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									                   Behavior Based Safety

                                     Presented by:

          Bonnie Blam and Tiffany Giles
        Zephyr® Environmental Corporation
                                    April 28, 2009

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                    Who Is Zephyr?

       A full-service environmental, health
       and safety (EHS) firm offering:

       • Consulting

       • Training

       • Data Management

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                              Objectives for Today

  • Why Focus on Safety
  • Behaviors
  • Components and Uses of a
    Behavior Based Safety (BBS)
  • Challenges
  • Implementation

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                        Why Focus on Safety?

  • Approximately $200 billion in
    direct costs associated with
    injuries that occur both ON and
    OFF the job.
  • Approximately 250,000 potential
    productive years of life are lost
    each year due to premature work
    related deaths.

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                       Safety Pyramid

                             H.W. Heinrich (1931)

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
Safe Work Environment Pros

  •     Injury-free career for employees
  •     Teamwork environment
  •     Employee trust in employer
  •     Employer trust in employee
  •     Better quality work product
  •     Less time and money spent on

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                    Behavior Examples

  • Challenger O-Rings
  • Equipment work results in CO
  • Truck drivers being recorded have
    increase in operating at safe

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                      Causes of At-Risk

  • Lack of proper training
  • Lack of management
  • “Inborn” tendency
  • Processes not in place to
    check/inspect equipment

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                                  What is BBS?

• Involves creating a systematic,
  ongoing process that clearly defines
  a finite set of behaviors that reduce
  the risk of injury within an
  organization, collects data on the
  frequency and consistency of those
  behaviors, and then ensures
  feedback and reinforcement to
  ensure support of those behaviors.*

          *from Terry McSween of Quality Safety Edge
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                       Behavior Based Safety

  • How should it be used?
          – Positive Reinforcement.
          – Follow up on resolutions / corrective
  • Who are the users?
  • Where can it be used?
  • Why use it?

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                Components of BBS

  • Training
  • Observation
  • Recording
  • Root Cause Analysis
  • Corrective action follow through
    by management
  • Communication of lessons
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®

  •     Perception
  •     Lack of Employee Involvement
  •     Inadequate Management Support
  •     Missing / Ineffective Training
  •     Incomplete Safety Programs
  •     Poor Communication

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                         Perception Challenges

       Whose Fault Is it?

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                        Perception Challenges
  • Many BBS programs are implemented
    before key workplace issues are
    identified and addressed, such as
    trust, communication and leadership,
    to name a few.
          – Must not be only system.
          – Focus must be on the driver (cause) of
            hazardous situation.
          – Must perform POSITIVE reinforcement.
          – Must continue program even after

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                    Lack of Employee
  • Inadequate training
  • Minimal trust
  • Not used in performance
  • Little support
  • Fear of being blamed

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
Inadequate Management Support

   • The time, money, and resources
     necessary for a complete safety
     culture environment must have
     the support of all levels of
           – Reinforce positive actions.
           – Less likely to get pushback from
             employees regarding safe behavior.

 Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
Missing / Ineffective Training

  • Not including all safety hazards and
    programs in training.
  • Employee training on BBS and other
    safety programs generally occurs
    during short time slots on busy days.

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
Missing / Ineffective Training

  • All employees must understand:
          –   Principles
          –   Procedures
          –   Tools of process
          –   Rationale and method for support

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
Incomplete Safety Programs

  • Must have basic safety programs
    in place, such as:
          – Incident investigation
          – Policies in place and enforced
          – Hazard identification
  • Hire the right people for the job

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                             Poor Communication

  • Missing positive, constructive
    communication of all observations,
    near misses and other tools such as
    job hazard analysis (JHA) and
    standard operating procedures
          – Data is a tool for recognition, not
          – Tracking information for corrective
            actions and lessons learned is
            necessary to determine effectiveness.

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                          Why Implement BBS?

  • Administered by individuals with
    minimal professional training.
  • Reaches people in settings where
    problems occur.
  • Leaders can be taught the behavior-
    change techniques to work in
    specific circumstances.
  • Cost effective.
          – Straight forward interventions.
          – Easy to administer changes.
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                   Prior to Implementation

  • Decisions must be made such as,
          – People/groups to be involved
          – Mandatory or voluntary
          – Meeting schedule/Rotation schedule
          – Initial focus task, area, etc.
          – Tools
                 • Simple questionnaire
                 • Spreadsheet for metrics
                 • Flowchart for information distribution

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                    BBS Program Steps

  1.      Training
  2.      Identify unsafe acts/unsafe conditions
  3.      Disclose information to mgmt
  4.      Distribution to team
  5.      Determine causes
  6.      Identify solutions
  7.      Disseminate information
  8.      Track and share resolutions
  9.      Record metrics

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                        1. Train

  • All employees should be trained
          – Positive features of BBS
          – How to observe, recognize and record safe
            and unsafe acts/conditions
          – Procedures for disclosure of information
          – How to determine causes
          – Explain corrective actions and how they
            take place
          – Explanation of communication process and
            why necessary
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
2. Identify Unsafe Acts/Conditions

  • Observe entire job not just worker
    behavior during safety
    observation tour.
          – Identify safety and health risks.
          – Check employee understanding of
            safety and health requirements.
          – Respond to unsafe acts/conditions.
          – Gather employee input and
            feedback about safety and health

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                      3. Inform Management

  • Tools and instruction must be in
    place to identify, investigate, and
    resolve safety concerns.
          – Have tools for reporting.
          – Encourage disclosure.
          – Do not cause fear of disciplinary
          – Create feeling of comfort for
            employees to discuss actions and
            ideas for improvement.

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                            4. Distribute to Team

  • Observation information is
    transferred to the safety person or
    group who will make decisions for
    what preventative actions,
    maintenance, training is needed.
          – Rapid distribution is important
                 • Information less likely to be lost
                 • Quick resolution

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                             5. Determine Causes

  • Example of a tool used to determine
    cause is Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
  • RCA is a systematic method of trying to
    find out more about incidents and near-
    misses. There are many methodologies
    used by investigators, but they all aim to
          – what happened
          – how it happened
          – why it happened
  • These elements then lead to the
    development of solutions or preventative

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
 5. Determine Causes (cont.)

  • Assess direct and underlying root cause
    of action or condition
          – Do not overburden investigation.
          – Complexity of situation will determine how
            formal investigation needs to be
  • If management supports and encourages
    safe behavior by eliminating root causes,
    such as engineering, process,
    communication or training failures – then
    employees are more likely to want to
    adopt safe behaviors.
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                               6. Identify Solutions

  • Determine corrective actions or
          – Engineering, administrative, and/ or
            personal protective equipment (PPE)
                 • Eliminate / reduce likeliness of
                 • Reduce potential impact in case of
          – Assess solutions for limiting factors

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
    7. Disseminate Information

  • Management discusses quickly,
    openly and constructively with
    employee and investigation group
  • Send corrective actions to all who
    can benefit – lateral and vertical
          – Individuals directly involved with
            observation invited to teach experience
          – Additional business units as
            „LESSONS LEARNED‟

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
8. Track and Share Resolutions

  • Ensure follow through review done
    after a period of time (i.e., week) of
    root cause mitigations
  • Helps determine adequacy and
    acceptability of corrective measures
  • Use database or similar system to log
  • Share resolution information with all

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                    9. Record Metrics

  • Record metrics from observations
    and resolutions
          – Spreadsheet to identify
                 •   Location
                 •   Time of day
                 •   Activity
                 •   Training
          – Identify areas or tasks needing
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®

  • Improvements reinforce the importance of
    health and safety programs and highlight the
    need for strong, enduring relationships
    between workers and management.
  • Key components
          –   Training
          –   Management support
          –   Positive reinforcement
          –   Existing safety programs
          –   Include incident investigation procedures
          –   Follow up on corrective actions
  • Improvements in injury metrics can be
    seen/felt in business cost, schedule and
Zephyr Environmental Corporation®
                                       Thank you!

                                    Zephyr Environmental
                                    Phone: (512)-579-3817
                                    Phone: (512)-879-6630

                 visit us at
                   And www.HazMatAcademy

Zephyr Environmental Corporation®

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