fungicide resistance management guidelines were developed for
pumpkins, as well as, all other crop groups listed in the 2007 commercial vegetable
production recommendations guide for the five mid-Atlantic states (NJ, PA, VA. MD, DE) to
help vegetable growers manage fungicide resistance development on their farm. In 2007, a
total of 561 fungicide resistance management guides were distributed to vegetable growers
in the mid-Atlantic region representing over 42,000 A of vegetable production.




Encourage and mentor new faculty regarding publishing in mid-tier journals and above.

Faculty and Graduate Students have actively pursued this medium for disseminating research
findings, and incentives are in place for this activity to increase further in the future.


A number of faculty in SES have successfully pursued basic research contributions in the
course of their portfolio of professional activities.
The number of grant submissions, and the amount of dollars successfully awarded to SES
faculty have both increased. Incentives are in place to further increase submissions in the
future.
A number of faculty in SES have successfully pursued research contributions in econometrics
and in nonlinear dynamic modeling methodology in the course of their portfolio of
professional activities.
Most of the research projects pursued in SES has been driven by the perceived need for
economic intelligence on pressing issues of resource use, sustainability of business
enterprises, and government policy affecting the welfare of society in order to inform
decision makers about the profitability, efficiency and equity consequences of decisions.
All faculty in SES are expected to contribute to the disciplinary training of graduate students.
In addition, faculty assist graduate students in preparing for job interviews by critiquing
presentations, seminars, and research papers.

There has been a renewed emphasis on pursuing additional research funding support by all
faculty in SES. This has been affected by both fostering an understanding of its importance,
and through explicit incentives in annual reviews.

The frequency and amounts of graduate student funding requests have increased in recent
grant proposals submitted by faculty in the School.




Seeds of vegetable varieties that perform well are ordered and sold to the farming
community by extension.




Homemaker and students have successfully airlayered and budded a number of citrus
varieties and have planted them in their back yards to be available for their families.




Because of the lack of an animal person, no artificial insemination has been conducted.




Improved knowledge and skills, offered computer training and technical information,
sponsored workshops and on-site visits.




FAPRI (Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute)has analyzed the impact of biofuel
policy on commodity prices, exports, and agricultural land under production. In addition,
biofuel policies have a significant impact on the choice of crops planted, as seen by the
dramatic increase in corn acres brought on by increased demand for ethanol production.
Technical assistance and workshops were provided on vegetables, fruits, nuts, forestry,
conservation (EQIP), home garden, and home prest control management. In addition,
marketing assistance and information were provided to producers, one-on-one or through
workshops.


Participants at CTC could attend 4 hours of education on Cover Crops and 3.5 hours on
Manure Management. These topics were also presented at the August field day and
December no-till conference.




Conservation tillage and no-till systems are emphasized on the three programs.




Farmers adopting continuous no-till, rather than rotational tillage, see the greatest benefits.




. Four educational programs have been identified, developed and implemented to address
many of the concerns associated with animal manure nutrient recycling.
Educational and certification program were developed to address manure nutrient recycling
application and management.

{ Educational and certification program were developed to address the value of manure
nutrients, appropriate recycling and application practices and how best to manage this
nutrient resource to protect water quality.
One multi-day precision agriculture event was held. Sessions were included with the
Conservation Tillage Conference.
Newsletters, educational meetings, Conservation Tillage Conference, one-on-one sessions
held with growers and consultants.

Weed surveys were conducted in fall 2006 and 2007 by Extension Agents in western Ohio.
Educational sessions were conducted at winter meetings to increase scouting activities,
implement needed controls.




Extension staff members work one on one with small farmers to improve their recordkeeping
and business management skills. Also, workshop were developed to assist small farmers to
improved their management skills.
This research tested whether farm payments to producers contribute significantly to the
proportion of disposable income devoted to food expenditures. Explanatory variables tested
include total factor productivity in agriculture as a measure of changes in technology. The
total level of consumer income is included in the model because we expect it to affect the
proportion of income spent on food. The model also includes an annual calculation of a farm-
to-retail price spread from USDA.
Since 2001, the UW-Extension Dairy Team Cow Care Work Group, UW-Madison Dairy Science
Department and Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board helped 478 dairy producers establish local
milk quality teams, pulling together appropriate professionals to assess and address an
individual producer's milk quality problems. While WMMB funding ceased at the end of June,
dairy producers still have access to local milk quality teams in counties offering this resource
through their UW Extension office. County dairy and agriculture agents work with producers,
veterinarians, nutrition consultants, experts on housing and milking equipment, farm service
professionals and others to develop a comprehensive approach to improving milk quality.

More than 1,300 dairy producers, agribusiness, extension and university personnel registered
as program participants. UW-Extension agents have led about 80% of milk quality teams and
participated in 1,500 Milk Quality team meetings. Milk quality educators trained more than
130 veterinarians, dairy plant field staff, dairy cooperatives and other agri-business
professionals as team leaders who participated in 540 team meetings and 40 trainings for
producers. For example, Ken Bolton (35% Milk Money Program through June supported 11
local milk quality teams in 2007, trained 23 Spanish-speaking dairy workers on udder

County agriculture and community development educators collaborated with Discovery
Farms, Local Government Center and Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and
Consumer Protection colleagues to provide research-based educational materials and
programs that built capacity among community leaders, farmers and their non-farm
neighbors for making local decisions and new ordinances consistent with state law. About
2,000 elected and appointed officials from 47 counties -- town and county supervisors, zoning
administrators, planning commissioners, assessors, conservationists and other officials --
learned about the state's new Livestock Facilities Siting Law. Workshop series in Waupaca,
Fond du Lac, Manitowoc, Calumet and Kewaunee counties helped local officials weigh
considerations for adopting the new technical standards.
The UW-Extension Dairy Team Modernization Work Group offers options and planning
support to help producers make sound financial decisions and cut costs. Small-scale, risk-
averse and beginning farmers get help with business planning, adopting managed rotational
grazing, specializing in a more profitable niche market, and modernizing with a more labor
efficient system such as a low-cost retrofit milking parlor or freestall barn. As a result, new
and retrofit facilities are improving herd health, efficiency and profitability statewide, and
easing the backbreaking labor of milking cows.

Led by agriculture development agent Tom Cadwallader, the new Wisconsin School for
Beginning Dairy and Livestock Farmers is demonstrating the importance of local facilitation in
providing a place to meet and network in a positive learning environment. In 2007, the joint
UW-Extension, UW-Marathon County Spooner Agriculture Research Station and Madison
Area Technical College program reached 96 beginning farmers at 5 sites combining online
instruction with local facilitation and co-taught with area farmers.
Led by Outagamie County dairy and livestock agent Zen Miller, the Dairy Team Hispanic Labor
Work Group has developed bilingual Dairy Worker Trainings in Spanish and English to help
producers communicate key concepts for improving milking, reproductive care, calf
management and herdsmanship skills including helping cows with calving and fresh cow
exams. In 2007, Sheboygan County dairy and livestock agent Tina Kohlman partnered with
her neighboring technical college on seven trainings for more than 200 mostly Spanish-
speaking dairy workers. The bilingual Dairy Partner/El Compa±ero newsletter reinforces these
trainings, reaching 2,000 employees on 550 Northeast Wisconsin farms and published online
by Fond du Lac County dairy and livestock agent Paul Dyk:
http://www.uwex.edu/ces/cty/fonddulac/ag/dairy.html

The curriculum developers added bilingual modules on driver, machinery and animal handling
safety. Brown County Agriculture Educator Mark Hagedorn and Zen Miller developed a pilot
bilingual safety training on skid steer loaders. Supervised students participated in an outside
skills course to reinforce what they learned in class. Trainers reinforced good safety habits
and pointed out lapses in operator skills. Bilingual dairy worker training modules produced


n/a
MSUE offered a four day in-depth workshop on farm business succession and transfer.
Curriculum materials developed and presented by FIRM Team, MSU Extension professional
development staff, Iowa State University Extension expert in farm succession and a Michigan
attorney with farm estate planning expertise. Program components consisted of setting the
groundwork for the current and future projected viability of agricultural businesses,
developing short and long-term business goals, enhancing communication skills, identifying
personality types, retirement planning, successful farm transition planning, estate taxes and
financial planning for succession.

Variety trials are designed to provide clientele with performance information on common
and newly released wheat varieties from the public and private breeding programs in the
PNW. Trial locations are seleted to caputre the range of environmental conditions in the
wheat production areas of Oregon. Results are reported through email alerts, web
publications, as well as delivered to clientele through presentations at grower meetings, field
tours and field days.

MSUE coordinated with the National Association of County Agricultural Agents National
Conference Forage Tour in the Grand Rapids area to deliver educational sessions. The
primary objective was to utilize grazing expertise from producers who were willing to share
details and economics of their operation with other Extension professionals.




An on-going study designed to examine the production of specialty waxy barley varieties
under eastern Oregon dryland conditions provided production data needed by growers for
making informed management decisions. Results were presented to clientele through
presentations at crop tours and grower conferences.
Trial sites for the Cereal Leaf Beetle (CLB) Bio-Control program were established to capture a
range of environmental conditions for testing. Results were related to clientele through
grower meetings, field days and tours, and newsletters.


On-going field research evluated agronomic practices for and the profitabiity of reduced
tillage fallow, stubble fallow, minimum tillage fallow and and late seeded chemical fallow
systems. Field tours and demonstrations were the primary information delivery methods as
well as power point and poster-format presntations at conferences, seminars, meetings and
workshops for clientele.




We used campus sales to determine the sizes of channel catfish, grass carp and bigmouth
buffalo preferred by local consumers. The information was transferred to producers at the
Langston University Aquaculture Field Day and at meetings of the Oklahoma and Kansas
Aquaculture Associations.


We used campus sales to determine the sizes of channel catfish, grass carp and bigmouth
buffalo preferred by local consumers. The information was transferred to producers at the
Langston University Aquaculture Field Day and at meetings of the Oklahoma and Kansas
Aquaculture Associations.
We used campus sales to determine the sizes of channel catfish, grass carp and bigmouth
buffalo preferred by local consumers. The information was transferred to producers at the
Langston University Aquaculture Field Day and at meetings of the Oklahoma and Kansas
Aquaculture Associations.




In response to the critical need to improve the competencies of cooperative board members
the Oklahoma Credential Cooperative Director (OCCD) program was created. The OCCD
program involves two days of training on finance, legal responsibilities, parliamentary
procedure, effective meeting management, strategic planning and other related topics. In
designing the OCCD curriculum, board of director training material from across the U.S. was
examined. OCCD instructors include OCES faculty as well as industry experts including
bankers, auditors, attorneys and consultants. The OCCD program is delivered simultaneously
at a central location and via two-way interactive video at eight remote locations across
Oklahoma.
The OSU Master Cattleman Program, a comprehensive educational program, was launched in
2004 with the objective of enhancing the profitability of beef operations and the quality of
life of beef producers by equipping them with vital information on many aspects of beef
production, business planning, risk management and marketing. The educational curriculum
is based on the Oklahoma Beef Cattle Manual. Powerpoint Training curricula and lesson
plans are available to educators via the Master Cattleman website. Producers must complete
4 hours in each of 6 subject matter areas plus an additional four hours of instruction or
special projects. Local Extension educators plan and organize the Master Cattleman
educational series and select the specific curriculum offered.




The Oklahoma Meat Goat Boot Camp was created to provide a multi-day workshop where
producers could learn management and production practices that would help them
own/operate a successful meat goat operation. Knowledge areas covered included ear
tagging, castrating, tattooing, hoof trimming, aging, fence building, forage planning and
evaluation, business planning and management, nutrition and ration balancing, parasite
control, FAMACHA, fecal egg counts, neo-natal and birthing, general herd health
management and reproduction management.
Based on producer program evaluations and surveys conducted between 2005 and 2006,
University of Nevada faculty developed five separate programs providing needed educational
opportunities to producers in the areas of production, marketing/price, and financial risk
management. By partnering with producer associates to promote these educational
programs, more than 825 participants were gathered during seven separate events across
Nevada.


Peer reviewed manuscripts based on research and demonstration work were published in
journals.
Research and demonstration of IPM programs has resulted in increase in knowledge of new
or novel IPM methods for crop production systems and this has been demonstrated to
producers.
Research based program called Glance and Go was developed and validated in the field with
growers and consultants to determine whether it save time to reach a valid decision as to
whether or not to treat a wheat field for insect pests. A sample of wheat producers was
surveyed to determine whether or not they were using the system and the majority were not
aware the system existed.
Evaluations of the sand-based green and fairway cultivar studies for percent live cover, color,
texture, and overall quality used the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) rating
system. Second year fertility treatments were to three top performing cultivars on the new
sand-based green. Evaluations were made for turf color, density, and quality, nutrient
leaching using tensiometer lysimeters, and for effects on ball roll using a stimp meter.
Selected cultivars were established on a commercial golf course.




Two agricultural crop opportunities that have resulted from recent research are high quality
reindeer meat and peony crops for the floral market.
Data collected by the Observer Program was obtained from the National Marine Fisheries
Service (NMFS), Alaska Region. The bioeconomic model will use historical landing data from
the U.S. Atlantic coast dogfish fishery which includes the amount of dogfish landed annually,
annual ex-vessel prices, target species and gear type used to harvest, harvest area, and time
of year when harvested.
During the major educational and outreach activities - World Food Day, Mango Melee, and
the Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair - workshops presentations, demonstrations, and
displays were conducted focusing specifically on the opportunities for adding value to
agricultural products The benefits include extending the shelf-life of products, providing
additional opportunities for generating income, learning marketable skills, and developing
cottage industry businesses.




A twelve-week training course was conducted for crop and small livestock producers.
Enterprise budgets were developed for selected vegetables, herbs and tropical fruits.




URI Extension provided sustainable development and farm viability information, and
organizational development support, and technical assistance/consulting services for
agricultural and tourism interests including: RI Center for Ag Promotion and Education
(RICAPE) regarding ag tourism education; Town of Charlestown RI re scenic roadway
mangement; RI tourism interests via Blackstone Valley Tourism Council/RI Geo-tourism
Initiative.


URI Extension partnered four land-grant universities and affiliate organizations throughout
New England to establish Farm Tranfer Network of New England (FTNNE)- a regional
collaborative to develop and deliver information resources and education programs about
farm transition/transfer and related estate planning issues.




Extension implemented a comprehensive system of technical support for small-scale farmers.
The initiative consisted of a consulting/problem solving service, including in-depth case
management, information/training programs, and on-the-ground production/farm
management recommendations. Additionally, an interactive website, listserv and toll-free
hotline were created. A representative sustainable agriculture program advisory committee
was established and a needs assessment of farmers was conducted.
Extension collaborated with RI's Blackstone Valley Tourism Council (BVTC) to develop a
position paper on sustainable tourism development in RI. The paper was circulatd to key
legislators and state agencies. Follow up meetings resulted in the formation of the RI
Sustainable Tourism Network and Sustainable Tourism Summit. Extension conducted two
workshops relating to farm transfer, preservation/acquisition workshops.




A 5-acre farm was established. It consisted of a 1-acre rainwater catchment, a 500-m3
rainwater storage pond, seven 80-m3 fish culture tanks, a 150-m3 sludge pond, a 24-m3 clear
water holding pond, a refrigerated feed storage container, an implement storage container, a
small greenhouse for seedlings, a packing shed, an irrigation system and 3 acres of land for
vegetable production. The farm was operated as a commercial farm while whole farm
systems data was collected.

Tilapia were cultured in the fish tanks using a biofloc technology. Production was staggered
to produce a continuous supply of fish. The bottom of the fish tank sloped at 3% slope to the
middle of the tank, which contained a 45 degree cone. A valve on the drain line was opened
daily to discharge sludge from the bottom of the cone into the sludge storage pond. The
concentration of solids in the sludge was too high for drip irrigation. Initially a clarifier was
installed to remove the solids and produce a clear supernatant for irrigation. Later a geotube
was installed, and polymer was used to coagulate solids prior to filtration through the
geotextile membrane of the geotube.

The initial strategy was to grow three to four vegetable crops on a large scale and sell them at
a wholesale level to supermarkets and other large buyers. The strategy eventually shifted to
producing a large number of crops on a smaller scale and selling them at retail value. A farm
store was constructed at the university to sell the model farm produce as well as produce
from other research projects. The farm store contained a fish holding tank and a fish
processing room.
WSU Extension educators create and deliver programs to agricultural producers and allied
industries through workshops, tours, demonstrations, electronic and traditional media, and
other mechanisms. These programs are evaluated to ensure that audiences are effectively
learning new techniques and technologies and that they plan to apply this newly acquired
knowledge.
WSU Extension educators conducted applied research, workshops, tours, and other
educational venues along with delivery of print and electronic materials to educate
agricultural producers about risk management techniques.
WSU Extension and the Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources conducted
applied research, workshops, tours, and seminars related to alternative production
techniques. Additionally, numerous electronic and print materials have been developed and
distributed.




Twelve privately owned properties have become biologically intensive and organic learning
sites to support applied research and demonstration of non-traditional production
techniques. Additionally, WSU Extension educators have conducted seminars, workshops,
tours and demonstration projects related to organic and other biologically intensive
production systems.
Applied research, demonstration, and educational programming are being conducted to
develop new products and processes and to help livestock and crop producers recognize the
importance of management techniques that minimize negative environmental impacts.
Extension educators have been hired with in depth knowledge of the cultures and languages
among Latino, Hmong, and Russian communities throughout the state. Educational
programming such as Cultivating Success, pesticide safety, and other programs have been re-
designed to address the needs of diverse clientele including crop production methods, pest
and soil management, marketing and business management, and enterprise development.
Washington State University has created Washington Ag Weather Net comprised of a
strategically located system of climatological monitoring stations across the primary crop
production areas of the state. This system provides growers with up-to-date weather data
near their growing areas. This provides the basis for recommended pest and disease
measures to be implemented for maximum effectiveness.
Through collaborative programs involving research and extension, potato growers have
become more knowledgeable concerning the biological and concerning the biological and
environment conditions favoring late blight. Number of calls on the potato late blight
information line was 682 in 2007.
New pesticide registrations (Section 18's and Section 3's) were obtained for use in cranberry
production. These new reduced risk pesticides (Callisto in particular) were used on a majority
of all the cranberry acres in the PNW and resulted in a significant increase in yield, reduced
crop loss and reduced overall herbicide usage.
Using the preemergence application of ethofumesate has shown to give excellent control of
weeds while allowing a safer, more effective product to used in integrated pest
management.




WSU Extension has developed and delivered educational programs to support these
production systems with science-based information, and biologically intensive and organic
(bio-ag) program partnerships have been formed with 12 farms statewide to demonstrate
and monitor effectiveness of varying production methodologies.
Cultivating Success is a sustainable small farm and ranching workshop produced by Rural
Roots, the Risk Management Agency, University of Idaho, and Washington State University.
The Cultivating Success program is an innovative educational program combining classroom
and on-farm learning experiences. The courses include discussions led by experts in
agriculture and business, tours of successful farm operations, and mentoring by experienced
farmers who want to share their knowledge. It is a 10 week course.




Nine Extension Educators and Specialists from UI and WSU formed an editorial team with the
LMT. As of January 1, 2007, these Extension authors have written 165 columns covering
livestock, crops, farm management, soils, insects, diseases, weeds and more. This represents
about 650 faculty work hours on this project. An average circulation of reaches a readership
of 24,000 in north-central Idaho.




The Financial Condition of Idaho Agriculture is an annual publication which forecasts Idaho
farm cash receipts, net farm income, and government payments to Idaho agriculture. For the
last three years the document has been published in the form of a tri-fold and has been the
most widely publicized extension publication coming from the College of Agriculture.
As part of the many educational programs offered in 2007, one example includes a series of
90-minute workshops that were conducted at the University of Idaho's 2007 Potato
Conference. Topics included equipment economics and machinery management, potato
storage economics, and cost of production.




With help from University of Idaho Extension, the group formed the Clearwater Valley Beef
Alliance (CVBA) with a goal to market their spring born calves collectively in truck load lots.
Several marketing options and calf management programs were explored. The members of
the CVBA agreed to manage their calves identically, utilize similar genetics and market their
calves each year collectively. They also formed a legal partnership in which each member was
an equal partner and elected a treasurer.

Assess market effects of commodity prices increases and CRP land conversions; teach risk
management tools and strategies; and assess policy alternatives

SDSU conducted multiple workshops on intergenerational business transfer.

SDSU conducted producer and agribusiness workshops which focused on costs and benefits
of employing marketing strategies with the long term.

SDSU conducted multiple workshops covering crop enterprise budget.




At least two new plants have come on line in Kansas in 2007.

Efforts have been intensified to provide renewable energy alternatives. At K-State, we have
established the Center for Sustainable Energy to coordinate and encourage growth in this
research area and in commercialization of the results.
Financial records were developed and analyzed for these farmers.
Research on distillers grain utilization has helped drive awareness of the importance of this
component of the output from the ethanol plants to their overall economic health.
Specific research has shown how to improve the value of distillers grain.


As a result of training and technical assistance, the Emporia Farmers' Market Coordinator
assisted two venders expand into high tunnel production which extend the growing season.
The Grow Your Farmers Market project hosted seven conferences that provided an overview
of the research, marketing techniques, regulations and management approaches necessary
to develop successful farmers' markets.




Livestock producers were educated through conferences, one-on-one consultation, phone
calls, news releases, magazine articles, radio interviews, and trade publications. The process
was to first create awareness of the impact of the rise in grain and other ingredient prices on
cost of production. Then, major avenues to reduce feed usage were communicated using
field trials, demonstrations, and results of research trials.

Regular electronic updates every two to three weeks to Extension Agents, CCAs, Crop
Consultants, and Industry Agronomists have been used to keep soil testing on peoples minds.
Radio tapes with KSU Radio Service. News releases aimed at weekly farm press. Educational
programs at county winter schools, field days and industry training programs have also been
used. These programs will increase in intensity in 2008.




Regular electronic updates every two to three weeks to Extension Agents, CCAs, Crop
Consultants, and Industry Agronomists have been used to keep soil testing on peoples minds.
Radio tapes with KSU Radio Service. News releases aimed at weekly farm press. Educational
programs at county winter schools, field days and industry training programs have also been
used. These programs will increase in intensity in 2008.
Research and extension activities were conducted with the aim of developing, testing, and
implementing on private farms, new or modified RMP, e.g., use of novel or improved feed
resources and more efficient feeding practices; non-drug-dependent control of internal
parasites; techniques for alleviating thermal stress in lactating cows and for producing more
tender beef; establishment, irrigation, fertilization and management of swards under grazing
and forages for hay or silage.

A computer program was demonstrated to USDA's Risk Management Agency, and is now
ready to be evaluated in the field by a selected group of apple producers in the Wenatchee
and Yakima production regions. Survey data from organic apple producers have been
assessed to identify those factors influencing apple quality in organic apple production. In the
area of small grain production and marekting, basis tables for the three classes of wheat in
the PNW using Chicago, Kansas City, and Minneapolis futures are in the process of being
updated. Data have been secured, and updates will be provided to producers on the
departmental farm management extension website. The CRC revenue insurance product was
evaluated as a price risk management tool for wheat in north Idaho. Results were presented
to a producer group in Grangeville, ID in September before the signup deadline for the fall
crop insurance products. Mustard as an alternative crop is being evaluated from two
perspectives. One is assessing the competiveness of biodiesel made from mustard oil
assuming the primary by-product (mustard meal) is marketed as a high-value biopesticide.
The other perspective is assessing the value of mustard as a rotation crop in the Palouse
region of the PNW.
In one project, water usage, tree growth, leaf mineral nutrients, yield, and fruit quality
attributes in Autumn Rose Fuji apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) with five irrigation systems
and effects of five rootstocks and two irrigation systems on tree trunk cross sectional area
(TCSA), yield, and fruit quality in Pacific Gala were studied during the fourth and fifth years
after planting.




The Northeast Colorado Alternative Energy Summit in Akron, Colo., hosted in part by CSU
Extension was organized to showcase renewable energy options such as an anaerobic
biodigester system for livestock operations. 125 producers, investors and legislators learned
about the direct economic benefits of renewable energy businesses.
The opportunity to network with other producers and view state cattle operations has been
identified by ranchers as a productive way to 1. hear about the latest CSU research, 2.
exchange ideas on a regular basis, and 3. become familiar with the local CSU Extension beef
team member. In 2007, the newly organized CSU Extension Beef Team launched a new, more
interactive and accessible annual CSU Beef Field Day as part of the Colorado Farm Show. Beef
Field day will rotate locations from one side of the Rocky Mountains to the other.
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - RESULTS




Field trials demonstrated that the necessary oil seed can be successfully grown in Vermont.
As a result of the interest produced from the project, a larger-scale oil pressing system will be
installed that is capable of serving ten local farms.
Our goal is to have our own source of fuel and control of it, says one of the participating
farmers, but the other side of that is growing your own grain. I see this project fitting into a
lot of dairy farms. As a result of this project 6 farmers have begun growing oilseed crops and
Extension is securing funding for an on-farm oil seed and biodiesel project in southern
Vermont for ten farmers, with hopes of expanding to other sites in northern Vermont.
Similar projects are being explored now in ME and NH. As part of the team that developed
the collaborative web site, www.climateandfarming.org, UVM Extension continues to
contribute on-line educational materials used by individuals and in classrooms and
workshops nationwide.


Since program inception 2003, 162 farms have completed business plans through the
Program. These farms use more than 20,800 acres, provide over 350 jobs, and most practice
diversified agriculture, growing everything from maple sugar, sheep, and goats to berries,
flowers, vegetables and mushrooms; 16% process on-farm cheese and other products. In
2007 59 farms received assistance developing business plans; 44 farms received follow-up
and evaluation; 12 farms received implementation grants. One cheesemaker, having
improved cheese over 8 years, was ready to take the next step—grow the business. Their
goal is to be producing 15,000 pounds of cheese per year within the next few years. With
technical assistance and a grant the program thats up from 6,200 pounds in 2004 to 11,000
pounds of cheese in 2007. Their marketing plan showed a strong demand for their products,
justifying a facility upgrade to allow them to pasteurize their cheeses and to expand the
variety of cheeses they make.
Viticulture
All of the survey participants stated that they increased their awareness and knowledge of
grape IPM and all will be using the information in their vineyard operations.

A viticulturist writes, I have spent money and time searching for information that would assist
me in growing grapes in northern Vermont. The information in your newsletters is far better
than anything I have been able to find anywhere else. Thank you very much for providing this
service to our state.

Apple IPM
I have been receiving your Vt. Apple IPM News for many years and now I just
want to thank you for such a great service. The newsletter has been a great help, so thanks
again.

International
Not all of our work is here in Vermont. We received an email from Amman, Jordan
requesting advice for an insect pest problem. Because of the current involvement of the
Extension entomologist with IPM education and research in the Middle East, she was able to
refer him to local experts who were particularly familiar with the region, and could help him
directly.
Of farmers participating in marketing, production, and record-keeping workshops:
  178
•	 sold directly to consumers after applying skills learned;	
  129
•	 used financial statements to identify farm management problems;	
  43
•	 showed increased farm profitability after applying skills to address management
problems in farm operations;
  20
•	 completed evaluations, with all 20 ranking farm viability services as critical to their overall
success.

Examples of successes:
   A
•	 sheep dairy and farmstead cheese operation increased retail sales after improved financial
planning. With the extra income from ricotta, which utilizes the whey that had before been a
waste product, they purchased a pasteurizer.
   A
•	 wholesale vegetable grower used gross farm receipts analysis to learn he was losing nearly
$500 per acre and over 180 hours of his time by growing 11 acres of green beans. He
gradually moved to higher value crops like raspberries and asparagus, where his net profit
will be over $5,000 per acre.




Since 1995, there have been 12 Growing Places cycles and 158 graduates. Twelve individuals
completed the course this year. An evaluation survey conducted after the conclusion of the
course (75 percent response rate) showed that all participants found the course useful in
helping them a) decide if agriculture is the right field for them, b) develop a comprehensive
goal; and c)explore opportunities, and d) provide them with new skills they can use in their
businesses.
Respondents said:
Every nugget of information was on target. The field trip was totally inspiring. The course
showed its doable and likely to succeed.
Writing the goal was very helpful in defining exactly what we wanted as a farm and as a
family. It has already helped us eliminate one idea because of the amount of time it would
take away from our family at this point.
The most important thing I learned was about the Farm Service Agency and other lenders,
and getting an outline of the business plan.
UVM has created and licensed products using Vermont farmers for production of key product
components, and created markets by helping a local entrepreneur ready the product for sales
in the North American market. One example is Vermont Natural Coatings, sold by a Vermont
farmer and entrepreneur. The products use whey to make a water-based wood finish that is
more environmentally friendly than finishes relying on solvents. These products have caught
the attention of architects and builders. The whey-based products meet strict indoor air
quality standards for volatile organic compounds, which measure less than 180 grams per
liter, far less than the average 250 grams per liter of conventional water-based finishes.
Traditionally, builders have shied away from water-based finishes, preferring those that are
oil based. But the top coat, poly-whey floor finish and poly-whey furniture finish have
overcome the shortcomings usually found in water-based products.
Rapidly escalating input costs have affected not only pasture-based dairy operations but also
the large conventional operations. Even with this factor, pasture-based operations are still
producing milk for almost $3.00 less per hundredweight than the other type of operations.
Grazers have worked to increase forage utilization and are more accurately timing fertilizer
applications.
By the end of 2008, expansion and growth already planned by these new grazing dairies is
expected to increase the total new investment to $63 million, generating $28 million in
annual milk sales, adding $87 million in total output and 777 additional jobs in the state of
Missouri.

University of Missouri Extension dairy specialists have used financial data from grazing peer
groups to develop forms, spreadsheets and publications for producers and lenders to project
yearly cash flows, balance sheets and income statements.


As part of the 18-hour course, participants complete a balance sheet for their farm. Each
participant also receives hands-on training in business plan software and has a business plan
at least started during class. Most participants checked insurance policies, bank accounts and
titles to make sure names were listed as intended. Many found surprises and made changes.
Participants report using the information to choose record keeping software, change market
plans, share information with other family members, use more farm-related websites, create
spreadsheets, and to improve communication with all farm partners. Participants report
understanding "the futures market," "crop insurance," "the importance of being organized
and keeping good records," "The importance of a marketing strategy," and "more about
utilizing the computer for analyzing our farm operation."
The MOVAC staff was involved in two grants totaling over $500,000, assisted clientele in
applying for more than $450,000 in competitive value-added grants for CY07-08, assisted in
determining three business opportunities to be infeasible, facilitated business development
of a biodiesel facility soon to be online with annual sales of nearly $100 million and a staff of
50 employees, assisted in analysis of a biodiesel plant now operational with annual sales of
$40 million and about 20 employees, facilitated an ethanol production facility now
operational with annual sales in excess of $100 million and about 45 employees, and
provided feasibility assessment for a project that potentially can add value to cattle
producers in the amount of more than $10 million annually. The staff is currently working
with an aquaculture entity to develop a business plan for processing product with estimated
sales of $4 million to $5 million annually.


In 2006 total net farm income of Missouri farmers increased $60,571,000 over 2005. The
number of cattle on farms on Jan 1, 2007, was down about 2 percent from 2006, but the
number of hogs and pigs increased 11 percent. Sheep, goats and poultry also increased. Acres
planted to corn in 2007 increased 26 percent, wheat 5 percent, and grain sorghum 10
percent. Corn price increased from $2.29/bu in July 2006 to $3.84 in June 2007, largely due
to increased demand for ethanol production. Wheat price increased from $3.38/bu in July
2006 to $4.65 in June 2007, and soybeans increased from $5.67/bu to $7.55. Feeder livestock
prices were down a little during these months, but slaughter livestock prices were up. Higher
grain prices had a negative effect on feeder livestock prices, but this did not offset the
positive effect of higher grain prices on Missouri's total net farm income. Even though input
prices increased -- especially for fuels -- higher grain prices covered this expense, too.


Increased awareness was shown by the increased number of hits to the AgEBB web site.
More farmers registered to use interactive programs. Attendance at the farm computer users
conference increased and included a wider audience. Evaluations from 344 participants at a
series of agricultural lender seminars showed that about 75 percent had used the resources
provided and some requested a list of web resources be expanded. The most popular
management resources this year were enterprise budgets, cost and returns estimates, and
price information and forecasts. Latest USDA data indicated rural access to the Internet still
lagged urban locations, so many newsletters and publications continued to be made available
in both printed and electronic formats accessible to all users.

These events were designed to meet current and critical needs as evidenced by personal
observation and clients' requests for information. No pre-event testing was done to
determine participants' level of knowledge. Thus it was not possible to evaluate
quantitatively how much their skills improved. Post-event evaluations were positive. Regional
specialists reported thousands of individual consultations. USDA data indicates Missouri
producers made adjustments in their cropping and livestock systems, with the number of
total farms and acreage remaining steady and income increasing.
The percentages and projections on the proportional use of biomass relative to total energy
are consistent with the literature. One of the bottlenecks appears to be the deconstruction
technology and scale-up. In a decade or so, it is anticipated that these percentages would
increase exponentially, consistent with solving the bottlenecks.
Fourteen agricultural professionals completed "New Farmer" training workshops increasing
skills and knowledge of conservation and environmental practices. Training workshop
modules are now being delivered to AmeriCorps volunteers, Sanctuary,Inc. (a home for at-
risk youth) by Guam Department of Agriculture staff. The Guam Department of Corrections
is also using this curriculum to teach clients new opportunities to earn money when they are
released.
Four farmers were awarded fruit tree windbreaks mini-grants this year. Funding from these
grants have allowed farmers to adopt this conservation practice on their farm. The plants
have established and continue to do well.
One hundred and eighty participants have increased knowledge and understanding of
conservation practices. Through initial exposure at the demonstration farms, farmers have
adopted practices such as windbreaks and mulching. Additional workshops, not previously
planned, were conducted to address the high demand for education on windbreaks and
mulching.
A total of 65 different workshops, meetings, and field days were held to educate producers
about alternative agriculture enterprises. Based on the results of a post survey with program
participants, 218 reported that they had gained knowledge concerning alternative agriculture
enterprises including farm pond management.
Results from a post survey suggest that 96% of the participants would change their current
land management practices to benefit wildlife.
Over 50% indicated an interest in developing a wildlife enterprise and 40% indicated that
they would improve their pond or reservoir management.
One farmer in particular developed a shooting preserve that includes pheasant and quail
hunting adding income to his traditional beef cattle operation.
Nearly 200 producers reported that they intend to adopt new farm pond management
practices as result from attending educational meetings related to farm pond improvements.


According to post program surveys, 28 producers and landowners reported increases in
recreational use of of either their land or pond as result of participating in educational
efforts.




According to secondary data retrieved from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service
(Arkansas), an estimated $133,591,000 in cash receipts were generated from miscellaneous
livestock: (includes aquaculture, other livestock, and honey). This figure does not include
goats which are often classified as an alternative livestock. According to the 2002 Census of
Agriculture the market value of sheep and goat production was valued at $1,700,000.
Alternative livestock production, has therefore, made a significant economic impact to
farmers and producers.
1. Producers trained were eligible to sell produce to individuals paying with food vouchers.
2. A collaborative was formed to sell to restaurants.
3. A framers market was started.
4. A producer submitted and received a specialty crops grant for the purpose of designing
and testing a deer exclusion fence for strawberry production in a high deer pressure area.




12,718 clients (adults and youth) increased their knowledge or awareness of new crop
varieties at 30 educational activities.




None documented yet.

1. Reduced weeds and subsequent reduction in herbicide usage as a result of the plasti-
culture.
Over 20,000 acres of "alternative crops" were planted in 2006. These included fruits,
vegetables, nut crops, and other field crops. The estimated value was $111,000,000 which
represent roughly 1.8% of all cash receipts (USDA).




Manure sampling is not required for unconfined alternative livestock production. The results
suggest that many producers are still concerned about minimizing any environmental impacts
from their operation.
Although producers engaged in alternative livestock production are not required to submit
soil sample, many did which highlights their concern for any environmental impact from their
operations.




An estimated 300 farm lease arrangements were adjusted to reflect current economic
conditions, resulting in competitive returns to landowners and market driven costs to
tenants. Crop insurance agents are giving more informed advice regarding the basic crop
policies, conflict of interest considerations, choosing insurance units, and the sustainability of
recent increases in corn yields.

Nearly 1000 women have participated in Annie's Projects in Iowa. They have increased their
understanding of topics such as USDA farm programs, farm accounting and budgeting,
interpersonal communication, machinery economics and leasing arrangements.
50% of the attendees rated the School as Excellent and 50% rated it as Good relative to
meeting their educational needs. They expect that their credit institutions will be able to
increase their agricultural loan portfolios with fewer delinquencies and nonperforming loans.


Currently there are matching files for 185 beginning farmers and 17 retiring farmers. There
were 23 active matches facilitated. During the year there were 162 calls of a general nature
and 15 individual farm consultations impacting 38 individuals. The Ag Link seminar was
attended by six families and their students with 30 people being reached. The Beginning
Farmer Center hosted the national meeting of the Nation Farm Transition Network. The
Center worked with two surrounding states to obtain a grant to help provided transitional
seminars in six additional states. Legislation to help beginning farmers was passed in 2006. A
resource pamphlet was developed in northwest Iowa. The Ag Link seminar was successfully
duplicated at Kirkwood Community College with 8 students and 22 attendees. The student
Beginning Farmer Network hosted a conference attend by approximately 100 people.
Evaluations indicate the conference was well received and it will be repeated again this year.

Over 1200 people attended the 2006 Farm Income Tax Schools. Professor Roger McEowen
taught Day One of every school and Day Two was taught jointly by Dr. Neil Harl and three
Iowa attorneys, Lee Wilmarth (Decorah), Jim Goodman (Marshalltown), and David Bibler
(Algona). The result was extensive education in the area of farm income taxation and
comprehensive training for those involved in the preparation of tax returns across the state.
It is expected that this will lead to fewer errors and omissions in the preparation of farm
income tax returns in Iowa and increased compliance with IRS policies and procedures.
Initial comments from producers indicate they are surprised at the profitability of vegetable
production, as well as organic and non-organic long-term crop rotations. Misunderstandings
regarding profitability of alternative agricultural enterprises are prevalent. Questions
following the meetings and increases in requests for additional information and future
meetings are occurring.

Total attendance for all meetings and workshops related to alternative agriculture were
approximately 525. Individual consultations are increasing due to the additional interest.
Producers are changing practices as a result of their educational experiences. For example, a
few vegetable growers told us they were changing product mix, production practices, and
pricing and promotional strategies as a result of their educational experience. A few farmers
are slowly transitioning their crops into organics (a field at a time) from conventional
agriculture. Producers tell us that as they learn how to budget, price, and/or plan for a
particular decision, they are learning how to use the same process for the other decisions
they need to make within their farming operation.
Success examples from Extension business management programs across the state are
reflected in two program success stories that follow:
"During the spring of 2007, Cherokee Reservation Cooperative Extension helped 23 small
farmers in WNC with financial and business issues. Training over a four week period, farmers
improved their farm record keeping in computer accounting, labor law and farm tax
preparation. As a result, participants reported a 30% reduction in family stress levels, 78%
increased their record keeping abilities and computer comfort level."
"Many factors contribute to profitability, such as amount and type of inputs, farm
management decisions, etc. Among topics taught by extension, have been variety selection,
plant population, pest management, marketing, and crop fertility. Through a variety of
extension programs, growers have benefited economically. For example, two of the higher
yielding varieties of corn, soybeans and cotton, which were identified through county variety
demonstrations, resulted in significant increase in income to county farmers."

For both the dairy and poultry industries there is the need for the development of a sound
research and outreach program in organic grain (both for feed and for direct human
consumption) to meet the needs of the six or seven local organic milling operations that exist
across the state. This has occurred at CEFS in eastern North Carolina with the leadership of
NCSU in partnership with producers and NCA&TSU. Staggering increases in the price being
offered for grain especially organic (prices have at least doubled over the past year from
already high prices of $7.00- $10.00 bu. Outdoor hog production continues to be pushed by
market interest. Several large scale buyers are looking for pork that is raised according to
standards of treatment, nutrition, an d health. One buyer alone purchased $1,000,000 worth
of pork raised in that way. The NCA&TSU outdoor hog program has worked with NCSU, local
extension and through the collaborative project NCChoices in this area. One market alone
reports a tripling of vendors selling meat products in the market (from 5 to 16) in the past
two years.

With these opportunities for continuing education professional tax preparers (CPAs, Enrolled
Agents, Accountants and others) receive up-to-date information for current year tax filing.
These Schools have reached over 1,700 tax preparers, who in turn prepare over 500,000
income tax returns: individual, partnership, corporation, LLC and other types. Consumers of
these services can have an increased measure of confidence that documents are prepared
correctly and with accuracy because of better understanding of tax law and regulations.


10%of small farmers & limited resource persons have gained skills in herd chemical
application, working the herd and knowledge of certain disease and insects that can be
control through proper management techniques.




NRCS paid the farmers for keeping good and adequate records. As a result 10% farmers who
participated effectively kept good records in order to get paid.
Ten percent (10%) of the youths who received loans have developed life skills, such as
planning, money management, and operating skills that will be beneficial throughout their
life. These skills are beneficial to youth in managing their small business that hopefully will
lead to the development of a commercial farming operation or full fledge business which will
help to improve the quality of life for the youth and their family.
Participants in the training now have the basic knowledge of their rights as a land and
property owner. Participants now have a better understanding of what is an Estate and what
would go into a plan. Those individuals that didn't have a willl now know the importance of it
and the type that will best fit their situation.




Use of this system exceeds expectations as traffic on the system in Kentucky exceeds the host
state and rivals the total for Nebraska and Iowa combined. Examples of impact include:
*A home based business processor who, as a result of this program, exceeded the capacity
of her kitchen and used Marketmaker to locate someone to process and package her
product.
*A cattle producer who determined he could sell his "branded beef" product to high-end
consumers, the target consumers are households where income is in excess of $100,000.
* A chef in a French restaurant where dining is white tablecloth upscale prides himself in
using only the freshest ingredients. Marketmaker allows him to locate farmers who can direct
market and deliver fresh organic eggs and vegetables to his restaurant.




1. Two hundred seven producers participated in the pools and marketed an average of 39
calves.
2. Eleven operations marketed more than 100 head of calves through the pools, while 93
producers marketed fewer than 25 head.
3. Participants in calf pools incorporated management strategies that ultimately resulted in
higher weights such as total herd health programs, selection of superior seedstock and above
average herd nutrition, in preconditioning program.

1. Producers in West Virginia will be able to comply with a potential National Animal
Identification System, and will be able to provide feeder cattle to buyers that can qualify for
beef export.
2. Cattle with faulty or missing tags were identified prior to weighing and a replacement tag
was assigned. If the replacement tag could not be applied at weighing, these cattle were
weighed and placed in a separate holding pen and new tags were applied and verified after
all cattle had been weighed. This process improved the efficiency of weighing all cattle.
3. This addition easily allowed 100 to 120 head per hour to be weighed individually and
eliminated transcription errors associated with keying weights.
1. Our data indicates that the extra management time invested by producers to wean,
vaccinate and booster their calves for pooled marketing was rewarded with $517,549. The
average added value for pooled calves in 2007 was $63.84.
2. The producer received approximately $25 per of added profit and returns the balance to
the local community. If the producer would not have participated in pool marketing, not only
would the extra profit have been lost, but less money would have cycled through local
economies.
3. Producers marketing in the pools are selling an extra 75 pounds of steer calf and 59 pounds
of heifer calf.
4. When these increases in value are combined on a per head basis, along with an estimated
savings in marketing charged, the total value added exceeds $144 per head. With a typical
cash cost of less than $40.00 per head, the producer is left with more than $100 of net
income.




The 2008 numbers are expected to decline since the demand for the all natural calve did not
meet expectation.

Educational efforts have helped farmers transition to, and function within organic production
systems. Reporting on a few case studies: Two operations have reported increased profits
over the past five years in excess of 300%. One operation has gone from net sales of less than
$100,000/yr. to over 600,000/yr. in five years. Three operations have reported increased
sales and profitability of between 150-200%.

According the the Virginia Agricultural Statistics Service, the number of acres of certified
organic production in Virginia has increased to over 3,200.




Agricultural BMP's are currently cost-shared on over 40% of the acres in Virginia. These
practices are probably implemented on many more acres because this approach does not
account for BMP's implemented without cost share or outside programs. The adoption of
agriculture BMP's has been increasing at an additional 5% of acres annually.




Overall agricultural profitability has been growing, 1-8%, annual for the last several years in
Virginia.
Twenty-six farms completed the five week series representing over 7,300 acres of farmland
with a fair market value of $19,000,000. On a scale of 1 (Excellent) to 5 (Poor) participants
rated the overall value of this series at 1.3. The average attendance for the five class series
was 4.2 classes per person, with 82% of respondents attending all five sessions. A goal of the
series was to have participants develop a transition plan for their farm. Evaluations showed
the following actions taken: 44% had written both personal and farm goals and 81% held an
initial family meeting; 68% completed an inventory of farm and non-farm assets; 68% were
working on their Power of Attorney and 56% completed or were working on their advanced
medical directive; 52% put together a financial management team and 56% were in the
process of developing their farm transition plan. All of the respondents said they would
recommend the series to other farm families.

More than 60% of workshop participants reported they have knowledge of tools to assist
them in making more informed decisions affecting their financial well being, production
enterprise, and to evaluate alternative marketing strategies. For example, all farmers
participating in a financial planning workshop reported they understood how to construct
and analyze the cash flows over the 10 year life of a grape crop. Participants learned that
grape production has poor cash flow for the first four to seven years, until the operation is in
full production. As programs mature, client behavior change will be documented.


Ethanol from corn and biodiesel from oilseeds were identified as economically feasible in the
current economic context. Due to concerns about the environmental efficiency of ethanol
from corn, the simulation model analyzed the economic feasibility and ecological, economic,
and social impacts of biodiesel production, assessing profitability, macroeconomic impact,
potential changes in Vermont land use, green house gas emissions, and energy utilization.
Results indicate a private biodiesel plant would not be feasible. However a growers
cooperative would benefit from a facility using Vermont-grown soybeans, with the meal used
for dairy feed.

Benefits included the development of a renewable fuel source, a potential reduction in
greenhouse gas emissions, and reduced air pollution. Disadvantages included significant
environmental impact, including increased soil erosion, groundwater depletion, groundwater
and soil contamination, and increased fertilizer applications to increase yields.

In its first three seasons, the auction exceeded the members and participating growers'
expectations. Gross sales receipts for the 2007 season surpassed $1.3 million. These sales
come from over 350 registered vendors, most of who are from the Mennonite community
and other groups within a 100-mile radius. As a startup enterprise, the produce auction
helped diversify the farm economy for Mennonite families and others, provided new
agriculture-based opportunities and enterprises for women and youth, and enhanced VCE's
programming efforts with men, women, and youth in this distinct agricultural community.
Variety selection is one of the most important best management practices a farmer can
make. From this group of producers, 85% based variety selections on statewide statistical
data refined by locally generated data. As a result, the group increased their income by an
average of $40 per acre over varieties they would normally have selected. After observing
additional practices under local replicated test conditions, an additional $18 per acre was
saved by 50% of the group by dropping an unnecessary treatment.




Analysis of data on export of nursery products shows that businesses face both opportunities
and challenges. Providing those interested to pursue export with market and regulatory
policies information by government and private organizations is found to be critical. Based
on face-to-face discussion and survey on export, the above outcome measure was
determined.




Analysis of data on export of nursery products shows that businesses face both opportunities
and challenges. Providing those interested to pursue export with market and regulatory
policies information by government and private organizations is found to be critical. There is
no data yet to indicate an increase in exports due to the project.




Analysis of data on export of nursery products shows that businesses face both opportunities
and challenges. Providing those interested to pursue export with market and regulatory
policies information by government and private organizations is found to be critical. There is
no data yet to show the percentage of the participants have increased their sales and income.




Analysis of data on export of nursery products shows that businesses face both opportunities
and challenges. Providing those interested to pursue export with market and regulatory
policies information by government and private organizations is found to be critical. The
survey results are made widely available by putting them on the web for use by all interested.
Analysis of data on export of nursery products shows that businesses face both opportunities
and challenges. Providing those interested to pursue export with market and regulatory
policies information by government and private organizations is found to be critical. There is
no data yet on how many of the businesses have increased knowledge of exports.


Total sales of organic products sold in Virginia were estimated to be $4.3 million last year.
This is up by more than 10% over previous years.
The Extension program resulted on over 600 new or potential small growers receiving
information regarding this new crop. Attendees not only received information but also hands-
on training that is essential to beginning a vineyard. The matching grant program attracted 28
applicants over 2 years, of which 15 were approved. 12 of the 15 chose to plant vines. Many
of the program participants were able to more effectively evaluate the work and dedication
required to grow grapes after attending the MCE programs and decided against planting new
vineyards. The growers were able to select appropriate varieties and rootstocks with the
Extension assistance. The research vineyard provided essential information to grower's on
which variety to select (or not select) and growing techniques to use. The program also was
successful in dispelling any "romanticized" notion of grape growing and ensured new growers
understood the labor requirements and financial risks involved. As a result of workshops and
on-farm tours, local policy makers are more informed of the needs of new grape growers and
have dedicated $500,000.00 in funds for the development of a new local winery
cooperative.

Impact Statement:
The Beginning grape growing program resulted in 26 acres of new grape production in the
region, with interest in more in future years. Over 600 new or potential growers received
information on grape production through a variety of formal and non-formal teaching
methods. New growers have the information need to start a vineyard including for variety
selection, vineyard establishment, and pest management. The Southern Maryland Grape
Growers and Winery Association is actively meeting and is in the process of creating a winery
cooperative for members.

Eighty dairy and livestock producers from the Tri-State area participated in pasture walks
through which they learned improved management techniques for selecting and
implementing alternatives in forage production and feed management systems. Two farms
have entered into the grant funded program to convert a total of 120 acres of crop land into
pasture. Each farm was provided with seeding recommendations and both have planted their
acreage and anticipate pasturing it in the spring of 2008. I have consulted with each in
reference to paddock layout and will continue to do so as the management system evolves. I
will also work with each producer to host a pasture walk in 2008 in order to extend our
efforts.

In addition fourteen small and part-time farmers learned new pasture management
techniques through an onsite pasture management workshop at the WMREC grass variety
plots. Evaluations indicated an increase in knowledge of identifying different grass species. I
also have made three farm consultation visit as a result of attending the seminar. These
resulted in producers renovating their pastures which will provide additional forage and
reduce impact on the environment by mitigating run off.

Additionally, seventy-six small and part-time farmers from four states learned new
forage/pasture management techniques as a part of five small ruminant workshops.
Evaluations indicated an increase in knowledge of integrating pasture management into their
feeding programs.
The Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test is only one of three
pastured-based performance tests for small ruminants in the U.S. It is one of three tests
sanctioned by the American Kiko Goat Association, which emphasizes performance to its
members. As a result of the Maryland test, a pasture-based meat goat test was started by
Oklahoma State University in 2007. Each year, 35-50 goats complete the test. Consigners
have represented 7 states. The FAMACHA system has proven to be an effective method for
monitoring and controlling internal parasites in goats. The results of the test are shared at
scientific meetings.




Over 90% of the program participants reported knowledge gained. Over 33,583 acres were
planted to new, alternative and high value horticultural crops.

Foliar nutritional supplements are aggressively marketed for agronomic crops including
peanuts. These products typically cost about $20 - $30 per acre annually, which is a
substantial expense for producers. A comprehensive set of fertility recommendations were
developed for peanuts, and the results of multi-year foliar nutrient testing program were
presented to growers. This program has resulted in a savings of $20 per acre on at least
20,000 acres per year ($400,000 per year).




111 persons reported profitability gain. Over 796 acres were planted to new agronomic crops.

85% of the participants in agronomic crops programs reported knowledge gained.




Many producers were exposed to educational material.

The knowledge base of many agricultural producers was expanded.

Numerous North Dakota producers used these examples to develop farm specific budgets
and marketing plans.
Many producers implemented new management tools to aid in the multitude of decisions
that must be made for the farm firm.
Participants in educational activities reported increased awareness and knowledge gained.




100 percent of participating producers indicated they gained awareness of costs and returns
associated with irrigation practices and systems.




Producers participating in educational programs or individual consultations reported
increased knowledge and awareness.


100 percent of participants in educational programs have reported increased knowledge and
awareness.




100 percent of participants reported increased knowledge and awareness of heifer
development and genetic improvement.


Participants in educational programs report increased knowledge and awareness during this
first year of programming.




The entrepreneurship program is in early stages of development and has no results to report
for 2007.




No results for 2007


No results for 2007.
No results for 2007

No results for 2007.

No results for 2007.

No results for 2007.




Over 250 individuals receive the Enterprising Rural Families newsletter monthly. No results to
report for 2007.


Awareness created.

No results for 2007.

100 percent of participants indicated they gained knowlege and awareness as a result of
programs.

No results for 2007.




At the Community and Faith Leadership Conference, 89 percent respondents to the survey
indicated that they gained knowledge and skills which would be useful to their organizations
in areas such as grant writing, evaluation, visionary leadership, strategic planning, etc. In the
rural and small business development activities, there were 650 participants and 90 percent
gained new knowledge and skills. Some of the participants completed loan application
packages for worth $5,690,642. Also, 50 computers have been placed in rural sites and
community centers to enable individuals and potential entrepreneurs have access do
business the internet. In addition, individuals who participated in the tax filing assistance
seminars gained knowledge and skills.
About 57 percent of the participants in the economic and community development activities
did adopt recommendations. Of the 177 loan applications packaged, 35 have been approved
for $981,150; 66 have been rejected and 76 are still pending. In addition, 13 businesses were
able to procure contracts from the government, 23 new businesses were started, 33 jobs
were retained/created, and 11 received technology training.




About 45 percent of clients who participated in the various activities reported positive
benefits such as loans received, contract procured, tax assistance, jobs retained, etc.

Clientele attending IANR sponsored events assessed the value of the information in potential
increased profits at $14.05/acre, averaged across all field crop related programs. The
accumulative value to the state in 2007 was estimated to be over $140 million. Selected
impacts include: Water optimizer demonstration project showed a water miser strategy used
31% less water, reduced corn yields only 3%, and pumping cost savings usually offset yield
loss. Market Journal, an educational television and Web program, reaches an estimated
12,000 Nebraska households weekly with an estimated annual value to agriculture of $26
million; Crop Management and Diagnostic Clinics drew nearly 500 participants that influence
or manage nearly 6.5 million acres. Participants valued the knowledge gained at an average
of $6.67 per acre, or a total of nearly $42.3 million; IANR-developed wheat varieties are
worth roughly $30 to $35 million annually to Nebraska producers, based on increased yield
alone.

Profits are maximized by under-stocking 12.7-cm fingerlings. A 3-phase production system
can be more profitable but entails higher risk of financial losses on catfish farms. Winter
feeding studies have shown that current recommendations for feeding catfish over the
winter are inadequate; catfish lose weight even when fed based on the current
recommendations.
Workshops have been well attended. Over 200 copies of CDs, budget publications, and
updated tables have been requested. Farmers are adopting the spreadsheets to their
particular farm situation and making decisions for 2008 based on analysis of their cost
structures.


Clientele surveys valued the information provided at $14.33/head, averaged across all
livestock related impact reports. Total value was over $58 million. Selected impacts include:
Ranch Practicum influenced decisions of 1,160 attendees representing 603,000 acres of
range, hay, and crops, and 42,200 head of cattle; Feeding Wet Byproducts of the ethanol
industry had an estimated benefit to Nebraska of almost $500 million over the past 15 years.
IANR research determined the feasibility, benefits and economic advantages of feeding
byproducts wet; E. coli O 157:H7 control in cattle before slaughter is a critical step in reducing
outbreaks of this food borne pathogen. IANR research demonstrated the effectiveness of a
new vaccine and a bacterial feed additive to reduce E. coli in the manure of feedlot cattle.
Beef Feedlot Roundtable participants indicated they gained value worth $5.05/head, with a
total value to the state of over $15 million. Attendees represented 3 million head of cattle.
80% of the participants felt they could appy their new knowledge in their jobs/operations.
After six months almost half had incorporated changes in their operations based on the
knowledge gained and many program participants reported increased profits or financial
benfits of 5-10%.

In 2007 nine producers planted over 600 acres of tef (double from the previous year). Seed
sales from these acres plus chaf sales grossed $1000 per acre. When marketed as a high
quality horse have the return was about $850 per acre. Overall, tef production reduced
water use by about 1/3rd a compared to alfalfa and input cost were about the same. Tef is
rapidly becoming established as a viable alternaive to alfalfa in Western Nevada.
Breeding and development of potato varieties that are more efficient in nitrogen use (Pacific
Northwest Potato Variety Development Program, PNWPVD) has reduced the use of nitrogen,
resulting in less nitrate contamination of ground water. The potential economic savings to
NW potato growers was estimated to be $1.3 million or $72 per acre in 2006. Varieties
released by this collaborative program accounted for 26% and 32% of potato acreage in the
Pacific Northwest and WA in 2007, respectively. Farm-gate value of these new varieties in
WA in 2007 is estimated to be $160,000,000. It is estimated that the potato varieties
developed by the PNWPVD program have returned $39 for every dollar (research &
institutional) invested.

Other researchers in this program have identified the process that causes sun burning in
apples, and have developed a product that reduces this disorder significantly. This discovery
has the potential to save fruit growers literally tens of millions of dollars annually. It is
estimated that the patented apple sunburn protectant (RAYNOX‚®) alone saved the industry
several million dollars during the past three growing seasons. The invention of RainGard to
aid in the protection of cherries from cracking/splitting is also expected to have tremendous
Six extension associates were placed in six areas of the state which had a high concentration
of SDFs. These extension associates worked directly with approximately 130 SDFs to provide
them with knowledge on USDA loans. As a result 57 SDFs submitted applications and received
$6,028,696 in operating loan funds. Another 10 SDFs submitted their application and were
denied for having an unacceptable credit history, however, the staff worked with these
participants to help them start rebuilding their credit history.

The extension associates also informed 25 SDFs about the EQIP Program. As a result, 12
individuals signed up for the program and received $252,618 for land improvement practices
(irrigation wells and land leveling). Two SDFs signed up for the Conservation Reserve
Program and received 10 year rental payments and cost share funds (90%) and a $100 per
acre signing bonus to install filter strips on approximately 7 acres of land.

The extension associates also advised approximately 100 SDFs to start using the CES crop
production recommendations. As a result approximately 50 SDFs began using CES
recommended soybean varieties. This resulted in a 20 percent yield increase for the
producers. Also 35 SDFs are currently using the CES weed Control Manuals to select
herbicides to use in controlling weeds on their farms.

In Palau, school children, youth and farmers are now aware of new developments and
current technologies in agricultural science. Students who have participated in the water
quality education campaign are now aware and knowledgeable with the water contaminants,
water maintenance and the value of water sources to the islands. The students are more
conscious about the contaminants that can be found in their drinking water. Government
agencies that deal with regulating environmental issues including water are now referring
clients to PCC-CRE for awareness and adoption of the Dry Litter Waste Management System
and Rainwater Catchments system maintenance. Swine farmers who have visited the
demonstrations showed interest to adopt the model and they want to tell their fellow
farmers to adopt this model. Several farmers and school farms are also in the process of
adopting the model for their piggeries.

At CMI-CRE, clients asked for information on gardening, composting, water testing and
sanitization, and pest managements, so this information was provided via a weekly radio
program. Through an established partnership with the Ministry of Resources & Development
and the RMI Environmental Protection Authority, programs and resources have been shared
to achieve our shared mission and goals.

At COM-FSM-CRE, thirty-four varieties of banana, twelve varieties of sweet potato and one
variety of taro have been inoculated for micropropagation and conservation. More than
10,525 elite seedlings of different varieties of banana, taro and sweet potato were produced
At PCC-CRE, farmers now have the assurance that they can successfully grow crops every
year thru tissue culture and micropropagation techniques.

At CMI-CRE, it was observed that farmers are maintaining their gardens and looking forward
to harvesting time. Homeowners have followed the advice of extension agent and cleaned
their catchments and roof gutters from debris, which was the reason the water tested
positive for coliforms. People are also beginning to boil their water rather than drinking it
straight from the catchments.


The availability of Vitamin A-rich produce in the market is a good indication of program
participants adopting recommended practices. All participating households in a targeted
village on nutrition program started to use more local food including yellow-flesh banana and
swamp taro varieties and vegetables. Four families in a resource poor community in Yap are
producing vegetables through appropriate hydroponics and composting systems.




Since its inception, over 106,000 detailed benchmark reports have been generated by
producers and educators. Producers can benchmark hundreds of factors on their farm
against similar farms by size, type, and location to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of
their business. A companion tool, myFINBIN, was developed in 2007 with state of Minnesota
funding to provide participating producers direct access to financial and production
benchmarks for their farms.

New research projects are emerging using this database. FINBIN was awarded the
Outstanding Agricultural Economics Extension website award by the American Agricultural
Economics Association in 2006. It also received the high score in a UK Global Best Practice in
Agricultural Benchmarking Study conducted by Prospect Management Services, UK.




100 percent of workshop participants reported increasing awareness and skills of
management of their land as a result of programs.
Follow-up with landowners who participated in individual site visits and workshop
participants indicated 50 had changed practices which improved management of their small
acreage.




Workshop evaluations indicated participants gained knowledge and that participant
questions were answered.
Respondents indicated they gained awareness and understanding laws and regulations
related to land ownership.


100 percent of landowners participating in small acreage workshops and home visits
reported at least one practice change which increases management in a sustainable manner.
Specific changes identified by participants: Better management of grazing, weed control;
Weed control, pasture rotation, food plots; Plant a wind break, wildlife landscaping, weed
control; Plan to expand bird habitat, rotate animal grazing, locate septic system and have
inspection.
Focus group discussions with pork and dairy farmers conducted were analyzed and identified
the following required management skill sets in livestock production: Change Agent,
Counselor, Model Employee, Motivator, and Housekeeper. These skill sets were compared
with research in other industries. The numerous parallels found were encouraging and
interpreted as additional validation of the results.

An economic model of hunter site demand for use in valuing recreational access and
ecosystem services to hunters was constructed. Manuscripts of the findings are underway.

Research was completed on the impact of full planting flexibility in commodity programs on
specialty crop producers in the state of Michigan, and policy options for devolution of federal
agricultural policy to the states. Results on planting flexibility were disseminated through 20
outreach programs and USDA research reports to farmers in Michigan and other states.
Results on agricultural policy devolution were presented in briefings for staff members of the
U.S. House Committee on Agriculture and industry representatives, and disseminated
through the California Institute for the Study of Specialty Crops.
An improved approach to valuing premium levels for agricultural insurance products was
developed to assist in achieving the performance required for the long-term sustainability of
firms in the food and agribusiness sector.

Research to evaluate the business level impacts of alternative energy sources resulted in the
development of an energy auditing program with dairy operations. Initial results appear to be
very promising. In addition, a model earlier developed to evaluate the economics of business-
related small wind systems was used to evaluate alternative policy variables that might
impact the installation of small wind systems. A paper from this analysis was presented at an
International Energy Economist meeting.

A new approach to modeling commodity price volatility that contributes to basic knowledge
concerning the risk structure of agricultural commodity prices was developed and findings
published. In addition, an examination of spatial market efficiency in Ethiopia and how
government policies there influence spatial price relationships and the marketing
environment for maize and wheat was completed. Results are being readied for publication.


Research efforts on international trade and the global agribusiness market produced several
research abstracts and a paper published in the International Food and Agribusiness
Management Review that was selected as a best paper in 2007. In addition, several
presentations were made to peer audiences on the dynamics of the changing agrifood
markets, including the International Agribusiness Management Association, the American
Agricultural Economics Association and the Sustainable Supply Chains Organization.

Data analysis began on quantitative research from India related to buyer-supplier
relationships to determine how India's infrastructure and government policies affect food
product distribution in India. Data collected to date has been analyzed, developed into
research manuscripts and disseminated to other researchers doing similar research.




The results of the 2006 Survey of Organic Agriculture in Michigan were disseminated and
shared in several ways. The survey report was distributed to all MSU Extension offices
commodity and agriculture groups in the state,several government agencies, government-
supported boards and citizens who requested copies. The results were used in presentations
for training Michigan NASS field enumerators and in a presentation during the 2007 Great
Lakes Fruit & Vegetable Expo. Results were also shared with wider audiences via radio
interviews and numerous articles in trade publications and local newspapers.
As a result of these efforts 526 jobs have been retained including 244 full time, 159 part time
and 123 seasonal positions. In addition 14 new jobs have been created. Participants in the
workshops have been able to apply the skills they have learned directly to their business to
achieve there goals. Business owners receiving technical assistance have used the
information they received to create business plans and have used financial analysis provided
to secure finance. A 100 cow family dairy farm facing the challenge of supporting 3 families
with the farming operation was able to obtain financing to purchase an existing 1100 cow
dairy that was being liquidated. As a result the family supports 5 families through the farming
operation and an additional 8 full time employees. The Chief Executive Officer of the family
business commented this just would not have happened if it hadn't been for our help.
Technical Assistance provided support for the award of a $300,000 grant for the construction
of a one million gallon per year wheat to ethanol plant in Cayuga County.




Over 90% of the program participants reported knowledge gained. Recommended
Horticulture ICM practices were adopted on over 180,391 acres in SC.

The surveys indicated that over 80% of clientele participating in University of Nebraska
sponsored workshops, field days, tours and e-delivered events definitely would or probably
would make changes as a result of the new research based information presented. The
participants attending the events represented over 87.6% of the crop acres and 66.7% of the
cattle in the state. These results indicate the information provides economic value to the
producers in the state, with over 80% using the information to make or consider changes in
their operations. The information influences decision on 60-85% of agricultural production in
the state.


In 2007, there were 231 Baccalaureate, 105 Masters, and 34 Doctoral degrees conferred at
the University of Nebraska in agricultural and natural resources related areas. Over 85% of
our Baccalaureate degree students find jobs in their fields or continue with their professional
education, and approximately 70% take their first job in Nebraska.

The surveys indicated that over 80% of clientele participating in University of Nebraska
sponsored workshops, field days, tours and e-delivered events definitely would or probably
would make changes as a result of the new research based information presented. The
participants attending the events represented over 87.6% of the crop acres and 66.7% of the
cattle in the state. These results indicate the information provides economic value to the
producers in the state, with over 80% using the information to make or consider changes in
their operations. The information influences decision on 60-85% of agricultural production in
the state.
Apart from the direct relevance to multi-billion dollar markets for agricultural commodities,
the results are also helpful to input suppliers and consumers, domestic and foreign. By
successfully communicating results to policy-makers, policy decisions will be better informed.


Results can be used to identify ways that supply-chain participants (firms, trade associations,
producer cooperatives) can create more effective network bridges that facilitate adoption of
second-generation biotechnology.
Through demonstration surveys, fifty participants showed increases in knowledge, awareness
and understanding of husbandry skills on integrated approaches to animal and plant farm
operations. Demonstrations helped farmers to increase innovation methods of capturing
nutrients from animal waste. Also, farmers have improved their operations with innovate
ideas after participating in demonstrations. Inquiries have increased from farmers on how to
look for grants to assist them to implement new information at their farm operations.

Two farmers have adopted innovative practices from our demonstrations. One farmer has
used a junked van instead of using the container van (from demonstration site)for poultry
housing to raise his layers. Another farmer used bamboo instead of wood to build his chicken
tractor. Five farmers applied for the mini-grants.

Twenty producers are now practicing regular replacement of broodstock. There is now strong
demand for replacement chicks from the local and regional poultry producers. The bi-weekly
production of 50-60 chicks was sold out immediately. Farmers are adopting practices leading
to regular replacement of broodstocks. We expect demand to continue to increase.




We targeted 30 producers in the NRI project, and now have 44 herds participating with
accurate cost of production records. Currently, we are examining an expansion of the project
to include farms outside the Midwestern United States.


A pilot group of 12 farms are participating in an Environmental Management System
initiation program. A major program is the PQA+ program coordinated by the National Pork
Board. This requires that producers successfully complete an educational program aimed at
insuring the highest food safety and animal well-being results from their farms. The IPIC has
four persons who have become certified PQA+ trainers. Their job is to train PQA+ advisors,
who will then certify producers in this industry based program. To date, the IPIC has
conducted 15+ meetings resulting in more than 200 certified PQA+ advisors. As producers
are required to become PQA+ certified, it will be the job of these advisors to conduct either
group or individual training for producers. To date, three of the major processors in Iowa
now require that all suppliers be PQA+ certified within the next three years or sooner. ISUE
and IPIC have the largest and most active program in this area in the nation. People trained
by IPIC in PQA+ include veterinarians, educators, and producers directly.
In 2007-08: more than 300 youth exhibited in the State Fair youth swine show; 85 youth
participated in Roundup; more than 50 youth and adult State 4-H conference attendees
participated in the workshops; 12 ISU students are part of the Swine Fellows program; the
Pork Youth Ambassador program has been restructured, yet nearly 100 youth participated in
special activities including the scavenger hunt at Iowa Pork Congress; and more than 2,700
head of hogs were scanned for county fair shows in 33 Iowa counties.




Meetings were held with representative of eight county boards of health or boards of
supervisors on the benefits of integrated crop and livestock production in the past year.
Displays outlining the possible advantages of these systems were put up and manned at the
Iowa Farm Bureau Federation annual meeting, the Iowa Pork Congress and many regional
and local events. The IPIC has worked very closely with the Coalition to Support Iowa‚'s
Farmers in articulating this concept, and in assisting producers in evaluating potential sites for
swine barns that would have the least probability of odor or negative impacts on neighbors.




More than 5000 of our pork producers and allied industry have been exposed directly to the
concepts of group sow housing, and the strengths and limitations of these facilities at
commodity conferences such as Iowa Pork Congress. ISUE sponsored Reproductive
Management Conferences were attended by 150 in the past year.

Each year a higher percentage of pork producers test their manure for nutrient composition
prior to land application. The reasons for this include the increasing value of manure dictates
that less is wasted, pork producers are most always good stewards of the land and over
application could harm water quality, and most producers realize that any over application
casts the industry in an unfavorable light. The Manure Applicator Certification program is
especially important in making sure that manure is tested prior to land application. As more
of the acres of Iowa cropland are fertilized with animal nutrients, and more pork producers
either qualify for the MAC license or use MAC certified applicators, there is less chance of
harming our environment.
Only pork producers that adopt more competitive production systems and practices can
survive and prosper in the long term. The IPIC has had direct contact with more than 40,000
participants in the pork industry over the past year. Major activities (in terms of client
contacts) include the Iowa Pork Congress, the World Pork Expo, Farm Progress Show, Iowa
Farm Bureau annual convention, regional conferences and one on one interactions with
clients. Another avenue of impact is through the IPIC website and the PorkLine. Programs of
particular success has been the development of materials for assessment of sow condition
(more than 5000 distributed worldwide), guides to replacement gilt selection (more than
6000 distributed worldwide), and Sow Longevity Spreadsheets (distributed to producers
across Iowa and to 38 foreign countries worldwide).

The capabilities of the Veterinary Diagnostic Lab at ISU have been greatly enhanced over the
past year. Major investments in facilities, faculty and staff have increased the capability to
serve our clients. Ongoing programs, such as the Iowa Swine Disease Conference, continue
to be the model for other universities across the nation. Furthermore, the cooperative
activities between the College of Veterinary Medicine and the College of Agriculture and Life
Sciences have been greatly enhanced recently. Cooperative efforts in areas such as PQA+
education, sow lifetime productive lifetime, animal well-being and care, and computerized
data management systems have recently evolved and are having a tremendous impact on
pork production in Iowa, the nation, and worldwide.




1. 4 Dutch families assisted with re-location of family to Iowa and with the building of new
dairies.
2. 10 operations assisted with transition to rotational grazing
3. 12 dairy owners assisted with the establishing new compost barn housing system
4. 14 operations assisted with the remodel from tie stall to low cost milking parlor
5. 12 dairy operations assisted with farm organization and transfer
40 farms participated in Biological Risk Management Assessments, and received feedback as
to disease risks present on their farm, followed by recommendations on actions to take to
reduce risk. Full follow-up on changes and on overall research report are in progress.

On-farm herdsman/milker training resulted in improvement in the SCC score, a measure of
milk quality, and increase in milk production. These improvements translated to $25,000
added profit to herd owner.

Research report in progress on "Methodologies to Reduce the Cation-Anion Balance in Hays
of Dry Cows"

2 peer-reviewed publications on mastitis control

42% industry-wide adoption rate of mastitis control strategies and technologies.

75% reduction in clinical mastitis in cows and heifers resulting from use of mastitis control
strategies and technologies. With each mastitis case causing a loss of $110 in revenue and
increased costs, the economic value of widespread herd owners' adoption of new mastitis
control strategy is estimated at $16 million.

Use of the non-antibiotic mastitis prevention strategies saves dairy farmers an estimated $36
million in antibiotic treatment costs.

Active troubleshooting on 18 farms (6000 cows involved) to investigate milk quality problems
resulted in 95% of herds achieving improved milk quality as evidenced by reduced somatic
cell counts. These improvements in udder health resulted in milk production gains valued at
$300,000, and milk quality premiums earned valued at $414,000.




13 dairy farm owner/managers were among the 65 managers/supervisors who attended
Employment Management seminar to learn hiring, training, supervising skills

16 attended Speak Out training, and to date 7 have participated in public or large group
events to explain aspects of the dairy industry to general public or agri-business partners
Of those responding to a post-meeting survey, the economic value of the information
presented averaged greater than $1,000. More than 40% of the respondents indicated they
would feed more corn co-products, change how they store corn co-products, and evaluate
the price paid for corn co-products. More than 25% indicated they would use more nutrient
analysis of products and evaluate their purchasing method. A follow-up survey was returned
by 349 producers. Of those, 243 marketed fed cattle and 215 had beef cow herds; some
producers had both. Large operations were more actively feeding co-products. About 87% of
beef cow operations over 200 head and more than 90% of all producers marketing more than
500 head indicated they were feeding corn co-products. Seventy-seven percent indicated
that price was the primary advantage for using co-products.

A follow-up survey for two events shows that because of information producers gained, they
are willing to make changes to their facility and management practices. Of eleven returned
surveys, five changed how they manage their manure handling system in open lots, two
modified their manure handling system, one built a new settling basin and stacking area, one
replaced an earthen basin with concrete, and four applied for government cost share funds
for manure handling structures.


Very few producers have taken any action in this regard, but the few who have are now
receiving premiums in the marketing place. The Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity trained
cow herds and qualified feedlots under the Tyson Quality System Assessment program for
the age verification program.

Two surveys of beef cow herds found that more than half of those surveyed were using some
type of production technology to improve efficiency. One survey found that 59% of
respondents were feeding corn co-products to reduce feed cost. Another survey questioned
Iowa producers with beef cow herds about their pasture management and practices. Of
those responding, more than half (52%) reported they used rotational grazing with 4-7
paddocks, an additional 16% used 7+ paddocks, 41% were frost seeding a legume, 33% said
they test soil every 5 years or less, 38% have improved water systems, and 25% limit access
to waterways to protect water quality. The objective was to have 10% of cow herds using
technology to improve efficiency. While not all producers with beef cow herds responded to
the survey, these results indicate moderate adoption of proven grazing technologies to
improve efficiency.

The group has met four times, discussing the following topics: profitability in cattle feeding in
Iowa, legal concerns, leasing arrangements, fence laws, reproduction and conception in cows
and heifers, heifer development, and pasture walk and grazing system designs. A core group
of 15-20 producers have evolved, with about 5-10 of them having the business potential to
remain profitable for the long term. The group has begun very openly sharing with each
other about their operations, their questions and their concerns.
Sweet potato yields increased in continuous SWP sequences for both varieties at UAPB.
Sweet corn yields in continuous SWC sequences increased for both varieties. Cumulative
squash yields after harvest time #7 and total squash production were higher in 2007 than in
2006 in continuous SQ sequences. There was a trend for lower fresh and dry peas yields in
SWC and SP sequences, and higher fresh and dry peas yields in SWP and SQ sequences.
Boston and Carolina hybrid cucumber were planted and orange oil was applied to both
cucumber varieties. The spray (1:1000) of orange oil extremely well controlled population of
whitefly in Boston variety, compared to Carolina variety. The results of spray (1:500) of
orange oil showed similar to 1:1000, but the higher concentration of the orange oil caused
deformation of leaves on both Boston and Carolina varieties. Boston cucumber was adopted
better than Carolina cucumber in Arkansas, but Boston one was more susceptible to
greenhouse whitefly than Carolina one.




There is a decreasing dependent of imported food products as farmers, students and
government and private sector officials established new farms and started relying on their
own produce. Several new farmers markets have sprung up and farmers now have found
places where they can sale their surplus produces.


All students demonstrated measurable increases in their understanding of business
enterprises, citizenship, the workforce, entrepreneurship, ethics as well as life skill in decision-
making, self-esteem, leadership and a sense of self-directedness. As results of their
participation in the National Student Business League two collegiate students started
businesses (one a barber shop and the other a professional business cleaning service). As a
follow-up to their strategic planning retreat, chapter of The National Student Business League
established at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore and Tuskegee University. These
chapters are now seeking to the establish chapter of the National Student Business Leagues
at other historical black colleges and universities, especially, member of the United Negro
College Foundation.
The results were: increased profits for beeef and goat producers; increased knowledge in
beef and goat production; increased knowledge for youth in beef production; and increased
leadership skills for youth.
For example, (1) 32 beef cattle producers in Dallas County gained knowledge and skills in
proper pre-weaning and pre-conditioning; 8 producers increased profits from sales of pre-
conditioned calves on average by $0.22 per pound more than previous sales; (2) In the Beef
Cattle Show in Macon County, one student placed first in Senior Showmanship; a second
student placed second in the heavy weght class; (3) in the beef cattle show in Lowndes
County, four students participated in the show and each placed first in different categories at
the county level(Grand Champion Steer; Reserves Champion Steer; Supreme Heifer; High
Daily Average Gain Steer); at the state level, one student placed fourth in the Showmanship
Class;(4) reduction in incidence of diseases and parasites for goats belonging to 5 producers
in Dallas and Perry Counties;(5) at Goat Day on Tuskegee University campus, 200 goat
farmers gained knowledge in nutrition, health, and reproductive management.




Two hundred and fifty-seven participants indicated that they increased their knowledge
about milking systems, while 106 participants indicated they learned new knowledge about
site assessment and facilities. Five hundred and fifty-seven participants indicated they
increased their knowledge about nutrition related to grazing management systems, while 106
indicated they increased their knowledge about containing costs associated with nutrition of
their livestock. Under the area of IPM and sustainable agriculture 1,204 participants indicated
that they gained knowledge. Another 1,085 individuals indicated that they gained knowledge
in grain and forage crop management and harvesting practices. Across horticultural crops,
1,657 participants indicated that they increased knowledge about crop production practices
and methods. Using tools such as FINPACK, a financial planning tool developed by Penn State
faculty, 704 participants increased their knowledge around marketing and risk management.

Using tools such as FINPACK, 1,668 participants indicated that they had implemented or
adopted business plans, market research, decision making tools, risk management practices,
and/or human resource management practices. One hundred and sixty-five participants
indicated that they had implemented or adopted either improved farmstead traffic and
livestock flow systems, improved building design, infectious disease control systems, best
management practices, and/or reproduction/genetics on their farm. The PA Dairy Tool is
being used to help assess on-farm dairy production and profitability. Thirteen hundred and
twenty eight participants indicated they implemented or adopted sustainable agriculture or
nutrient management practices and methods on their farm. Across the vegetable, fruit, and
green industries in Pennsylvania, 3,300 participants who attended extension programs
indicated they implemented or adopted more sustainable techniques for crops and
landscapes.
-Out of the more than 60 participants in business development workshops in Macon, Dallas
and Sumter Counties, more than 20 developed business plans that led to securing loans for
14 from the Tuskegee-Macon County Community Development Corporation, the Greene-
Sumter Enterprise Community and the SBA Community Express Loan Program, for a total of
more than $650,000.
-Successful loan apllicants (businesses) developed and/or saved more than 45 jobs.
-More than six businesses have secured mini-grants, restructured their organizations and
identified markets for sauce, articraft, and new manufacturing products with contracts in
hand.


NY dairy farmers receive milk payments based on the quantities of three main components:
butterfat, protein, and other solids. These component prices vary significantly over time as
the demand for various dairy products change. This provides opportunities for dairy farmers
to increase profits by altering individual milk components in response to component price
changes. The effects of inputs and business factors on the four milk outputs of aggregate
milk, butterfat, protein, and other solids were estimated using a system of four individual
functions with dairy farm data. Results show that 13 out of 22 independent variables display
statistically significant effects on at least one of the four milk components. Impacts of some
inputs indicate milk component composition can be modified by increasing those inputs.
Profit increase potentials were computed for these inputs. For instance, results show the
optimal level of RPMet to maximize milk protein production is 2.40% while the optimal level
for maximizing profit is only 2.34%. The additional daily profit per cow is $0.29 from normal
protein levels found in typical New York dairy rations without RPMet supplement.
700K acres of cotton were planted in 2006 of which 84% was no-till or conservation tillage,
up from 75% the previous year. If the numbers are similar for 2007, this suggests about 590K
acres under some form of conservation tillage.
If 10 tons of soil erosion per acre are saved by each acre under conservation tillage because
of herbicide-resistant cotton, this represents approximately 1190K tons of soil remaining in
the field.

At a $9/bushel soybean price, this represents a theoretical gain of $72 bushels per acre for
the new variety, and the collective value to Tennessee producers of planting the Top-10
yielding soybean varieties from our 2006 tests is estimated at $48 million higher gross
revenue than planting the varieties below the top yielding group.

From a research perspective, we are unable to quantify the number of operators using TAES
economic research in decisions. However, based on surveys in six major row crop counties,
92% of producers base variety buying decisions on UT data -- an estimated $12M extra
income in those counties (based on the yield difference from lower yielding varieties). If 90%
of TN producers behave similarly, the statewide income increase is $70M.


We have constructed recommendations to assist in managing this weed.
Genetic gains accomplished by our program in new high-yielding soybean varieties translate
directly into improved farm revenue, and mapping of genomic regions governing seed quality
traits is improving soybean protein and oil quality.


Top-10 yielding varieties in the 2006 cotton OVTs averaged 19% higher yield ($47.8 million).




Biotechnology was shown to weaken weedy relatives, not make them weedier.


We have dicovered an effective organic means of contolling damping-off disease in tomatoes.


The apparent discovery of a strong resistance mechanism in epazote can be exploited for
further investigation.
The FAMU Hot Pepper program is a joint effort between research and extension and it
continues to serve a broad and diverse audience in Florida. The comparative yields for
various production systems have been made available to the farmers to make a prudent
decision. A marketimg link between the producers in north Florida and the processor in south
Florida has been established.




The impact analysis of cellulosic ethanol helped secure $70 million in state funds to construct
a pilot plant. The estimated economic impacts of the industry have been presented widely in
2007 and cited by industry, academics, President Bush, and presidential candidates. The
information was used by groups like the 25x'25 organization to move a resolution through
congress affirming the goal of 25% renewable energy by 2025.

Statewide financial impacts of lack of veterinary access for livestock producers are estimated
at $9.5 million (<1% of sales). Problems seem more prevalent in certain counties. Scholarship
programs for large- and food-animal veterinary students, relocation incentives, and greater
availability of veterinary technicians were seen as effective ways to increase access. This
analysis is being used in the legislature to link additional funding to areas in need.


This research sought to conduct a comprehensive economic impact study of the U.S. sod
production industry; impact values provide policy makers, nursery industry leaders,
specialists, growers and others with specific, actionable information.
The application of price data to our findings for switchgrass will enhance its competitiveness,
farmers can increse their net returns on corn to up to $15 per acre, and cotton growers can
reduce uncertainty about spray equipment.
Thirteen agriculture land lease holders have increased knowledge, understanding and skills of
conservation and production practices.




One agency has committed one FTE to this program. A model to leverage personnel and
fiscal resources among collaborating agencies can now be replicated to other projects
requiring shared expertise and resources. There was increased number of stakeholders
gaining knowledge and understanding of conservation practices because of the partners
ability to increase workshops and outreach.




Five farmers adopted several recommended demonstration practices like mulching,
composting, and windbreaks. In addition to farmers, Guam Community College, Guma Mami,
and Sanctuary have also adopted these practices.
Shepherd's purse was identified as the most significant problem, found in or around all fields;
plus it can harbor the swede midge insect and the bacterium, which can cause black rot
disease. Both of these are potentially devastating to crucifer crops, with one grower losing
$60,000 as a result of black rot in 2005 An economic analysis identified the cost of several
techniques used by growers to manage weeds, which will allow for more informed decisions.
The value of field scouting was highlighted, with average costs of $12 per acre or $38 per
hour. Cultivation, which was performed on 100% of the farms, ranged in cost from $4 to $70
per acre, with number of cultivations ranging from 3 to 8 times per season. The annual cost
for herbicides ranged from $4 to $128 per acre, with an average of $37 per acre. Hand
weeding was practiced on 86% of the farms, with cost ranging from $6 to $400/acre. As a
result of the herbicide trials, new recommendations for control of shepherd's purse using
Goal of Goal Tender herbicides, which provided 93% - 98% control, will provide growers with
a new tool for control of this potentially destructive weed, which previously had no
recommended herbicide.
338 commercial farmers submitted soil tests for corn, forage, pasture, hay/forage, fruit or
vegetable crops during the one-year period from 6/1/06 through 5/31/07. A stratified
random sample (representing all counties) of 37 farmers were surveyed as a follow up to soil
testing. Of those 37, 82% (32) felt that soil tests recommendations were useful, 74% (29)
followed the recommendations, 79% (31) planned to re-test soil regularly (every 1-3 years),
and 90% (35) would recommend soil testing to others. Extrapolating these numbers to the
total number that used UNHCE soil testing services in these commodity areas, we estimate
that 250 farmers followed the recommendations and based fertilizer decisions on their
results and that 267 farmers likely planned to test soil regularly.

33 plant tissue analysis were also completed. Results helped farmers increase profitability,
reduce fertilizer inputs, and increase crop production.

Participants were quoted, "I changed my fertilization schedule to allow for additional product
during fall"; "I now consider soil testing more seriously."

752 NH citizens submitted soil tests for home grounds and gardens during the same one-year
period.
With the assistance of master gardener volunteers, 127 citizens were surveyed, selected at
random in representative numbers from each county. Of those, 94% (119) felt that soil test
recommendations were useful, 88% (112) followed the recommendations, 27% (45) did
something different than they would have done if they had not tested; either reduced or

See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.


See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.

See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.
40% of greenhouse growers improved the quality of their crops by adopting improved
scouting for nutrient problems which they learned in the greenhouse twilight meetings.
Quotes from growers: "I now understand more and more what to look for as I scout for
nutrient deficiency symptoms. I purchased an EC and a pH meter and I now use them to
check my crops". "Your help in teaching me how to use the EC meter and PH was very
useful".

As a result of a farm visit by greenhouse specialist John Bartok, which was part of an energy
efficiency Extension program, one farm dropped their thermostats to bench level, and have
reduced disease incidence resulting in higher quality plants. The engineer also helped them to
improve their greenhouse construction design.

In terms of pest management practices, these growers now use yellow sticky traps, scout
more frequently and look for threshold levels of pests before applying any inputs. This has
reduced the amount of pesticides they use. When they do find the need to use pesticides
they now seek out "green" materials including "Neem Oil" and "Green Shield." The growers
also said that as a result of Extension programs and visits that they have implemented
recommended crop rotations, cover cropping practices, cultivation techniques, plastic mulch,
raised beds, and rotate the class of chemicals when such inputs are necessary.

These practices have resulted in increased yields per acre, a reduction in crop losses, a
reduction in inputs resulting in higher profits per crop, and increased organic matter in the
soil. The growers also sited the benefits they have received from the UNHCE Disease
Diagnosis Laboratory and Plant Pathology Specialist Dr. Cheryl Smith. Likewise, farm


See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.
125 participants indicated they had adopted practices to increase profitability/productivity,
through enterprise analysis, better record keeping, pasture management, crop rotation, and
energy efficiency. In addition, growers adopted practices to improve sales and profitability.
These include different ways of reaching out to customers such as new advertising and
promotion approaches, hay rides on the farm, corn maze and other educational
opportunities to customers.

One diversified farm was able to generate enough farm income to support returning children
from college, as well as to implement the new ideas and approaches that the kids desired to
bring to the farm. Specifically, they improved communication between the farmers and their
farm workers, increased farm efficiency in terms of time management, added additional
crops to the farm to satisfy the new markets and accounts, expanded their record keeping
system to track labor and collect additional data, and improved their quality of life including
implementing vacations and days off to prevent the annual burnout that have diminished
quality of life in years past. The vacations and regularly scheduled days off have also helped
address physical health issues some farmers were dealing with.

Another farmer said that he was better off this year than last due to decisions he made after
completing a holistic farm management plan. He is profitable and feels secure economically.
Likewise, when asked about how some of the major decisions impacted his farmland and the
farm's natural resources, he said he has gained on weed issues and increased organic matter
content. He also improved the drainage of his wet fields which allows him to crop a greater
area. Finally, he said his quality of life is far better, everything has improved. He said he has
far less stress, sleeps better, is accomplishing personal goals and has far greater satisfaction
in his life now.
See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.

See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.

See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.

See crosscutting outcome measure narrative.

Participants gained a greater understanding of the interrelationships among human,
biological, and financial resources in creating a successful business, connected with other
natural resource entrepreneurs, and had the opportunity to develop an operating plan for
their natural resource business proposal.

Eleven of the 21 completed an operational plan to start or expand an existing business.
Other reported practices that were adopted were better record-keeping, identification of
new markets, and enterprising analysis. Thirteen out of 21 enrolled had completed planning
worksheets on a regular basis. Seventeen out of 21 participants indicated on a post institute
survey they gained information and/or experiences to help reach their personal goals.
After an extensive public policy educational campaign over a 2.5 year period the agritourism-
friendly amendments were confirmed in June, 2007. The changes allow for signage displaying
a red barn logo to designate agritourism enterprises, hours of operation, and approval for
smaller directional signage on county/state road right-away locations. Agritourism
enterprises will also be eligible for signage cost share with the Transportation Cabinet
providing installation. As a result of this development, one agritourism operation has already
established $5000 marketing presence through Natcher Parkway sign installation,
immediately increasing traffic count, sales and enhanced profitability.
To evaluate the impact of the Expo, an exit card questionnaire was designed that established
a random mailing list from participants that attended the annual multi-state Expo. The post
cards were either turned in upon exiting the Expo or were mailed back. Door prizes were
administered to encourage the filing of the exit card with a return of 250 to 350 cards
annually. Approximately three months after the Expo a questionnaire was mailed out to the
exit card list to measure the impact or changes resulting from attending the respective Expo.
To date four major reasons for attending the respective Expo's have been recorded by the
producers/participants:

*   starting a small farm
*   explore small farm opportunities
*   improve management capabilities
*   explore methodologies to enhance country living

Furthermore participants identified specific issues or concerns that they would change or
became aware of after attending the seven Expo's:

*64 % agreed that they had identified alternative or new commodities
*77 % indicated that they had interacted and learned from others participating at the Expo

*30 % said they would develop a production and marketing plan
*60 % indicated they developed a better understanding and awareness for support agencies
*51 % indicated they had improved their knowledge on evaluating building and equipment
needs
*49 % indicated they had improved their knowledge for marketing
*53 % indicated they were able to take actions that improved their production skills
*63 % indicated they had taken actions to improve their profitability and sustainability




The original floor heating research has resulted in a M.S. thesis, a peer-reviewed publication,
a trade journal article, and has contributed to a soon-to-be released revision of the Rutgers
Cooperative Extension Root Zone Heating Extension Bulletin. An energy audit checklist was
developed for commercial greenhouse operations. The checklist has been distributed
throughout the northeast and beyond. Growers who implemented the information resulting
from the research and the various presentations and publications have been able to
(conservatively) realize energy savings between 5 and 30%.

Updating and disseminating energy conservation information is helping to further reduce
dependence on scarce fossil fuel resources. Incorporation of heat pump technology to take
advantage of heat storage to provide both heating and cooling can reduce total energy
requirements.
We have improved our production efficiency (yield per acre) but due to low temperatures
during bloom in the spring our volume was reduced in 2007. Peach prices were lower by
about 1.2 cents per pound in 2007.
The challenges are many for our New Jersey growers, but our peach science research and
outreach production program has stabilized the industry.
We have continued to be very successful in evaluating and introducing new cultivars. Based
on informal survey with fruit trees nurseries all of the major varieties planted in New Jersey
are the result of our peach and nectarine cultivar research program. The ten most important
yellow- fleshed planted by NJ growers are in relative order of importance: John Boy, Flamin
Fury(r) PF24-007, Laurol, Encore, Sentry, Bounty,Flamin Fury(r) PF 23, Flamin Fury(r) PF 17,
Flamin Fury(r) PF 27A, and Flame Prince. Two new yellow fleshed peaches developed by the
RNJAES Messina(tm) and Gloria(tm) are being heavily planted in 2007 and 2008 with over
5000 trees planted and ordered. Other varieties heavily planted as a result of our research
and recommendations ate Glenglo, GaLa, Flamin Fury(r) PF 7, Flamin Fury(r) PF Lucky 13,
Flamin Fury(r) PF Lucky(r) 24C, Contender, Autumn Star, Flamin Fury(r) PF 28-007 and
Victoria(tm). Yellow-fleshed peaches make up 88% of our production volume.
We have also made major impacts in researching novel and other types of peach varieties
now recommended to our growers. The production of nectarines has declined slightly
because of pest management problems but two varieties researched and tested by us for
growers are the yellow fleshed varieties Easternglo and Flamin Fury(r) PF 11; and the white
fleshed varieties; Arctic Star, Arcticglo, Arctic Sweet, Arctic Jay, and Arctic Pride.
Our research continues to make an impact in the slow resurgence of white-fleshed peach
varieties. From our research and recommendations growers continue to plant Spring Snow.
White Lady, Klondike, Sugar Giant and Snow Giant. We also see a slight increase in plantings
of flat peaches with Saturn(r) and the newly developed varieties from our NJAES program; NJ
14, NJ 15, NJ 16, and NJ 17. We know almost 900 trees of these new flat peach varieties have
The results of the produce expenditure data from 1,084 surveys completed by ethnic produce
purchasers, combined with the expertise of local crop specialists provided the tools necessary
to prioritize crops for subsequent production research.
The survey results were used by our USDA/NRI team to Assess Demand and Supply of ethnic
vegetables and rank them by ethnicity. Results of the USDA-NRI survey of 271 randomly
selected East Coast consumers from each of the four ethnic groups were used to rank the
crops included in the questionnaire, within ethnicity, according to expenditure and/or
purchase data. Multiple criteria were established to rank produce items according to: (1)
mean (weekly) expenditures across all respondents (including zero purchases); (2) mean
(weekly) expenditures across only respondents purchasing that item (excluding zero
purchases); (3) frequency of purchase across respondents (binary; 1 or 0 for purchase or non-
purchase, respectively), (4) volume (number of pounds, bunches, or units) purchased by each
respondent for each produce item; and (5) overall rank (average of results rankings #1 thru
#4) for each produce item. A summary of all this comprehensive information was provided in
2007 via several PowerPoint presentations created to over 20 agricultural organizations. At
least 50 farmers adjusted their planting intentions to better capitalize on high value specialty
crops.

The outcome of the detailed survey results has led to an immediate new view of the ethnic
consumer, their location and concentrations and their buying power. Considerable data has
been developed for consumer produce expenditures of ethnic crops and consumer
demographics. The crop selection process has identified over 100 ethnic crops of interest and
through a rigorous process of elimination settled on a refined list of 42 crops (10 each for
Asian-Indian and Puerto Rican and 12 for Chinese) to assess demand. A final list for field
production research and demonstration was designed for seven field sites in New Jersey,
Florida, and Massachusetts.
Summer 2006 and 2007 demonstration and research trials were established by collaborators
- In 2007, one more Bergen County Farm (Kohout) was successfully preserved under the FP
program. This farm totals over 40 acres. With this, there are 7 preserved farms totaling over
300 acres, representing 30% of remaining farmland.
- $1500.00 expended by Bergen County Department of Planning to print 5000 brochures and
750 posters promoting Bergen County farms and the FP program. These have been
distributed at all agricultural events and other appropriate opportunities.
- There is continuous promotion of FP program
- There is ongoing assistance to all farms for maximizing Best Management Practices,
economic viability, and assisting with emerging problems such as drought, hailstorms, deer,
etc.




Survey data from the Blueberry Open House meeting indicated that 92% of attendees felt
that this meeting was excellent or very good. In addition, the newsletter reaches growers in
37 states and 21 countries. New Jersey acreage increased in 2007 by 150 acres. The value of
the New Jersey blueberry crop rose from $83 million in 2006 to $90.2 million in 2007 a 8.6%
increase. 39% of growers attending the Blueberry Open House meeting stated that
information obtained at this meeting will result in a re-evaluation of their current methods.
The Blueberry Bulletin has a total circulation of 3,841 and on the web there were 6,1,01
downloads. 94% of growers rated the newsletter excellent. The Blueberry Grower Advisory
committee has given RCE personnel a priority list of research needs and research projects in
20008 will reflects their suggestions.
The proper integration of flumioxazon into an overall weed management program will
provide superior broadleaf weed control for New Jersey producers compared with existing
products. In field ornamental production, the price for flumioxazon will average
approximately $75 per treated acre, while currently used broadleaf weed herbicides average
approximately $100 per treated acre. In container production, the granular formulation of
flumioxazon will average approximately $180 per treated acre while granular formulations of
herbicides which provide comparable weed control average $240 per treated acre.
Additionally, The effective use rate of flumioxazon is approximately 20-25% of existing
herbicides resulting in a significant decrease in the total pounds of active herbicide used in
field and container ornamental production. While it is difficult to estimate the impact
glyphosate resistant marestail will have on New Jersey nursery operations in terms of weed
competition, a nursery operation that becomes infested with glyphosate resistant marestail
and must use an alternative non-selective herbicide will see increased costs of $60 to 80
dollars per treated acre. The use of flumioxizon as part of a fall preventative herbicide
treatment shows a great deal of potential to control this weed.


Based upon recommendations provided to golf course superintendents 90 to 100% control of
Poa annua and 70 to 80% control of Poa trivialis is achievable when Velocity is properly
integrated into an overall Poa annua control program.

Results concerning the research with primisulfuron and mesotrione have yet to be
disseminated because they are not yet labeled.
Sulfosulfuron (Certainty) has been labeled for use in both warm and cool-season turfgrass
species and can be safely and effectively used in Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass
for control of Poa trivialis. Bispyribac (Velocity) received full federal registration from the EPA
in the fall of 2004 and can be safely and effectively used for control of both weed species on
all cool-season turfgrass species (including creeping bentgrass) except Kentucky bluegrass.
Control of these weeds on golf courses will lead to reduced fungicide and water use, improve
the quality of cultivated sod, and the playing surfaces of athletic fields.

It is estimated that there is approximately 250,000 to 300,000 acres of highly maintained
fairways, tees and putting greens in the cool-season turfgrass growing region in the United
States and at least 50% of these acres have significant infestations of Poa annua and/or Poa
trivialis. It is estimated that golf courses could reduce fungicide use on these acres by
approximately 30% if these two weeds were controlled resulting in an annual reduction of
700,000 pounds active ingredient of fungicides and saving approximately 8.0 million dollars
annually. It is estimated that water use could be reduced by approximately 25% resulting in a
reduction of 8.0 million gallons of water per golf course per year. Total water saved on an
The Fungicide Resistance Management Guide is targeted for commercial vegetable farmers in
New Jersey and the other four mid-Atlantic states (PA, DE, VA, MD). Questionnaires were
handed out when FRAC guides were distributed to growers at meetings throughout the
region during the 2007 production season.

Of the questionnaires returned in the response to the FRAC guide:

Vegetable growers responded to the following questions:


How much more aware are you on the importance of understanding fungicide resistance
development?
62% - more aware, 38% - highly aware

How useful was the guide?
43% said somewhat useful, 58% said highly useful

How easy is the guide to use?
54% - very easy, 46% somewhat easy, 0% difficult or very difficult

Would you use the guide to help make decisions?
24% - some of the time, 73% - always

The impact of this research helped determine that FRAC code 11 fungicides should no longer
be used to control cucurbit powdery mildew, thereby greatly reducing the potential for
fungicide resistance development and helping growers reduce costs by not applying
ineffective fungicides. Research also determined that growers should also use FRAC code 3
fungicides in cucurbit production judiciously because the potential for resistance

Demonstrable increase in working paper activity, as well as submissions to journals for article
review.
Papers were presented at ASSA meeting in New Orleans; there was increased participation at
the AAEA and WAEA meetings; SES conducted their first Annual Economic Issues and Outlook
Conference in Pasco, WA.

Contributions have been made to basic knowledge in economic theory, with future
implications for the design of economic models used in researching real world economic
issues.
The faculty have responded to the renewed emphasis, which has become an important
element of evaluation in annual reviews, by increasing the number of proposals by 14% over
2006.
Contributions have been made to basic knowledge in econometric theory and nonlinear
dynamic modeling, with future implications for the design of quantitative models used in
researching real world economic issues.
The faculty have generated a large portfolio of journal articles, reports, presentations,
workshops, and a conference to disseminate knowledge directed towards informing policy
and decision makers about relevant economic issues.

In 2007 SES placed several students in academic positions as well as positions in private
enterprise.




SES faculty have increased the number of grant proposals submitted.
External funding for GRAs has fallen from the previous year. This has been offset somewhat
by an increase in funded GRAs procured in competitive grants awarded from IMPACT and
from the Graduate School of the University.

Because of the work done by extension, vegetable varieties are identified that perform well
in the hot, humid tropics. Varieties that are multiple disease resistant, have
tolerance/resistance to hot humid wet conditions. Because of the work that extension has
done, farmers can be assured that the varieties purchased will perform well on their farms

When these varieties of fruit trees begin bearing fruits in the next couple of years, the
children in the neighborhood will be able to eat these fresh fruits free of charge. Moms and
Dads won't have to purchase too many imported fruits to ensure that the children have
enough minerals and vitamins especially vitamin C that are found in fruits. The family food
dollar can be stretched to purchase other things needed by the family.

Pigs from CNR's herd have been traded with farmers to introduce diversity introduced in the
late 1990's where some sows were successfully artificially inseminated. Four farmers have
received our stock and CNR received stock from these farmers. Both farmers and CNR
piggeries have benefited from the trade by increasing the diversity in their gene pools.

Five African farmers have gotten involved in new farming and about 20 minority farmers
have strengthened their farm operations as a result of Lincoln University input.
Improved self-confidence, work efficiency,and productivity.




Policy makers can use the results of alternative policies scenarios, such as required ethanol
blending in gasoline, to see the broader impact on prices, markets and consumption in the
agricultural sector.
Results were: increased profits for vegetable producers; increased knowledge in vegetables,
fruits, nuts, forestry, home gardens, and pest control; and better environmental
management through EQIP practices. More specifically,
(1) 30,000 collard plants in Lowndes County had higher yields of 5,700 bunches of collards
(after adjusting for survival rate and home consumption). Collards were sold at $2.50-$3.00
per bunch, yielding between $14,250-$17,100.
(2) A vegetable project in Macon County, under plastic culture, yielded $60,000 for
watermelons and $50,000 for all other vegetables--a total of $110,000. Conventional
product would have yeilded 75% less (i.e., $82,500).
(3)Producers who learned proper techniques of planting trees and shrubberies were able to
save a substantial amount, because they did not have to replant them.
(4) A producer in Barbour County obtained 1,000 bunches of collards from 0.25 acre plot and
was able to sell it to a Black-owned resturant in Eufaula for a better income of $2,000 at
$2.00 per bunch.
(5) One hundred and fifteen (115) families participated in home gardening in Montgomery
County; they saved about $300 to $500 per family in expenditures on fruits and vegetables,
and at the same time provided nutritious and fresh vegetables for their families.
(6) Ninety (90) timber contracts were developed for landowners, which provided them,




At CTC the sessions on cover crops and manure were among the highest rated for knowledge
gained.

Attendance at CTC, the field day, and No-Till Conf. has increased steadily. Knowledge gained
about conservation tillage by CTC participants increased by 0.5 on a 5.0 scale. 37% no-till,
40% conservation tillage




Production costs decrease, soil quality and environmental conditions improve.


More than 1180 individuals participate in educational programs targeting manure nutrient
management, soil and manure testing, Best Management Practices for manure nutrient
application and recycling as well as equipment maintenance and calibration.
More than 800 individuals participate in state-wide educational programs promoting the
economic value of manure nutrients, how to best utilize this resource through soil and
manure testing, and Best Management Practices to protect water quality and maintain
environmental, economic and social viability.
Growers and consultants covering 2,500,000 acres were trained in technology related to
precision agriculture.
Surveys at meetings indicated 65% of growers would implement a nitrogen managment plan
to reduce N by 33 pounds.
During winter recertification programs, it was noted that many growers are taking notes
during resistance discussions.
Growers ask questions, follow suggestions on when to control, limited scouting by grower
however.




Nearly 200 small farmers participated in farm financial management workshops. Many
others were helped one-on-one. Because of these newly developed skills, some 53
producers were able to loans to improve their operations.
This research which has been published in Food Policy has been presented at a USDA seminar
and led to a follow-on analysis looking at international as well as U.S data which is
forthcoming in the Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. The purpose of the article
was to provide empirical econometric analysis of an issue with essentially no such
information available. The implication of this research is to refute a belief that modifications
of U.S. farm programs can significantly affect the risk of obesity; to the contrary, such scarce
federal resources are better directed toward other efforts.




By 2007, 478 farms participated in the Milk Money team process in Wisconsin. As a result,
producers adopted best management practices such as performing bulk tank cultures;
culturing for clinical mastitis; keeping better treatment records; developing standard, written
milking routines; wearing gloves during milking; training Spanish-speaking workers in best
practices, consulting with dairy professionals and using team management. After 4 months in
the program, the average farm dropped their bulk tank somatic cell count by about 77,000
SCC/ml and increased income by $1,650 per month. From 2000 to 2006, the Dairy Herd
Improvement Association (DHIA) average bulk tank counts for Wisconsin dairy herds dropped
from 306,000 to 258,000 SCC/ml, while the California state DHIA average increased from
248,000 to 291,000 SCC/ml.




Working with educational partners to engage public participation in achieving a measurable,
agreed-on regulatory process, UW-Extension educators address the needs of both farmers
and rural communities, build local capacity to meet these needs, and support community
action. The 22 participating county educators reported that 9 towns or counties have
adopted new zoning ordinances, and 6 more are in process. These ordinances protect public
health and safety by establishing standards and procedures for issuing licenses for new and
expanded livestock and waste storage facilities.
Based on 46 on-farm visits in 2007, new Northern Wisconsin dairy agent Sam Zimmermann
wrote 24 recommendations that included computer-assisted drawings of building layouts,
aerial photos, herd tables, milking parlor plans and written proposals based on University
recommendations. Zimmermann reached another 72 producers at a tri-county Compost Barn
Workshop and Tour, He keeps current dairy modernization virtual tours and photo galleries
showing how dairy farms improved facilities as a result of UW-Extension education:
http://marathon.uwex.edu/ag/modern/index.html




Since 2004, more than 500 Spanish-speaking dairy workers have attended bilingual Dairy
Worker Trainings. Evaluation results show that participants made large gains in skill level and
knowledge. Bilingual trainings help transcend communication barriers to the benefit of both
English-speaking employers and Spanish-speaking workers. From the 2007 pilot safety
training, evaluations indicated that pre-inspection, driving, maintenance and over all
knowledge increased. Participants asked for more hands on training in switching skid steer
attachments and lifting different loads. The trainers are using this feedback to improve farm
safety trainings for next spring.


n/a
32 participants representing dairy, row crop, beef, hog, and horticultural enterprises.
indicated an increase in knowledge in trends in agriculture, farm business succession
planning, business mission and vision, family and farm communication, conflict resolution,
and personality evaluation.
Participants also learned about their own personality traits, as well as the personality traits of
future partners, wrote long-term and short-term goals for their business, as well as mission
and vision statements.

The results of the evaluation distributed at the end of the program follow. Participants were
asked to rank responses according to a Likert type scale, where a response of 1 indicated a
low rating, and a response of 5 indicated a high rating.

Trends in Agriculture

1a. Rate your level of knowledge about this subject prior to this session. - 3.2

1b. This session helped me better understand agriculture trends that will affect my farm's
transition. - 3.3

Business Succession Planning

2a. Rate your level of knowledge about this subject prior to this session. - 2.8

2b. This session helped me better understand the differences between Business Succession
Planning and Estate Planning. - 3.5

2c. This session outlined the issues of farm succession. - 3.7




The trials showed significant differences in the performance of varieties under condtions that
are representative of current farming practices. The information allowed growers to make
more informed decisions and increase production and farm profitability.

The evaluation showed that 100% of attendees rated an increase in their competency level
on the topic of Dairy Grazing and Profitability as strongly agree or agree. 50% of the people
attending strongly agreed that the topic was unique to their programming area, 30% agreed
and 20% were neutral. When asked if they would apply the information to their programming
area, 60% strongly agreed.
When the bio-refinery becomes operational, specialty barley varieties will offer growers an
alternative to feed barley production. This new market offers growers increased profits
compared to the traditional feed market. However, the research shows these varieties have
lower yields than traditional barley varieties. The local information gained from this study
will assist growers in determining if they should grow and market these specialty barley
varieties.
As a direct result of the trials and related findings, CLB infestations above current threshold
levels were difficult to fine in 2007. Groweres adopted the biological control for CLB. In 2007
the region experienced a 71% reduction in pesticide treated acreage compared to 2006, and
an 88% reduction compared to 2004, a peak year for CLB treated acreage. The estimated
cost of cereal leaf beetle control in 2004 was $287,680. That cost was significantly reduced
to $28,675 in 2007.

Chemical fallow acreage increased from 2500 acres to about 30,000 acres. Continuous (no-
till) spring wheat cropping systems have from 2000 acres to about 6000 acres. The increases
are due, in part, to acceptable yield and favorable profit margin results from annual cropping
field experiments. The estimated reduction in soil erosion, where no-till or reduces till
systems have been implemented, is 2.5 tones per acre per year. The value of this reduction,
calculated at $6.00 per ton, is $510,000 annually.




Producers are beginning to market live channel catfish to Asian markets. African American
brokers are purchasing increasing amounts of channel catfish for resale. Only one broker
purchased buffalo, but 12% of individuals did. Fish broking has allowed more fish
entrepreneurs to earn profits through fish sales.
Producers are beginning to market live channel catfish to Asian markets. African American
brokers are purchasing increasing amounts of channel catfish for resale. Only one broker
purchased buffalo, but 12% of individuals did. Fish broking has allowed more fish
entrepreneurs to earn profits through fish sales.
Producers are beginning to market live channel catfish to Asian markets. African American
brokers are purchasing increasing amounts of channel catfish for resale. Only one broker
purchased buffalo, but 12% of individuals did. Fish broking has allowed more fish
entrepreneurs to earn profits through fish sales.
The OCCD program was initiated in November of 2001 Since then it has been offered ten
times (spring and fall) with eight advanced sessions. Over 335 directors have attended the
Credentialing sessions and over 250 directors have returned for advanced training. The
directors completing the OCCD program have a better understanding of financial
management and the legal roles and responsibilities of the board of directors and are able to
make better business decisions and to safeguard the assets of their cooperative
organizations. Currently there are 180 Credentialed directors representing 44 cooperatives.
There are 150 more directors who have completed one of the two required sessions. Two
hundred and fifty directors from 37 separate cooperatives have attended an advanced
session. The advanced attendance reflects the fact that almost every credentialed
cooperative director returned for additional education. Twenty cooperatives have achieved
the status of having every board member credentialed. The typical Oklahoma cooperative
includes 1,500 or more farmer members and organizational assets of over $10M. The OCCD
program impacts thousands of Oklahoma producers by enhancing the board's ability to
manage and safeguard cooperative assets.
Over 50 producers were certified under the OSU Master Cattleman Program in 2007

The demand for this educational experience has been outstanding. Class size was limited to
50 participants so that producers would be in smaller groups. The first camp filled up before
local advertising could begin. This demand caused the organizers to conduct a second boot
camp four months later. As the organizers, we underestimated the interest from goat
producers from outside of Oklahoma. To date two camps have been completed with 111
participants from fifteen states. Participants have come from as far away as Michigan, New
Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky and Georgia.
All participants were asked to evaluate the program and determine the impact to their
operation. The following are the results from the evaluations.

*80% of the sessions taught were of great value to participants
*45% potential adoption rate of information and management practices from the boot
camp
*Average perceived dollar value of the information presented was $20.89/goat
*Total value perceived for both camps $93,600
As a result of these programs, participating producers will be able to more effectively manage
their enterprises. Informed decisions regarding markets, pricing, and production based on
strong financial analysis will lead to sustainable agricultural practices and enhanced quality of
life for farmers and their surrounding communities.
The researcher found that producer knowledge gain from attending the seminars ranged
from 200 to 245%; the majority (67 to 90%) of program participants considered the seminars
valuable to them and worth their time; between 31 and 80% of the participants felt they
could apply their new knowledge and information in their job/operation; and between 92
and 100% of the participants would attend future risk management programming.
Other results indicate that six months after the participants attended the seminars, 17 to 68%
(depending on the program) had incorporated ideas, knowledge, and information from the
seminar into their job/operation, and 44 to 80% (depending on the program) were directly
applying production, legal, marketing, and range management techniques learned at the
seminars.
Many program participants noted increased profits and financial benefits of 5 to 10%, while
others gave non-financial benefits, including better-informed decision making, awareness of
alternatives, and the desire to work with other producers to take advantage of niche
marketing.




At least seven manuscripts were published.

New or novel IPM methods have been implemented on approximately 225,000 acres of crop
land in OK.


Based on survey findings, cooperative extension personnel have implemented a more
focused project to educate a sub sample of producers about use of the system and this is
being monitored at this time.
Information generated by this project is being utilized by golf course superintendents to
change their turf management practices. Golf course superintendents at Settler's Bay and
Palmer Fishhook golf courses seed their greens to Penn G-6 and 18th Green. Alaska Mill and
Feed, which is the largest marketer of grass seed in Alaska, has followed our research and is
marketing cultivars that do well in our research plots. In view of the large number of Alaskans
that utilize turfgrass for home and recreation, the research will impact a large population
over the next few years. These trials serve to introduce our research results to golf course
superintendents and golfers in on-site trials. Additionally, we reported our research results to
golf course superintendents and public sports field and turfgrass managers at one field day
and one symposium. An Experiment Station bulletin summarizing six years of turfgrass
evaluations is currently in preparation

Reindeer: By using enclosures and supplemental feed reindeer quickly socialize to humans.
This allows producers increased control of free-ranging animals. Socialized reindeer are easily
penned which reduces losses to migrating caribou and predators. Supplemental feed
improved body condition and reproduction when green forage was not available. The use of
enclosures and supplemental feeding shows promise to increase the productivity of free
ranging reindeer herds in Alaska. Peonies: Mayesh Wholesale Flower Distributor evaluated a
sample of Alaska-grown peonies when they were harvested in early July. Our trial cutting of
peonies was received favorably by Mayesh. They offered to purchase peonies next year for
$1.25 per stem.


An interview survey that will be administered to dogfish producers is being developed to
determine the types of dogfish products being produced, the wholesale supply chain, product
grades, product recovery rates, and physical attributes associated with each product grade.
The number of producers getting involved in adopting these strategies is increasing. This is
evident by the number of value-added products that are appearing at the farmers markets,
roadside-stands, and other agriculture related events.

Farmers and farmer organizations increased their knowledge and improved their crop and
small livestock production practices. Farmers are using enterprise budgets and other
information gained to develop business plans and secure financing for their farming
operations. Farmers developed computer literacy, communication and record keeping skills
to the extent that they are now able to perform routine computer related tasks, word
processing, communication via email, researching and obtaining information by the use of
the internet, and tracking the business aspect of their farming operation through record
keeping and financial management.

Collaborated with RICAPE on its "FarmWays" program which provided training for 80 farm
operators in agricultural tourism and direct marketing. Extension has also worked to build
RICAPE's service capacity by advising its board and staff in the areas of strategic planning,
program and organizational development. URI Extension worked with 7 Northeast states to
create the New England Agricultural Tourism Network. Extension, worked with the
Blackstone Valley Tourism Council to plan and facilitate the RI Sustainable Tourism Summit in
which eighty-five tourism professionals, and government and business representatives
learned principles of sustainable tourism and developed a blueprint for sustainable
development and management of tourism assets in RI.

In RI, introductory "Tranferring the Farm" workshops were held 3/16/06 and 3/13/07. A total
of 80 farmers and 25 agricultural service professionals attended these workshops. An
advanced farm transfer workshop was held March 27, 2007, attended by 35 farmers and 12
agricultural service/land management professionals. This year FTNNE has also created a
website on farm transfer/estate planning resources.

Over 60 farm visits were conducted in which production/problem solving assistance was
provided; two training programs were conducterd in which 75 farmers learned about soil
health, new vegetable varieties and perimeter trap cropping; over 200 farmers used new toll
free call in to receive planting recommendations and related guidance; staff supported
farmer research on over-wintering bees; Other outreach through speaking engagements
workshops and exhibits reached nearly 800 agriculturists with agricultural information and
resource identification and funding opportunities. Staff conducted crop trails on new
ethnically desirable vegetable varieties with results disseminated through feature articles,
public talks and workshops the initiative produced 75,000 lbs. of vegetables which were
donated to the RI Food Bank.
Through summit attendance and group meetings, thirty five state legislators, agency heads
and minicipal/business leaders learned about the principles and practices of sustainable
tourism and economic benefits of sustainable tourism development and management.
Twenty eight state and local community leaders, planners and conservation organizations
attended farm transfer workshops providing information on how land trusts and
municipaltities can work with land owners to maintain working frames and open lands.
Extension in association with URI's Landscape Architecture Program, conducted a site
assessment of URI's 300 acre Peckham Farm. Approximately 75 faculty, staff, extension
clientele, agency partners and community stakeholders were engaged in an in-depth survey,
and facilitated community forums (2) designed to elicit opinions and suggestions for the
future of the farm and extension sustainable agriculture programs. Extension staff worked
withrainwater catchment and rainwater storage pondroadway well to provide a reliable water
The the town of Charlestown, RI to develop a scenic worked managment plan.
supply for the farm. Supplemental water was only required in two of the last 16 months of
this project. Availability of water is one of the major limitations to vegetable production in
the V.I., and therefore rainwater harvesting and storage demonstrated a viable solution to
the water supply problem.

The use of fish culture effluent for the fertilization and irrigation of field crops was not
accomplished. The use of clarification to produce a clear supernatant with low total dissolved
solids (TSS) did not work. When geotube technology became available, it produced a clear
filtrate that was very low in TSS and suitable for drip irrigation. In addition, the solids that
remained were dry enough (13% dry weight) to be shoveled and incorporated into soil as an
organic fertilizer. However, by the time this technique was tested, the farm manager resigned
in August, 2007, effectively ending the project.

The approach to raise three to four crops for the wholesale market not effective. The prices
received were low, and the time involved in making deliveries was excessive. In addition,
there was no ready market for unprocessed fish. In response to these obstacles the university
provided funds to construct a farm store, which included a fish holding tank and a fish
processing room. Produce was sold at retail values and tilapia were sold live, cleaned or as
fillets. The vegetable production strategy shifted to the continuous production of many crops
to provide variety and consistency of farm store products. In the first 7 months of 2007 the
following quantities of 20 crops were produced:

CropAmount (lbs)CropAmount (lbs)
Tilapia6,428Sweet Potato 218
Tomato1,664Sugarcane 119
Eggplant 1,471Bell Pepper 95
Banana1,226Mint 36
Overall, approximately 70% of attendees indicated that they had increased their knowledge
about practices that can enhance profitability and competitiveness of their operations. The
following are examples of survey results from individual programs. Many of the outcomes
exceed knowledge acquisition and strongly support application and change in condition.

- Growers have utilized results from the small grains variety testing program to make critical
decisions about the varieties that they will plant in the coming year. Information provided by
the program have affected these decisions on approximately 70% of acres planted to small
grains in Eastern Washington.

- As a result of hard red winter wheat research, demonstration and associated educational
venues, acreage of this crop increased by 100% (200,000 acres) in 2007.

- Application of novel wheat varieties with Clearfield technology developed at WSU
exceeded 100,000 acres in the first year of commercial availability.

- 74% of alfalfa producers indicate that they consult WSU variety trials before purchasing
seed.

- 94% of participants in the 2007 Beef 300 program indicated that they planned to
implement at least one acquired technique to improve the economic status of their
operations.

- Information provided to potato growers via workshops, conferences, and a hotline has
resulted in 70% of producers changing timing of fungicide application to effectively manage
white mold.
Risk management takes on numerous forms and impacts all phases of agriculture including
fisheries. The following are examples of knowledge gained and intent to apply knowledge
related with risk mitigation.

- Over 50% of landscape professionals attending sudden oak death workshops indicate that
they learned techniques that have saved them from costly eradication that would result from
infestations on their property.

- Beef producers attending the Beef 300 series indicated that they had increased their
knowledge related to reduction of the risk of carcass defects by 1.25 units on a 5-point scale
overall.

- WSU Extension marine educators have produced educational materials, conducted
workshops, and engaged policy makers to clearly delineate tow lanes along the Pacific Coast.
New advisory tow lanes have been established along with charts to help separate fishers and
barge traffic. This has led to reduce risk to fishers by minimizing the contact between tow
barges and crabbing and fishing grounds.

- Every commercial fisher attending Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Courses made
significant improvements in safety equipment on board their vessels.

- 57% of persons participating in statewide EFNEP programs indicated that they improved
one or more food safety practices.

- In a cooperative venture with Washington and Oregon Sea Grant programs, a new weather
buoy was launched 75 miles west of Seaside Oregon. This is providing key information about
current weather conditions to mariners and providing critical data to the National Weather
Service.
Producers are successfully incorporating alternative and sustainable production practices.
The following outlines several successes.

- 100 persons increased their knowledge of issues related to intensive grazing and riparian
management as well as application of best management practices for riparian buffer areas.

- 20 producers implemented managed intensive grazing programs.

- WSU Extension educators have worked jointly with individuals in Oregon to develop
statistics on organic tree fruit production. These data are currently unavailable through
USDA or any other sources. Data are posted on the Center for Sustaining Agriculture and
Natural Resources web site: http://csanr.wsu.edu/Organic/OrganicStats.htm . This
information has been cited by a number of publications including the Wall Street Journal.

- As a result of WSU's Tree Fruit Pest Management program, several environmentally-
friendly pest management products have been registered for use for control of the cherry
fruit fly. These have been employed leading to a reduction of 90,000 pounds of
organophosphates applied annually.

This is a new program and outcomes are in the initial stages. Some early indicators of
progress are listed below.

- In 2007, 120 farmers, students and agricultural professionals were trained in soil
monitoring and non-traditional nutrient management techniques.

- A nationally-prominent database was created to track organic tree fruit production in the
Pacific Northwest.
- A WSU Extension faculty member has developed a product from digested animal waste that
has similar properties to peat moss. This product may help dairy farmers create an additional
income stream while reducing the need to harvest peat moss. Because significant qualities of
carbon are sequestered in peat moss, this alternative product also holds promise for reducing
greenhouse gas production.

- Another WSU Extension faculty member is perfecting technologies for extracting
phosphorous from dairy manure creating a dry, commercially saleable fertilizer. This will
permit transportation of phosphorus away from farms reducing impact on soils and adjacent
waterways.

- The Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources in cooperation with the Paul G.
Allen Foundation has supported creation of a pilot anaerobic digester that is yielding on-farm
electricity and biogas which has been used experimentally as a vehicle fuel.

- The number of acres in direct seeding is increasing rapidly as a result of applied research
and extension educational programs. This positively impacts soil stability and reduces energy
inputs used in small grains production.

- 200 persons have indicated grazing animal management changes to improve riparian
quality.
- Siltation and nitrate, phosphorus, coliform, and pesticide levels have decreased in the
Yakima River.

- GF-120 bait was registered as a result of applied research conducted by WSU Extension
faculty. This provides a viable non-organophosphate-based control mechanism for the cherry
fly.
- 75% of those participating in Cultivating Success programs indicated that they have
increased their awareness of issues and concerns among small farmers.

- 86% of those participating in Cultivating Success programs indicate increased awareness of
agency, university, and community resources.

- 64% indicate that their knowledge of marketing strategies has been significantly increased.

- As a result of outreach to the Hmong community, farmers have become much more
prepared for natural disasters such as flooding. Therefore, impacts of December 2007
flooding was minimal as compared to previous events.

- Latino farmers represent the fastest growing sector within agriculture in Washington State.
WSU Extension programs are teaching farm management and marketing skills in Spanish.
Educational materials have also been converted to Spanish language.

- WSU educators engaged Slavic seniors in Spokane along with youth from their communities
to produce flowers, herbs, vegetables, and strawberries. This culminated in a Harvest
Festival in September 2007 creating a greater sense of community across three generations.
- Potato growers (70%) changed timing of initial fungicide application to full bloom of
primary inflorescences and subsequently successfully managed white mold in potato. (Labels
on fungicides have also changed to account for the new research.)

- A 10.5% increase in tuber yields was demonstrated in a replicated field trial at Othello with
the new application timing. In the case of wine grapes, Ag Weather Net model-based disease
management has helped to reduce fungicide usage by 73%.

- In tree fruits such as cherries, several modern and more environmentally-friendly products
have been registered to control cherry fruit fly, reducing the dependence on the use of
organophosphate or carbamate insecticides.

- GF-120 bait was registered as a result of this work, and judging by the acres treated with
this bait, it has become the number one method to control cherry fruit fly.

- GF-120 bait- Cherry growers in Washington have saved over $ 4.50 million in labor,
materials and application cost over the past four seasons. The use of organophosphate and
carbamate was reduced by about 90,000 pounds in Washington in 2007. Employee exposure
to OP and carbamate while applying control sprays was reduced by at least 10,000 hours.

- Data from this project led to the registration of GF-120 bait in Canada.

- Growers that followed management recommendations from the information line (75% of
the potato growers in the Columbia Basin) successfully managed late blight at a cost saving
due to more efficient use of fungicides (6 fewer applications in 2007), less late blight on
foliage in the field and less tube blight in storage than those that did not follow disease
management recommendation.

Extension programs support over 200 organic tree fruit producers

In 2007, more than 120 farmers, students, and agricultural professionals learned about
simple soil quality measurements, soil management and nutrient management. We have
applied for funding for a survey to learn about practice changes made by farmers who have
taken the Cultivating Success classes in past years, so that we can assess the long-term
impacts of the classes.
Workshops offered in 2007 included topics on: drip irrigation on small farms, composting on
small farms, and enterprise selection for small farm operations. Forty-one students took the
course. Other topics we covered included: sustainability on small farms, whole farm goals,
whole farm planning, resource evaluation, direct marketing, ecological soils management,
sustainable crop production, integrated pest and weed management, organics, soil test kits,
sustainable livestock management, equipment and facilities, grazing management on small
acres, enterprise budgets, and tools for whole farm success. Sixty-one students completed
the Small Acreage farming and/or Ag entrepreneurship course in 2007. Extension faculty also
delivered 4 educational workshops for direct marketers. Two workshops focused on Legal
Liability for Farm Direct Marketers. Participants were provided a handbook titled "Protecting
Your Farm or Ranch Assets: Understanding Legal Liability in the Inland Northwest."




This program has been very successful. A wide variety of subjects of immediate and
educational interest have been covered. Lewiston Morning Tribune editors have been happy
with the columns written in personal information style, allowing each author to have an
individual style and tone reflected in their work. All columns are agriculture-related, original,
and are aligned with Extensions mission. Each column includes email contact information for
the author. Team members report contacts for additional information from nearly every
column they write. An informal survey of Camas Prairie area residents found that 87% at
least occasionally read the Ag Page of the Lewiston Morning Tribune, and 44% indicated they
read it often or always. All of the readers of the Ag Page found it at least occasionally useful,
while 38% of the readers found it often or always useful.




Each year 800 to 1,000 copies are printed and distributed throughout the state. The tri-fold
and a power-point presentation are delivered each year, by the Dean of the College of
Agriculture, to the Idaho Legislature's Joint Legislative Economic Committee. The forecast is
used to make statewide budget planning decisions. This year the presentation was also
delivered to the House Agricultural Affairs Committee and the Senate Agricultural Affairs
Committee. The information is sent out annually in a press release and is reported in every
major newspaper and is also announced on several farm radio programs. The tri-fold,
PowerPoint presentation, and press release are also posted on the Department of
Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology web site
Results of surveys conducted at farm economics workshops offered in conjunction with the
2007 Potato Conference demonstrated that 60% of respondents indicated intention to
change practices as a result of information presented.




With help from University of Idaho Extension, the group formed the Clearwater Valley Beef
Alliance (CVBA) with a goal to market their spring born calves collectively. The members of
the CVBA agreed to manage their calves identically, utilize similar genetics and market their
calves each year collectively. They also formed a legal partnership in which each member was
an equal partner and elected treasurer. The alliance has marketed their calves using the video
auction, the internet and through direct marketing channels. The CVBA has been a success for
the participating ranches. In 2006, the price received was $20 per hundred weight higher
than local auction market prices. Producers net returns have increased and they have learned
about the quality of their cattle. They have made genetic improvement over the last ten
years and have learned to study marketing options and trends and have explored working
together in other areas besides marketing.

Increased knowledge among agricultural and rural decision makers on a broad set of issues,
policy aspects, and opportunities related to commodity price increases.
30 farm families developed transition plans which will transfer business property to the next
generation with minimal tax and transfer fees.

Producers weighed their crop insurance coverage and input price risks against higher price
levels.
Agricultural producers were able to choose optimal crop mix, and optimal feeding and
retaining strategies
Nationally, ethanol production capacity is above 9 billion gallons/yr. This represents about 4%
of our national transportation fuel energy demand.




The general agriculture economy has benefited from the higher crop prices (e.g., wheat, corn,
soybeans).




Farms get individualized records and budgets and benchmarks in order to analyze their
financial performance.
Abengoa Bioenergy is in the process of implementing the process in their plants.




The addition of early season vegetables with the use of high tunnels resulted in a 20% sales
increase and 400 more people attended the Emporia Farmers' Market. Thirty-five mentoring
partnerships between master marketers and apprentices were coordinated through the
Grow Your Farmers Market project.


Although the impact of high ingredient prices on the cost of production can not be
eliminated, the impact was reduced through our work. A short-term response of producers
was to reduce feed wastage through improved feeder adjustment, better bunk management,
reduced grain particle size, and selling cull animals more quickly. Producers increased use of
alternative ingredients, such as dried distiller grains, pet food fines, and other byproduct
ingredients. Producers also reformulated diets to lower margins of safety to more closely
meet the nutrient requirements of the livestock. Producers also focused on market weights
to limit the impact of the rise in feed cost. As a longer-term focus, some producers changed
their genetic selection programs in anticipation that feed efficiency will be at a premium for
the foreseeable future. This is one important example where K-State Research and Extension
helped limit the impact of the rise in ingredient costs on Kansas farms.


The numbers of samples submitted to the KSU Soil testing lab for P, K and pH analysis has
increased at a 2-3% rate for the past decade. Opportunities still exist for continued adoption
of this important management tool. Particularly, increased use of soil testing for nitrate
nitrogen.

Recent soil test summaries indicate that the majority of the fields tested have P soil tests in a
responsive range, indicating that most growers using soil testing as a nutrient management
tool are following KSU fertilizer recommendations. However, approximately 17% of the
samples have ST-P levels above 50 ppm, levels where additional P would not be
recommended. This is an opportunity for new educational programming to make farmers
more aware of this valuable resource available on their farms, allowing them to reduce
fertilizer costs on those acres.
Interest of stakeholders in attending activities held for their benefit showed an encouraging
increase over the previous year. Progress was made in obtaining stakeholders' opinions
regarding the problems they face and the topics for scientific research most pertinent in this
regard. Certain RMP are being widely adopted by producers, e.g., the elimination of wasteful
use of concentrate feeds on non-responsive lactating dairy cows and the feeding of transition
cows diets designed to prevent milk fever and other metabolic disorders at calving; also the
establishment of a breeding season in beef cattle herds as opposed to yearlong breeding.
The adoption of other RMP will require much additional effort, because these offer no
immediate benefit in the short term to justify the cost and effort of their implementation,
but in the long term would be profitable, e.g., the large scale production of tropical legume
forages and their optimal use in well-balanced diets for ruminant livestock.




The primary impact for Pacific Northwest (PNW) organic apple producers is the capability of
using a readily available compter program to assess complex price and production
relationships that impact the revenue risk associated with organic apple production as
opposed to conventional production. Small grain producers better understand the use of
crop insurance products to manage price and production risk. Previous results suggest using
the more optimal risk management strategies (which consistently include crop insurance
products) can enhance producer well-being by $2.00 to $3.50 per acre, depending on
location. Mustard has the potential to provide a valuable alternative crop, provide a low-cost
oil for domestically-produced biodiesel, and produce a competitive biopesticide for organic
and home garden producers.
Trees with Full Sprinkler (FS) received more water than those with drip systems. Autumn
Rose Fuji trees with FS and full drip (FD) had similar TCSA, but both treatments had greater
TCSA than those of other irrigation treatments. Autumn Rose Fuji trees with all drip and FS
systems had higher yield and larger fruit size than those other systems in 2007. Autumn Rose
Fuji fruit soluble solids were lower in trees with FS irrigation treatment, while no significant
differences were observed in fruit firmness in 2007. Autumn Rose with partial drip irrigation
had a higher starch degradation pattern. In Autumn Rose Fuji, concentrations of leaf N, Mg,
and Zn were lower while that of leaf K was higher in FS and FD systems. Bud 9 and RN-29
were found to be superior rootstocks for Pacific Gala. Bud 9 and G 30 advanced fruit maturity
of Pacific Gala by increasing fruit color, soluble solids concentrations, and starch degradation
pattern and reducing fruit firmness. With Pacific Gala, drip irrigation at full rate increased
fruit size and advanced fruit maturity by increasing starch degradation pattern and reducing
firmness as compared to sprinklers system. Overall, drip irrigation at full ET c rate, calculated
with inclusion of tree spacing and ground shading is advised for both Fuji and Gala




Gary and Laura Teague, of Teague Diversified in Fort Morgan, Colo. installed an anaerobic
biodigester system as part of their livestock operation. They rely on Extension for everything
from nutritional data to alternative management plans. They are among a group of farmers
nationwide who are on the leading edge of developing business models that incorporate
renewable energy. State Representative Cory Gardner said about the conference, We have to
capture the imagination and offer exciting new things for young families to bring them to the
region.
The initial meeting was held in Limon on the eastern plans - rotating throughout the beef
producing areas, it will be held in the western high country in 2008. In 2007 there were over
250 in attendance from Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas and Wyoming. Participants learned
about the ranches' health management program, their participation in the Red Angus
Association of America's (RAAA) carcass evaluation program and estrous synchronization
strategies. Tour attendees were able to see intensive grazing strategies including plant
utilization and growth and learn about the pros and cons of summer calving vs. traditional
calving seasons. Outstanding networking, excellent education and a strong connection with
the CSU Beef Team was reinforced.

								
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