1/92 A B C D E F G H I 1 QUEST ANSA ANSB ANSC ANSD ANSE SPECIAL providing written or oral consists of senders and 2 Communications is best described as: an exchange of information. directions. receivers effective listening. All of the above Fixed Price contracts place more risk on 3 the: owner buyer seller contractor C or D Life cycle costing is the total cost to the customer for the acquisition and ownership over its full life. Life cycle costing categories include the cost of _____, R & D, maintainability, operation and R & D, production, Acquisition, operations, Production, operations, 4 _____, and _____. support. operation and support. maintenance. maintenance. None of the above Management By Objectives assumes that is receptive to an unstructured does not require close possesses a self directed identifies with project 5 the team: environment. supervision. philosophy objectives. All of the above. continuous improvement of 6 Quality may be defined as: conformance to requirements. fitness for use. products and services appeal to the customer All of the above except B ignore the risks, since nothing can be done about them and move eliminate all known risks identify various risks and Since risk is associated with most projects, cover all project risks by buying forward with the project in avoid projects with clear prior to the execution implement actions to mitigate 7 the best course of action is to: appropriate insurance an expeditious manner. and present risks phase of the project their potential impact The process of choosing/documenting the best approach to achieve the project 8 objectives is part of: The scope baseline. Scope authorization Scope definition Scope planning. All of the above. Time management is the allocation of time in a project's life cycle through the process 9 of: Planning Estimating. Scheduling. Controlling All of the above. Approved detailed planning Managing a project in terms of its including budgets, resource objective through the concept, allocation, linear responsibility A comprehensive definition of scope development, implementation, and Approval of the scope Approval of the detailed charts and management 10 management would be: termination phases of a project. baseline. project charter. Configuration control. sponsorship. Cost Plus Percentage of Cost contracts 11 are more desirable for the: owner buyer seller contractor C or D Management styles associated with assumption that workers production environments, such as a lack of confidence in lack ambition and dislike a Theory X style of 12 assembly lines commonly include: a directing style of leadership. their workers responsibility leadership All of the above. is primarily the is primarily the is inversely related to responsiblity of responsibility of the is essentially a motivational 13 Quality management: is another name for careful inspections. productivity. management. workers. technique. Risk management allows the project eliminate most risks during the planning identify impacts of various 14 manager and the project team to: phase of the project identify project risks risks plan suitable responses B, C and D only Personnel/organization Scheduling is the process by which that will be assigned to Time when the tasks are to 15 decisions are made concerning: Tasks to be accomplished. accomplish the task. be completed. All of the above. A and C only. Communicator, encoding, message, medium, The basic elements of communication decoding, receiver, and Clarity of speech and good Reading, writing and 16 include: Listening, talking and sign language. feedback listening habits listening All of the above Which of the following would most likely Talking to people who increase the accuracy of estimating the Pricing out the work at lower levels in have worked on similar 17 project cost? the work breakdown structure. Using historical data. projects. All of the above. A and C only. 2/92 A B C D E F G H I A variance envelope has been established The accuracy of the on a project. The envelope goes from +- estimates in 30% in R&D to +-5% during manufacturing are worse Tighter controls are always manufacturing. The reason for the change The management reserve has been than the estimates in R & needed as a project begins Of the personal desires of 18 in thickness of the envelope is because: used up. D. to wind down. the project sponsor. Of none of the above primarily caused by poor workmanship of workers used to determine whether who are building or a quality management associated with non-conformance to manufacturing the program is suitable for a negligible for most large 19 Cost of quality is: specifications and requirements. product. given project. projects. A and B Management plans include all of the 20 following except: Organization of project. Job descriptions. Policies and procedures. Linear responsibility charts. Scope baseline. The Japanese resource management non-specialized career frequent changes in team a Theory Z style of 21 model exhibits: a cooperative spirit of goal setting. paths assignments management All of the above. The highest degrees of project risk and uncertainty are associated with the 22 following phase of the project: conceptual execution cut-over post project evaluation A and D only The most common types of schedules are Gantt charts, milestone charts, line of Calendar integrated 23 balance, and: Networks. Time phased events. activities. A and C only. B and C only. Which of the following is often overlooked 24 in achieving effective communication? speaking clearly listening interpreting maintaining eye contact manipulating the conversation Which type of contract requires that the buyer keep the tightest labor/material cost Cost Plus Percentage of Firm Fixed Price Plus 25 control? Cost Plus Incentive Fee Costs Cost Plus Fixed Fee Firm Fixed Price Incentive Linear responsibility Cost account coding 26 A task-oriented family tree of activities is a: Detailed plan. chart. Work breakdown structure. system. Work package description. Adding 5 people to a 4 person team increases the communication channels by 27 a factor of: 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 times 6 times Cost budgeting/cost 28 Cost management includes: Cost estimating/forecasting. control. Cost applications. All of the above. A and B only. assumes that members suggests the sharing of involves the solicitation of information avoid work and power and decision employs a Theory X style 29 Participative Management: from all team members. responsibility. making. of leadership. A and C The auditing function that provides feedback about the quality of output is 30 referred to as: quality control. quality planning. quality assurance. quality improvement All of the above. The lowest dollar amount 'at stake' is associated with the following phase of the 31 project: conceptual execution cut-over post project evaluation A and D only Cannot be related to does not show activity Cannot be related to Cannot be related to cost 32 The major disadvantage of a bar chart is: Lack of time-phasing. calendar dates. interrelationships. manpower planning. estimates. Which contract type consists of - target costs & profit, ceiling prices and shared Cost Plus Percentage of Firm Fixed Price Plus 33 ratio of risk? Cost Plus Incentive Fee Costs Cost Plus Fixed Fee Firm Fixed Price Incentive 3/92 A B C D E F G H I Methods and techniques used to examine cost and technical data are called feasibility studies. The economic aspects of a feasibility study include interest rates, present worth factors, operating costs, Technical skill Strategic marketing 34 depreciation and _____. Capitalization costs. requirements. Technology forecasting. intelligence. All of the above. reduces the risk of reduces cost of purchasing 35 Standard of purchased material: Simplifies inventory control obsolescence and storage All of the above. A and C only. The "control points" in the work breakdown structure used for isolated assignments to 36 work centers are referred to as: Work packages. Subtasks. Tasks. Code of accounts. Integration points. Provides information on resource requirements, Facilitates "what if" time requirements and 37 The utility of network-based schedules: Reveals interdependencies. exercises. Highlights critical activities. tradeoffs. All of the above. The project manager's The way a project manager sends and How others relate to the project level in the organizational the size and nature of the the project manager's the number of projects going 38 receives information depends upon: manager hierarchy project salary and age on at one time in the company neither the outcomes nor probabilities of various states the outcomes are known but their the outcomes and their their probabilities are states of nature can of nature can change at any 39 Uncertainty refers to a situation where: probabilities are high probabilities are known known change at any time time Which of the following is closet to continuous improvement of 40 Deming's definition of Quality: conformance to requirements. fitness for use. products and services. customer focus. All of the above. It is useful to conduct project risk 41 assessment according to the project's charter statement of work Work Breakdown structure network budget Modification or updating of 42 Management decision-making includes: Analysis of alternatives. Revisions/replanning. Resource allocation. goals and objectives. All of the above. Activities, documentation, Time estimates, slack, Time estimates, slack time, The basic terminology for networks Activities, events, manpower, skill levels events, manpower and Slack, activities, events, sponsorship involvement, report writing, life cycle 43 includes: and slack. skill levels. and time estimates. and activities. phases, and crashing times. The project manager must receive reports and briefings from engineers, contracting officers, procurement personnel and marketing people. The project manager's 44 communication dilemma is one of: encoding decoding choice of a medium one-way communication All of the above. The technique most commonly used to determine the profitability of a project Return on investment Discounted cash flow Payout time and risk 45 includes _____ methods. Net present value (NPV). (ROI). (DCF) sensitivity analysis. All of the above. Which of the following are part of the prepare and issue 46 purchasing cycle: define need purchase order inspect incoming goods All of the above. A and B only Which of the following is closest to Juran's 47 definition of Quality: conformance to requirements. fitness for use. continuous improvement. customer focus. All of the above. A project element which lies between two 48 events is called: An activity. A critical path method. A slack milestone. A timing slot. A calendar completion point. Employee unions would most likely satisfy which level in Maslow's hierarchy of 49 needs? Belonging Self-actualization Esteem Safety Empowerment 4/92 A B C D E F G H I Management calls a meeting to explain to all employees the new benefits package Downward 50 for the rank and file. This is an example of: Upward communication communication One-way communication Two-way communication None of the above. Project management/project planning is Long range/strategic planning (5 years Intermediate range Short range/tactical 51 most closely aligned with: or more). planning (1 to 5 years) planning (1 year or less). All of the above. B and C. The profitability and technical data studies are provided in report format to owners and funders for acceptance. This type of report, used to solicit funding, is referred to Economic evaluation 52 as a(n) _____. Project feasibility study. analysis. Risk management manual. Prospectus. None of the above Which of the following constitute Juran's planning, improvement, planning, organization, 53 "quality trilogy": planning, inspection, control. control. control. product, price, customer. design, build, deliver. Which of the following is most closely 54 associated with business risk: profit and loss personnel turnover workmen's compensation liability insurance All of the above. Which of the following types of contracts is Fixed price plus incentive 55 equivalent to a cost plus contract: Fixed firm price Cost reimbursable fee progress payments All of the above. A project manager recently rewarded an individual with a promotion that carried with it a very small salary increase but substantially more responsibility. The project manager appears to be appealing 56 to the employee's _____ need. Monetary Physiological Esteem Self-actualization Team-building Most project (and non-project) managers 57 prefer _____ communications. Oral Written Upward Downward Lateral On a precedence diagram, the arrow 58 between two boxes is called: An activity. A constraint. An event. The critical path. None of above. Quality control charts show a control limits based on control limits based on six characteristic of the product or service three standard deviations standard deviations in each 59 against: the specification limits. customer requirements. in each direction. direction. A and D only The identification, definition, and selection of the project objectives as well as the best approach to achieving the project objectives are indentified in the _____ phase of the project but first documented Conceptual, master Development, Development, master 60 in the project _____. Conceptual, charter/baseline. schedule. charter/baseline. schedule. Development, masterplan. The work breakdown structure, the work packages, and the company's accounting 61 system are tied together through the: Code of accounts. Overhead rates. Budgeting system. Capital budgeting process. All of the above. Which of the following is an element of 62 procurement management: inspection purchasing estimating expediting A, B and D only Which of the following is most closely 63 associated with pure risk: profit and loss personnel turnover insurance market fluctuations A and D only is indicated when a run of is indicated when a run of is indicated when a point seven or more points fall seven or more points fall is indicated when a point falls outside falls outside the above the center line of a below the center line of a 64 Assignable cause or special variation is: the control limits. specification limits. standard control chart. standard control chart. A, C, and D. 5/92 A B C D E F G H I In the arrow diagramming method (ADM), 65 _____ do not consume time or resources. Events. Activities Slack elements. B and C only. All of the above. Management reserve is generally intended compensate for cover major unforeseen cover unforeseen problems 66 to be used to: implement additional unbudgeted scope inaccurate estimates catastrophes in the project All of the above. Project management has been proven to be successful because employees get to see the entire effort, from beginning to end, rather than just small pieces. This Linking performance to 67 could be considered an example of: Behavioral modification pay Positive job reinforcement Job enrichment All of the above Project managers that are available to answer questions, provide guidance when need, and generally do not interfere with day-to-day activities have a(n) ______ 68 managerial style. Autocratic Conciliatory Ethical Facilitative Judicial The scope baseline once established and to accomplish verification to evaluate potential 69 approved, is used: as the basis for making future decisions. measures. changes. All of the above. A and C only. The three most common types of project Order of magnitude, parametric, and Parametric, definitive and Order of magnitude, Order of magnitude, budget Analogy, parametric and top 70 cost estimates are: budget. top down. definitive and bottom up. and definitive. down. divide the value of the desired outcome by the multiply the value of each use linear regression to To calculate the expected value of an divide the value of each outcome by its value all possible outcome by its probability, assess the expected value 71 outcome: probability, then add the results. outcomes then add the results of the outcome B and D only Activities with zero time duration are 72 referred to as: Critical path activites. Noncritical path activities. Slack time activities. Dummies None of above. For a given characteristic in a construction process, the standard deviation associated with production variation is 0.8", and the standard deviation associated with measurement variation is 0.6". The total 73 standard deviation for this characteristic is: 1.4" 1.2". 1.0" 0.8" 0.2" Project cash reserves are often used for adjustment in escalation factors which may be beyond the control of the project manager. Other than possibly financing (interest) costs and taxes, the three most common escalation factors involve Overhead rates, labor rates and Overhead rates, schedule Rework, cost-of-living Material costs, shipping Labor rates, material costs, 74 changes in: material costs. slippages, and rework. adjustments, and overtime. cost, and scope changes. and cost reporting. Selective perception is _____ of new conflicting information that may result, in a 75 breakdown in communication. Encoding Blocking out Transmission Acceptance Decoding The work breakdown structure (WBS) is an excellent tool for objective control and evaluation. Which of the following is Management generally NOT validated through the coordination and Work methods and Risk and impact decision- 76 WBS? Time, schedule and cost. organization structuring. accountability. Quality of work. making. When working in an environment that uses learning curves, the most effective plan for creating the perception that pay is related to performance is to provide the team members with an individual salary plus Rating system developed 77 bonus based upon Individual productivity Cost effectiveness Group or team productivity by the project manager All of the above 6/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following is not part of the All of the above are parts of 78 acquisition process: source selection invitation to bid contract award notice to proceed the acquisition process. An individual who is working on the satisfaction of physiological needs has 79 essentially satisfied which needs? Safety Empowerment/authority Esteem Self-actualization None of the above 80 In the PDM, common constraints include: Start-to-start Finish-to-start Finish-to-finish B and C only A, B, and C. Scope reporting is the timely determination, _____, and _____ of project progress, status data, and transforming this into structured documentation (reports) necessary to judge project performance (reporting on work Recording, graphical Accumulation, graphical Graphical display, 81 packages). Recording, accumulation. display. display. interpretation. Interpretation, analysis. There are two major types of reserves used on projects. The _____ is for (usually major) scope changes that were not considered as part of the original plan, whereas the _____ is to compensate for minor changes in estimating, escalation Management reserve, unplanned Management reserve, Contingency fund, Unplanned allowance fund, Unplanned reserve, planned 82 factors. allowance fund. contingency. management reserve. budgetary reserve. reserve. To determine what causes the majority of quality problems in a process, a very 83 useful tool is the: cause and effect diagrams. flow chart. control chart. pareto chart. trend chart. Which of the following is not part of All of the above are parts of 84 contract administration contract award performance control financial control contract closeout contract administration. A(n) _____ system is designed to ensure the timely availability of nonhuman resources, and includes the cost in procurement, shipping/freight, storage and 85 loss. Inventory control. Materials management. Procurement. All of the above. A and C only. Employees will work Team members will work hardest for those project The more rewards that hardest for those project goals which are The team will work the hardest on those the project manager goals that also bring accompanied by high Expectancy theory as applied to project goals that are clearly explained by the provides, the better the satisfaction to personal levels of authority for the 86 management implies that: project manager performance of the team goals individual team members None of the above The way we move our 87 Non-verbal communication includes: Body movement Gestures Facial expressions hands All of the above The formal invitation to submit a price for specified goods/services is usually 88 referred to as: request for proposal request for quotation tender invitation bid invitation A and B only Organization, authority Resource requirement The project scope/charter baseline Summary of background conditions and responsibility schedule including time 89 includes: defining the project. relationships. Functions to be performed. estimates. All of the above. Which of the following is not an input to 90 quality planning? scope statement. regulations. work results. standards. quality policy. Which of the following networking methods allows us to show that the last 10% of one element cannot be completed until 62% of 91 a previous element has been completed? PERT ADM PDM All of the above. A and C only. 7/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following utility functions 92 reflects risk-aversion: uniform increasing decreasing exponential B and D only A deficiency in characteristics that render the quality of the material/service 93 unacceptable is usually referred to as: defective defect non-conformance poor workmanship lack of fitness for use A line manager possesses information which the project team needs, but withholds the information. The results in Communication power 94 a(n): Blindspot Facade region of influence base None of the above Cradle-to-grave activities Any undertaking with a Coordinated effort of which must be definable time frame, well- related activities accomplished in less than defined objectives, and Series of non-related activities designed designed to accomplish a one year and consumes consumes both human and to accomplish single and multiple goal without a well- human and non-human non-human resources with 95 A project can best be defined as: objectives. established end point. resources. certain constraints. All of the above. Guidelines for estimating time durations Assuming a normal level of labor and Assuming a normal work Using past actual durations All or part of each of the 96 include: equipment. week. Using consistent time units as guides. above. Herzberg identified factors which, if present, will lead to increased motivation. 97 A typical factor would be: Good supervision Job security Regular promotions Good salary A dental plan Statistical cost estimating techniques (based upon history), are called _____ 98 estimates and are a _____ approach. Definitive, bottom up. Analogy, top down. Parametric, bottom up. Parametric, top down. Analogy, bottom up. Which quality management tool would be used to determine potential causes of a 99 production problem? control chart. Ishikawa diagram. scatter diagram. histogram. run chart. show the relationship categorize large amounts 100 Affinity diagrams are used to: determine if a process is in control. determine root cause. among variables. of data. None of the above. One of your project team members has made a technological breakthrough on an R & D project. The result will be new business for the company, as well as a company patent. The team member received a company bonus. The Linking pay and 101 motivational strategy used here is: Job enrichment performance Behavior modification Freedom in the work place All of the above Smoothing out resource requirements from 102 period to period is called resource _____. Allocation. Partitioning Leveling. Quantification None of above. The most precise or accurate estimate for determining project costs is the _____ 103 estimate. Definitive. Analogy Budget Modified standards. Rule of thumb. When subordinates know pertinent information that is not known by the project Communication power 104 manager, the result is: Blindspot Facade region of influence base None of the above Which of the following scheduling methods uses more of the risk management 105 concepts: ADM PDM CPM PERT Gantt Which of the following terms refers to the situation where the work is being used for 106 the purpose intended and so certified: beneficial completion substantial completion project completion contract closeout final completion 8/92 A B C D E F G H I A _____ estimate prepared from layouts, sketches and flowsheets, should be 107 accurate within (-10, +25%). Parametric Definitive. Budget Bottom up. Top down. Assigning resources in an attempt to find the shortest project schedule consistent with fixed resource limits is called resource 108 _____. Allocation. Partitioning Leveling Quantification. None of above. For communication to occur, there must the transmittal of 109 be: Two or more people involved information a communication process All of the above B and C only The ability to get an individual or group to 110 perform a given task is best described as: Authority Power Influence Leadership Coerciveness The comprehensive review of a contractor's technical performance, cost performance, and delivery schedule, is procurement performance contractor's performance 111 referred to as: post project evaluation post contract evaluation post mortem evaluation evaluation The financial closeout of a project dictates No charge numbers have No follow-on work from this No further charges can be 112 that: All project funds have been spent. been overrun. client is possible. made against the project. All of the above. Two sources of variation in the length of hex bolts exist. Production variation and measurement error. The QC manager knows that the standard deviation from these sources is 0.24" and 0.43" , respectively. What is the total standard 113 deviation. .10 inch. .19 inch. .34 inch. .49 inch. .67 inch. Which of the following activities can be 114 considered as part of risk mitigation risk identification purchasing insurance assessment of outcomes assessment of probabilities C and D only In general, attempts to smooth out period to period resources will _____ the Increase, increase or 115 scheduled time and _____ project costs. Increase, decrease. Increase, increase decrease. Decrease, decrease. Decrease, increase. Risk management methodology should be 116 adhered to in: construction projects system projects complex projects large projects All of the above. The most common form of written project 117 communication is Publications Bulletin boards Reports Letters and memos All of the above Authorizing budget The most difficult decision for the Authorizing scope increases for the next executive sponsors to make at the end-of- changes for the next phase based upon scope 118 phase review meeting is: Budget allocations for the next phase. phase. changes. Canceling the project. All of the above. The most expensive phase of life cycle 119 costing is: R & D. Applied research. Production Operations and support. Termination. The rule of seven used by quality control engineers states that if a run of seven or more samples lays on one side of the process mean, then the process is out of control. What is the probability that this 120 condition is the result of random variations. 14.30% 3.12% 2.73% 1.56% 0.78% The term that best describes the 'right' to 121 manipulate or change others is called? Authority Power Leadership Coerciveness Project charter 9/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following is associated with a buyer's request for material to meet a implied warranty of implied warranty of fitness 122 particular need: material warranty material guarantees salability for a particular purpose A and C only A project manager trying to communicate the language of the 123 accurately to the team should use: the language of the team members project manager non-verbal methods written memos All of the above. An advertiser who uses a movie or sports star to endorse a product is trying to use 124 power. Expert Legitimate Reward Influential Referent Control chart theory is based on the differentiation of the causes of variations in quality. Variations may be produced by assignable causes. All of the following are differences among differences among differences in each of these None of the above (all are 125 examples of assignable causes except: differences among machines. workers. materials. factors over time. examples) Giving a part of project work to a 126 contractor is an example of: risk mitigation risk assignment risk delegation risk deflection risk assumption Proper implementation of project Schedules will be Quality/performance will be The project will be a 127 management will guarantee that: Budgets will be met. adhered to. met. success. None of the above. The most effective means of determining the cost of a project is to price out the Linear responsibility 128 _____. Work breakdown structure. chart. Project charter. Scope statement. Management plan. Which method shown below is acceptable Performing activities in for reducing cost or shortening the parallel rather than in 129 schedule? "Crashing" Changing scope. series. All of the above. A and C only. Which of the following terms is used to describe the receipt issued by a carrier for 130 items to be delivered to a third party: free on board receipt for merchandise packaging list loading list bill of lading A computer tape which contains historical 131 project information is called ____ tape. Database Baseline. Archive. Lessons learned. Life cycle summary. According to Herzberg, which of the 132 following is a motivational factor? Pay Hygiene needs Achievement Working conditions Vacation time Communication in both project and non- project-driven organizations should occur 133 in directions. one two three four five During project execution, a line manager Ask the line manager to set informs you that he will not have sufficient Ask the line manager to up a meeting with you and resources available next month to support work with senior the other project managers your and two other projects. The best way Ask the line manager to make the management to prioritize Ask your sponsor to meet to work out the problem Prepare a purchase order to 134 to handle this problem would be to: decision. the work. with the line manager. yourselves. outsource the work. Japanese quality control has improved small, continuous dramatically in the last 30 years for all of improvements in quality the use of worker the use of quality control focusing quality control efforts 135 the following reasons except: the use of quality circles. control. suggestion systems. charts. on production outputs. Management reserves are normally defined as a % of the total budget. As a project progresses, the project manager wants the $ value of management reserve to _____, whereas the customer wants the Remain the same, return to 136 management reserve to _____. Increase, increase. Increase, decrease. Decrease, decrease. Decrease, increase. customer. 137 The utility of a risk seeker is: negatively exponential positively skewed increasing decreasing symmetrical 10/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following is equivalent to a 138 lump sum contract: fixed price contract price fixing contract purchase order All of the above. B and C only the cost of corrective action taken by the owner adjusting payments to and charged to the transferring charges from sub- reflect late invoices contractor for non- gaining restitution from the 139 Back charges refers to: contractors to the owner consequence conformance owner for non payment C and D only Company expenses such as auditing Contracts and costs, supervision, office supplies, building administration costing 140 rent and maintenance are elements of the: Capital budgeting process. Overhead rates. system. Fringe benefits packages. None of the above. Job continuity would be an example of 141 _____ in Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Self-actualization Esteem Physiological Belonging Safety Overlapping activities on a project, such as 142 design and construction, is referred to as: Fast tracking Risk conversion. Parallel management. Process improvement. Synchronous manufacturing The major reason why a project manager would use written instead of oral 143 communication is: documentation feedback cost barrier elimination All of the above. A basis for future decisions about the A baseline to accomplish A baseline to evaluate 144 The scope management provides: project. verification measures. potential scope changes. All of the above. B and C only. the sum of the probabilities of project the sum of the products the sum of the risks events times the sum of of each project risk event consequences of all the sum of the probabilities 1 - the sum of the probabilities 145 Total project risk can be defined as: consequences of those risks times its consequences project risk events of all project risk events of all project risk events. the cost of quality are quality control programs mostly the direct should be implemented the cost of quality is the expense of responsibility of workers when the cost of quality Which of the following statements about nonconformance to requirements and who are manufacturing are deemed affordable by 146 the cost of quality are true? specifications. the product. management. A and B. A and C A line manager who is asked to wear two hats and function as a project manager at 147 the same time is likely to exercise: Authority Power Influence All of the above] A and B only Essential in the definition Unnecessary because Including the customer in the process of and documentation of Necessary, but of limited project goals are defined in 148 project planning is: Slow and counterproductive. project goals. value. the proposal stage. None of the above. It is argumentative whether project managers actually control costs. Which of the following is the most common element over which the project manager may have 149 some degree of control? Direct labor dollars Direct labor hours. Overhead rates. Procurement costs. None of the above. are the results of originate in the quality department originate on the shop management inattention to could be eliminated if shop where the ultimate responsibility for floor because of waste potential quality supervisors monitored their 150 Most quality problems: quality rests. and product rework. improvement ideas. work more closely. A and B The "buy or make" decision is usually at any time that is convenient 151 made during the: acquisition cycle contract evaluation cycle requirements cycle pre-award cycle for the project manager 11/92 A B C D E F G H I The logical relationship that communicates a delay between the start/finish of one activity and the start/finish of another 152 activity is referred to as: Slack Free float. Restricted float. Level float. Lag wait until a problem reduce the probability of reduce the consequences actually happens, then deal Which of the following actions is an adjust project parameters (scope, time, potential project risk of potential project risk with it in the most effective 153 example of risk response: quality ...) events events and efficient manner. A, B and C only A comparison of completion status to 154 baseline is referred to as _____. Earned value measurement. Percent complete. ACWP. BCWS None of above. 155 An example of coercive power would be: Demotion Reduction in wages Disciplinary layoff Reprimand All of the above Job descriptions are examples of 156 ______communications. upward downward horizontal diagonal None of the above assumes the future risk events will occur at Is a European technique random according to for assessing project predetermined probability is a technique to stimulate 157 Monte Carlo simulation: Was originally developed by Dr. Carlo risks distributions create risk event resolution A, B and C only the majority of defects generally, 80% of the The Pareto Principle is a technique used are caused by a small in order to achieve zero quality control problems to determine which quality control percentage of the defects, all quality control are justifiable for correction problems in a particular process should be In order to minimize financial losses identifiable problems. problems, including those via cost-benefit analysis. corrected. Which of the following from quality control problems, all Improvement efforts which do not have a direct The remaining 20% are not statements best represents the philosophy problems which have a measureable should be reserved for financial cost should be financially worthy of 158 employed by this principle? cost should be corrected these vital problems. corrected. improvement efforts. A and D Only required on large complex projects where separately identifiable work An organization oriented family tree of A task oriented family A cost centered structure packages are difficult to 159 The WBS is: the project. tree of the project. of the project. construct. None of the above. Which of the following processes allow an unsuccessful bidder to seek remedy for any of the above processes 160 contract award to another bidder. bid protest bid review award Protest award review can be used A project team member submits a suggestion on how to improve the corporate procurement process. This is an 161 example of _____ communication upward downward horizontal diagonal None of the above. Financial compensation is the primary motivational tool for which of the following 162 management theories of programs. Zero-defects program. theory X management. theory Y management. Quality control circles. A and C In which of the following contract types is it fixed price plus incentive cost plus percentage of 163 easier to change the scope of the contract: firm fixed price fee cost letter contract None of the above. Planning activities such that predetermined resource availability pools Manpower contingency 164 are not exceeded is called: Resource leveling. Manpower leveling. Resource limited planning. Manpower planning. planning. Provides that authority by Establishes that Specifies overall objectives Expresses upper management which the project will be organizational structure and timeframe of the 165 The project charter: commitment to the project. run. with the project. project. All of the above. 12/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following areas are 166 addressed in risk identification: environmental technical legal All of the above. A and B only Which of the following types of power comes through the organizational 167 hierarchy Coercive Reward Referent Legitimate Expert A calendar that identifies when a project may be performed on an activity is called 168 a: Project calendar. Resource calendar. Milestone point. Key point. Work unit. Charisma would be an example of _____ 169 power. Legitimate Reward Coercive Expert Referent For every situation, several methods usually exist for effective communication to take place. Which of the following is least likely to be used for explaining to the team 170 project planning guidelines? project office memo project office directive project team meeting formal report counseling sessions the company's quality control manager who The head of the production must work with the department who retains the customer who must The line workers who must strive "to do project members to ultimate quality control The project manager who ensure that he is receiving a In the project environment, the individual things right the first time" to avoid ensure the quality control responsibility for all the has ultimate responsibility quality product from the 171 ultimately responsible for quality control is: quality problems. program is effective. company's projects. for the entire project. vendor. In which of the following types of contracts is it most important for the contractor to maintain control of cost, schedule and 172 scope changes. unit price cost plus incentive fee cost plus fixed fee firm fixed price B and D only Middle (functional) managers have the greatest influence in the direction of the project in which type of organizational 173 structure? Project. Strong matrix. Weak matrix. Project coordinator. Project expeditor. Which of the following risks are generally 174 considered unpredictable: business risk financial risk inflation natural hazards taxes A clear definition of the user's needs 175 serves as the direct basis for the: Work breakdown structure. Functional requirements. Project cost estimate. Selection of personnel. Termination decision. R & D project managers in high-tech companies most often motivate using 176 _____ power. Expert Reward Referent Identification None of the above PERT is used for PERT addresses only time PERT requires three time estimates construction projects whereas CPM also PERT requires computer PERT is measured in days The major difference between PERT and whereas CPM requires one time whereas CPM is used for includes cost and resource solutions whereas CPM is whereas CPM uses weeks or 177 CPM networks is: estimate. R & D. availability. a manual technique. months. Make a concerted effort The majority of product defects could be Increase the use of acceptance control to eliminate the potential prevented in most processes if charts instead of standard three-sigma for product defects in the Create a quality control 178 manufactures would do the following: control charts. design stage. department. A and B. A and C Which of the following diagrams is most 179 useful in impact analysis: arrow diagrams precedence diagrams decision trees Pareto diagrams cause and effects diagrams Which of the following is least likely to be used in explaining to a team member why you consider his/her performance 180 substandard? Project office memo counseling session project team meeting formal letter individual conversation 13/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following types of contracts allows the owner to transfer risk to the 181 contractor: cost plus incentive fee cost sharing firm fixed price cost plus fixed fee performance guarantees A contractor estimates that a project has a 0.5 probability of $200,000 profit and 0.3 probability of $50,000 loss. The expected 182 monetary value of this project is: $200,000 $150,000 $85,000 $50,000 None of the above. A project manager who allows the team to make the majority of the decisions is 183 demonstrating a(n) ____ leadership style. Laissez-faire Boss-centered Subordinate centered Autocratic Demographic Historical records during close-out are useful to _____ and _____ for future Analyze successes, Analyze strengths, Support litigation, defend 184 projects. Predict trends, highlight problems. shortfalls. document results. claims. Justify results, set standards. In a fishbone diagram, the effect you are at the end of the diagonal at the left-hand end of the 185 concerned about is placed: at the right-hand end of the spine. line (i.e. "fin"). on a branch of a fin. spine. None of the above. Sound, prudent, but often unsophisticated 186 judgement is called: common sense rational management smoothing confrontation None of the above Which of the following types of specifications gives measurable performance process capability 187 capabilities of the product: functional specifications specifications conformance specifications technical specifications specification A graphical display of accumulated costs and labor hours for both budgeted and actual costs, plotted against time, is called 188 a(n) _____. Trend line. Trend analysis. S curve. Percent completion report. Earned value report. By using Project Risk Management techniques, project managers can develop identify risks, their strategies that do all but which of the provide a rational basis for impact(s), and any 189 following: Significantly reduce project risks eliminate project risks better decision making appropriate responses None of the above. In a flowchart, the diamond form is used to 190 represent: a starting point. an operation. a written report. a decision point. an end point. In small companies, project managers and Sometimes the same Always in disagreement Forced to act as their own 191 line managers are: Never the same person Always the same person person with each other sponsors Make or buy decisions are usually made 192 during the _____ phase of a project. Conceptual Development. Implementation Execution Close-out Managers who adopt a sound, but prudent 193 managerial style are called authorization conciliatory ethical judicial promotional Will elongate the project if the activities on this The critical path in a network is the path path take longer than Must be completed before 194 that: Has the greatest degree of risk. anticipated. all other paths. All of the above. A and B only. There are four general classes of products that the purchasing department seeks to obtain for production. Which is not one of Standard production 195 these categories: Raw materials items Special items Items of small value Semi-precious materials A good team leader must be concerned Organizational goals; Legitimate power; referent Group efficiency; power Tasks to be accomplished; 196 not only with _____ but also with _____ . Long term goals; short term goals personal goals power and authority needs of the team members 14/92 A B C D E F G H I The project stakeholders should be actively involved with the _____ phase(s) 197 of the life cycle. Conceptual Development. Execution Finish All of the above. The starting point in the development of a Customer's deliverable Customer's milestone Listing of customer team 198 top-down PERT/CPM chart is the _____ . Project specification tree. list. dates. Work breakdown structure. meeting dates. is particularly effective in allows workers the overcoming opportunity to generate has proven ineffective in both Japan and labor/management provides a quick fix for solutions for chronic quality 199 The use of quality circles: the U.S. conflicts. most quality problems. problems. A and B only Which phase of the project life cycle typically has the highest uncertainty and 200 risk associated with it? concept development execution conclusion All of the above. Your sponsor announce to you and your team that his/her door is open to everyone wishing to discuss project problems. Yet, the sponsor seems to be annoyed whenever someone does stop by, even when discussing a serious problems. This 201 is an example of. semantics credibility inconsistent signals perceptual differences misunderstood role _____ is associated with a buyer's request for materials or equipment to meet a particular need or accomplish a specific Implied warranty of Implied warranty of fitness 202 purpose. Express warranty merchantability for a particular purpose Prescribed warranty None of the above. ADM is an activity-on-arrow method. In Denotes any dependency Identifies customer Identifies customer team 203 this method, a dummy activity: Denotes a critical path relationship. relationship. Shows slack. deliverables dates. meeting dates. An informal communication network on a project and within an organization is called unrestricted 204 a(n): free upward flow free horizontal flow communication flow grapevine open network By which process may an unsuccessful 205 supplier seek remedy for unjust awards? Contract dispute Stop work order Bid protest Coffective action None of the above. Risk classified as unknown unknowns (i.e., should be ignored, since those which cannot be identified or should be deflected to the contracting should be handled via should be ignored, since they are not covered in the 206 evaluated): officer contingency allowances they cannot be identified Project Risk Assessment C and D The "zero defect" concept was proposed 207 by: Deming Juran Crosby Tagushi A and D only The major difference between project and line management is that the project manager may not have any control over 208 which basic management function? Decision-making Staffing Rewarding Tracking/monitoring Reviewing Which of the following planning Qualified project manager Insuring top management 209 considerations is often overlooked? Planning for project termination. assignment. support. Clearly defined tasks. All of the above. A recurring communication pattern within the project organization or company is 210 called a: free-form matrix structured matrix network rigid channel None of the above. During a project review meeting, you discover that your $250,000 project has a negative schedule variance of $20,000 which equates to 12% of the work Overtime will be required to scheduled to this point of time. You can The critical path has been the costs are being maintain the original critical 211 therefore conclude that: The project will be completed late. lengthened. overrun. path. None of the above. 15/92 A B C D E F G H I Once the logic of a network is laid out, the project manager will conduct a forward pass and backward pass through the network. This will provide information on Slack for each activity, Manpower shortages, high High risk activities, non- Manpower availability, 212 the _____ and identification of the _____ . Slack for each activity, critical path. high risk activities. risk activities. critical paths. contingency plans. Project managers need exceptionally good They must provide communication and negotiation skills They may be leading a team over which Procurement activities They are expected to be executive/customer/sponso 213 primarily because: they have no direct control mandate this technical experts r briefings All of the above Risk can be divided into two basic types; business risk and pure (or insurable risk). Of the following, which one(s) fall(s) under 214 business risk? liability loss direct property loss profit loss personnel-related loss B and C The purpose of project Risk Management Identify those factors that will adversely Assess the impact of Assess the probability of 215 is to: impact project objectives. adverse project factors. adverse project factors. A and C All of the above. Which of the following factors has historically been the greatest contributor to Planning performed by a planning Lack of sufficient Lack of management Not using an automated 216 project failure? group. Poor financial estimates. management reserve. support. tracking tool. Which type of process involves the agency holding discussions with each of the offerors, after receipt of their proposals, in the process of arriving at an agreement 217 prior to the award of a contract? Sealed bidding Competitive proposals Noncompetitive proposals Formal bid Verbal bid The slack in the path Manpower from this activity A non-critical path activity is completed in containing this activity will The total cost for this can be assigned to other 218 half the time. Then, The critical path is also reduced. increase. activity has decreased. activities. All of the above. An element in the WBS was estimated to require 1 month for completion with 1000 hours of labor and a burdened cost of $50K. The task was completed in 1000 hours but a burdened cost of $60K. The most likely reason for the increase would Higher salaried employees were The overhead rate Employee salaries had 219 be: assigned. Overtime was required. increased. increased. Any of the above In the past, most project managers have come from _____ fields without proper Marketing; technology- Business; manufacturing 220 _____ training or education in skills Technical; accounting/finance Technical; management Technical; psychological oriented know-how will be reflected in the "in- The Risk of NOT meeting project quality can be minimized through continuous considered a long term service" life of the product 221 objectives: monitoring. risk. or service. B and C All of the above. The main player in project communication 222 is the sponsor project manager functional manager functional team All of the above. The type of contract (payment mechanism) Is accomplished by paying chosen for a project is often a reflection of Is accomplished by for the budgeted costs of the degree of risk associated with paying the contractor for Is an undisclosed dealing with risks, as completing that project. For a firm fixed Is accomplished by paying the actual his costs plus a fixed fee contingency in the predicted in the project risk 223 price contract, payment for risk _____ . costs to the contractor. (profit). contractor's bid. assessment. B and C Which is not an element of procurement 224 management? Purchasing Expenditure Marketing Inspection B and D 16/92 A B C D E F G H I Which percent of the total project labor hours are typically expended by the end of 225 the second phase of the project life cycle? 5% 10% 15% 25% 50% Showing which activities Comparing actual to planned Showing critical path can be rearranged in 226 Bar charts are most appropriate for: performance to each activity. Showing slack time. dependencies. parallel. All of the above. Formal authority is often referred to as legitimate power. Which two other forms of power are also considered to be legitimate 227 power? Reward and penalty Reward and referent Referent and expert Expert and reward Penalty and referent Power games, withholding information, 228 and hidden agendas are examples of-. noise communication barriers indirect communication mixed messages All of the above a work authorization considers Cost, Quality and 229 Scope management is: a project control function. employs change control. process. Schedule. All of the above. The most common method for pricing out Price out the work using Price out the work using a non-burdened labor hours for a three year Price out the hours at the actual salary a company-wide average functional group average 230 project would be to: of the people to be assigned. labor rate. labor rate. All of the above. A and B only. The principles of risk management should 231 be followed only for: complex projects simple projects large projects A and C All of the above. considers the risk propensity of the is based on proven deals with the usefulness is a key element of ISO 232 Utility Theory: decision makers. statistical methods. of the end product. 9000 B and C Prepare and issue 233 Which is not part of the purchasing cycle? Defined need Transmit need Inspection purchase order A and D A network has been developed with resources from six different departments. One of the six departments has just informed you that they can increase the A through D are possible number of employees from 5 to 8. This will A shortening of the A decrease in the total cost An increase in the cost of based upon where the 234 result in: A shortening of the critical path. noncritical path. of the project. the project. resources are deployed. Conflict management requires problem- solving. Which of the following is often referred to as a problem-solving technique 235 and used extensively in conflict resolution? Confrontation Compromise Smoothing Forcing Withdrawal Cost Reimbursable contracts are Progress payment 236 equivalent to: Cost plus contracts Fixed plus contracts contracts Back charge contracts None of the above. In project-driven companies, costs are The burdened labor rate The burdened labor rate of The burdened labor rate of usually billed againest the project based The burdened labor rate of the actual of the line organization the company average the average salary of the 237 upon: employees who performed the work. average salary. salary. project team members. None of the above. Project Risk Management is based on unknowns can result in we cannot control risk project risk impact can be 238 which of the following premises: the future is unknown. risks or opportunities. events. measured and controlled All of the above. The project manager that allows and supports group discussions and decision 239 making is called a(n) _____ manager. autocratic consultant autocratic consensus shareholder None of the above. To document the To document the To document Parametric To document Order of 240 What is the purpose of the Project Plan? To document the Preliminary estimates. Definitive estimates. Budgetary estimates. estimates. Magnitude estimates. 17/92 A B C D E F G H I Management has decided to "crash" a project in order to avoid penalty payments Those activities on the for late deliveries. To crash the project, Only those activities with critical path begining with either overtime or additional resources the longest time the longest time duration Those activities with the 241 should be assigned to: All activities. durations. activities. greatest degree of risk. None of the above. Of the following, who has the ultimate responsibility for meeting project quality Quality Assurance 242 objectives? Project Engineer Project Manager Functional Manager Manager Project Owner Risk mitigation involves all but which of the developing system standards (policies, obtaining insurance identification of project performing contingent developing planning 243 following: procedure, responsibility standards) against loss risks planning alternatives The cost of corrective action taken by the purchaser and chargeable to the supplier 244 under the terms of the contract is: Payment authorization Bid cost considerations Release payment Back charge None of the above. The sequential steps that define the process for successfully completing a 245 project is: Implementation Plan a life cycle Development Plan a critical path Management Plan Which of the following time robbers end up creating additional work for the project Changes without Unreasonable time 246 manager and the project office? Failure to delegate notification or direction constraints Over directing people All of the above You are giving your team instructions on how to perform a new test which is different from the way that the team had performed it previously. The best way to verify that the learn understands what you analyze the team's uses gestures in analyze the team's analyze the team's encoding 247 want is to: obtain feedback perceptions barriers presenting the instructions decoding skills skills A common way by which executives provide the project manager with written A common job description for all project 248 authority is through: managers An appointment letter A project charter All of the above B and C only Surveys have shown that the primary skill needed to be a project manager is communication skill. The typical project manager spends approximately ______percent of his or her time 249 communicating. 40-50 50-60 60-75 75-90 90-95 Project objectives, The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is Project scope, cost control, schedule, dependencies, plan, cost Project scope, schedule, Project scope, quality, Project budget, schedule, risk 250 the basis for communicating: quality control staffing, cost control schedule, dependencies factors, work assignments. The quality objectives are approved in the Quality Assurance 251 conceptual stage of the project by the: Project Engineer Project Manager Functional Manager Manager Project Owner is the probability of each project risk event times Is the cumulative sum of the sum of the the probability of each consequences of individual project risk event individual project risk times the consequences of should not be calculated for small events which could occur occurrence of that risk 252 Total Project Risk: projects during the project. event. A and B A and C _____ is a narrative description of the work to be accomplished or resource to be 253 supplied. Purchase order Level of effort work Scope of work Contract stipulation None of the above. 18/92 A B C D E F G H I A line manager provides you with three estimates for his activity in your PERT network. His estimates are 2 weeks optimistically, 4 weeks most likely, and 12 weeks pessimistically. The expected time 254 which would appear on the chart would be: 4 weeks 5 weeks 6 weeks 7 weeks None of the above. change the scope, budget, schedule or reduce the consequences In Project Risk Management, Risk quality specifications of or severity of impacts of a 255 Response may include actions to: reduce the probability of risk events the project potential risk event A and C All of the above. Researching, organizing and recording 256 pertinent information is called: Alternative analysis Information gathering Configuration management Post project analysis All of the above The budget associated with scope changes that have been approved but not planned for yet, is referred to a(n) _____ 257 budget. Unauditable. Undistributed. Preauthorized. Contingency. In-process. The project manager must be concerned with building a closely knit team. During the project kickoff meeting, the project manager can get a good start at team Proposed salary increases if the project Bonuses for early A promise of future Well-defined project 258 building by providing the team with: is successful completion date assignments objectives Linear responsibility charts To determine whether or not the employee correctly understands the message, the 259 project manager needs to: reduce the filtering eliminate barriers obtain feedback use more than one medium use all of the above. What is the relative priority of project Cost, 1)Quality - 2)Schedule - 1)Quality - 2)Cost - 1)Schedule - 2)Quality - 260 Schedule and Quality? 1)Cost - 2)Schedule - 3)Quality 3)Cost 3)Schedule 3)Cost All are of equal priority _____ is a method of procurement where a contract results from a bid which may be 261 changed through bargaining. Acquisition Contract negotiation Procurement Purchase negotiation None of the above. revise quality A proven effective means to insure quality specifications to match train workers in proper inspect quality into the make quality a higher priority 262 conformance is to: delegate accountability to subordinates quality measurements quality methods product than cost or schedule Communication management is best the exchange of perfect documentation 263 described as conducting or supervising the way we listen the way we speak the way we feel information activities Established without considering resource Measurable, intangible and 264 Good project objectives must be: General rather than specific bounds Realistic and attainable Overly complex verifiable Safety, OSHA and EPA may have placed Adding more resources restrictions on the may create additional work Certain activities are time-dependent number of people used The skill level of the added and produce inefficiencies Increasing resources on the critical path rather than resource-dependent (i.e., on certain activities or in resources might not be (i.e., additional people may activities may not always shorten the using three ovens rather than one to the physical location of appropriate for the need training and 265 length of the project because: bake a cake). the project. activities to be performed. supervision.) All of the above. Universal characteristics of effective project managers include such skills as communication, decision-making, being close to the None of the above are 266 planning, ability to identify problems and: Performing feasibility studies Proposal preparation customer Maturity universal characteristics 19/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following is not a measure of 267 the profitability of a project or program? Return on original investment. Net present value. Depreciation. Discounted cash flow. None of the above _____ is a formal invitation containing a scope of work which seeks a formal response (proposal) describing both methodology and compensation to form 268 the basis of a contract. Request for proposal Invitation to bid Request for quotation Intention for bid None of the above. By which means is a contractor able to control cost overruns due to changing Purchase order 269 requirements? Project data review Change order amendment Change control None of the above. Must be closely supervised and even Douglas McGregor's Theory Y advocates Dislikes work and avoids it whenever threatened with Avoids increased 270 that the average worker: possible punishment responsibility Wants self-respect None of the above Feasibility studies occur in which life cycle Conceptual or 271 phase (s)? Conceptual Development Execution Preliminary planning any life cycle phase how to translate the message into a language to whom to send the that everyone can 272 Project managers must know: What kind of message to send message understand All of the above A and B only are specific quality characteristics for which a are used to determine how effectively can be objective or product is designed, built, 273 Quality attributes the organization accomplishes its goals subjective in nature and tested. A and B. B and C the total number of the total number of possible events the fraction of the total possible events divided into divided into the expectations or the number of times the project tasks which may be the consequences of the 274 Risk event probability is defined as: frequency of the risk event risk event may occur affected by the risk event risk event. A and B Scheduling systems such as PERT, ADM, and PDM are project management tools to The project manager and project office The project team and 275 be used by: personnel. functional managers. The project sponsor. All of the above. A and B only. The planned cost for the total project at its 276 inception is called the _____. Cost of goods sold. Depreciable value. Budgeted cost. All of the above. B and C only. A process characteristic has a true mean of 150 and a true standard deviation of 20. A sample of 25 items is taken from this process. The standard error of the 277 estimate is: 0.2 0.8 4 5 7.5 Network schedules are prepared during the _____ phase and updated during the Development, 278 _____ phase. Conceptual, execution. implementation. Development, close-out. Implementation, close-out. Planning, finishing. is a subset of is concerned with naming configuration all activities performed, the management and as end products which results entails managing the project's work such is performed by CM and the resources is not a concern of the 279 Scope Management: content. specialists. consumed. project manager. None of the above. The methods and techniques for determining the economic costs, the environmental impact, the economic returns, and the probability for success are 280 called: Feasibility studies. Bills of materials. Pert charts. Managerial reserves. None of the above 20/92 A B C D E F G H I The traditional organizational form has the Poorly established No single focal point for 281 disadvantage of: Complex functional budgeting communication channels clients/sponsors Slow reaction capability Inflexible use of manpower Things that distort, distract, or muddle the 282 communication process are called: noise selective filtering selective perception medium problems All of the above. Existence of sufficient Which is not a consideration in a make or Competitors' method of administration/technical 283 buy decision? Cost factors (least cost alternatives) sourcing personnel Political and social factors None of the above. subdivides the project provides the project into manageable sponsor with a time-phase 284 A Work Breakdown Structure: assures all work is identified segments task summary both A and B All of the above. A project manager can exchange information with the project team using 285 which media? tactile audio olfactory visual All of the above. Is amended to reflect the During project execution, the customer Is still the original scope change, but the Is meaningless since every Is the same since baseline authorizes and funds a scope change Now becomes the new schedule, baseline but annotated to original baseline is still schedule update changes schedules cannot change which requires a major change in the including the changes, and the original reflect that a change has maintained for post-project the baseline (i.e., a rubber once the development phase 286 schedule. The baseline schedule: baseline is disregarded. taken place. review. baseline.) is completed. estimate the effect of estimate the level of risk change of one project Sensitivity analysis can be used in risk Substitute for uncertainty analysis in risk aversion adopted by variable on the overall 287 analysis to: quantification management project A and B All of the above. The Pareto Principle is a technique used the majority of defects generally, 80 % of the by quality managers to determine which are caused by a small in order to achieve zero quality control problems quality control problems of a particular In order to minimize financial losses percentage of the defects, all quality control are justifiable for correction service or manufacturing process should from quality control problems, all identifiable problems. problems, including those via cost-benefit analysis. be corrected. Which of the following problems which have a measurable cost Improvements efforts which do not have a direct The remaining 20% are not statements represents the philosophy of associated with them should be should be reserved for financial cost should be financially worthy of 288 the principle? corrected. these vital few problems. corrected. improvement efforts. A and D Multiplying the budgeted Dividing the actual hours The budgeted cost of the work performed hours to complete the required to complete the (BCWP) for a task that has just been Multiplying the actual hours worked on task by the budgeted task by the budgeted labor 289 completed can be calculated by: the project by the budgeted labor rate. labor rate. rate. Cannot be determined. None of the above The project manager has, as a prime responsibility, to assure proper integration of activities. In which organizational form does the project manager probably have 290 the easiest time in integrating work? Matrix Classical Expediter Coordinator Pure project There are four methods of government procurement. Which is not one of these 291 methods? Assistance Sealed bidding Competitive proposals Acquisition Small purchases A scientist is informing techs. about a new product which is starting and the type of work that the lab techs. will be expected to do. The barriers which could hinder the lab reputation, authority, techs. ability to filter the information intelligence and knowledge organizational status and relative location of the lab to 292 include all of the following except: language and semantics culture and ethics base position the scientist's office 21/92 A B C D E F G H I failure to reserve funds to handle worst Many companies self insure against some case scenarios (low probability events) risk. Problems which can arise from self- resulting in severe financial damage to stiff competition from confusion of business risks 293 insurance include: the company insurance companies with insurable risks. A and C All of the above. Perhaps the biggest problem facing the Unclear functional project manager during integration Coping with employees who report to Too much sponsorship understanding of the 294 activities within a matrix structure is: multiple bosses involvement technical requirements Escalating project costs All of the above The Japanese Quality Control (QC) Circle movement motivated its participants in many ways. Which of the following represents the most important motivation improving the performance of the recognition among co- strengthening of relationships 295 for the QC circle participants? company self-improvement financial incentives workers between co-workers The _____ specification delineates specific measurable capabilities or parameters for which a product can be tested as part of 296 the acceptance procedure. Performance Functional Technical Base Line None of the above. project planning, project project planning, work control, project definition, project concept, project project concept, project planning, project authorization, and project WBS development, and execution, and project 297 The project life-cycle can be described as: execution, and project close-out. reporting. project termination. reporting. All of the above. The value that an asset The costs that have been The expected cash value at The value of the scrap metal if a new has on the books after sunk into the project to the end of an assets useful 298 The salvage value of an asset is: asset were taken to a scrap yard. one year of depreciation. date. life. A and D only. Your team has prepared a CPM schedule for your review. You notice that one node This is invalid because a has six inputs (including two dummy node can have a This is invalid because This is invalid because a activities) and four outputs (which include maximum of one dummy nodes cannot have both This is a invalid because maximum of two inputs and one dummy activity). Select the correct This is a valid representation if the logic input representation if the dummy inputs and dummy the number of outputs must two outputs are allowed using 299 statement from the following: is correct. logic is correct. outputs. equal the number of inputs. the critical path method. Assume that you have a network where an activity on the critical path can be crashed The available slack on by two weeks. If the activity is actually The project's schedule will be reduced the noncritical paths will A new critical path may 300 crashed by two weeks, then: by 2 weeks. increase. appear after the crash. All of the above. A and B only. a means for communication of work an audit trail of all work activity between the project a means of effective internal authorized from project manager and the 301 Documented work authorization provide: coordination of the project's activities. initiation to completion. performing activities. All of the above A and B only. Fixed-price and incentive-type contracts place responsibility for performance and financial risks associated with delay or non- 302 performance on the: Buyer Third party Contractor All of the above None of the above The customer will incur no The contractor incurs the further costs for the work The customer incurs the total financial total financial the contractor performs in In a contract, the point of total assumption responsibility for each additional dollar responsiblity for each The schedule and cost the completion of the 303 refers to the point where: spent. dollar spent. variance are zero. contract. B and D only. 22/92 A B C D E F G H I Unless the project If the functional employees are manager has an input Unless the project and line Unless the project and line In a matrix organizational form, MBO may supervised closely by the line manager into the employee's managers agree on the managers agree to the None of the above are correct 304 be difficult to implement: rather than the project manager performance review ultimate objective duration of the task answers is the technical process is an auditing function that include the that provides feedback to construction of control the project team and charts which specify refers to the prevention of product client about the quality of acceptability limits for 305 Quality assurance defects output being produced. conforming output. A and B. B and C Which of the following communication 306 media is least accepted by organizations? tactile audio extrasensory visual olfactory Formal written communication is scope changes not part of the original taking exception to a procurement of raw 307 mandated for which of the following? project specification materials All of the above. A and B only In performing an impact analysis, the most effective tool to ensure all risks are milestone review and cost/schedule control planning programming program and evaluation 308 identified on large projects is the: Work breakdown structure schedule technique system budget system review technique the company's quality control manager who The head of the production must work with the department who retains the customer who must The line workers who must strive "to do project members to ultimate quality control The project manager who ensure that he is receiving a In the project environment, the individual things right the first time" to avoid ensure the quality control responsibility for all the has ultimate responsibility quality product from the 309 ultimately responsible for quality control is: quality problems. program is effective. company's projects. for the entire project. vendor. In which organizational form do project managers usually get to know the employees well enough to provide an input 310 into their performance review? Expediter Coordinator Pure project Matrix Line-staff The critical path in a schedule network is Must be done before any Allows some flexibility in Is not affected by schedule 311 the path that: Takes the longest time to complete other tasks scheduling a start time. slippage All of the above. provides a means provides insight into whereby various levels of project areas and the authority can judge effectiveness of the control 312 The use of the project reports: are not necessary on small projects project performance systems All of the above B and C You must produce 27 widgets. You can only produce 9 widgets per production run. Each production line setup costs $1000. Each widget consumes $10 worth of material and $5 worth of labor. What is the 313 total fixed cost for producing the widgets. $3,000 $27,000 $27,270 $1,335 $1,000 _____ is based on information gathered and analyzed about demand and supply. This forecast provides a prediction of short and long term prices and the underlying 314 reasons for those trends. Demand forecast Price forecast Supply forecast Production forecast None of the above. 23/92 A B C D E F G H I an undertaking of a large, complex interrelated activities a group of activities headed undertaking with many directed toward a specific by a project manager who a coordinated undertaking of interrelated objectives, multiple goal that can be has cradle-to-grave cycle activities directed toward a specific goal sources of funding, and a accomplished in less than responsibility for the end 315 A project is defined as: that has a finite period of performance. not discernible end point. one year. product. All of the above. An acceptance control chart has limits that are based on the spec. limits for the When the number of product rather than limits which samples outside the differentiate between random and current control chart assignable causes. Under which of the When the engineering tolerance on a limits become too costly When a process is subject following circumstances should a QC dimension greatly exceeds the natural and cumbersome to to constant but stable tool 316 manager consider this type chart dispersion of the manufacturing process investigate. wear. A and B. A and C detemining the sum total of the most probable variances of the various Budgeted contingencies can be detemined applying standard risk items properly 317 by: past experience allowances identified. All of the above. None of the above. It is a generally acceptable practice that if one of your clients makes an informal 318 request of you, then you should respond: formally in writing with a memo informally nonverbally All of the above Company management Ouchi's Theory Z relates more to _____ philosophy in treating whereas Theory X / Theory Y relates to employees; the average Project sponsors; project The functional team; Recruitment policy; wage and 319 _____ . Project managers; team members worker managers project sponsors salary administration The first step in building a PERT/CPM Determine the critical Create a work breakdown 320 network is to: Create a flow chart path Show task relationships structure None of the above. Which is not one of the five classifications 321 of work found in a purchasing operafion? Management Buying Follow-up and expediting Marketing Clerical You must produce 27 widgets. You can only produce 9 widgets per production run. Each production line setup costs $1000. Each widget consumes $10 worth of material and $5 worth of labor. What is total variable cost for producing one 322 widget. $1,020 $1,010 $1,015 $20 None of the above is accomplished by allows for data collection and analysis selection of measurable and progress reporting against which variables against which is required before funding standards of performance can be performance can be of the project by the project 323 Creation of project objectives: measured. judged. sponsor. all of the above. A and B only During which phase of the project life cycle 324 is the amount at stake lowest? concept development execution conclusion C and D using redundancy (i.e. Techniques that can improve establishing a single, one-way avoiding face-to-face saying it two different disregarding the sensitivity 325 communication include: communications channel communication ways) whenever possible of your receiver All of the above. 326 The Delphi Method is well-suited for: Decision-making Forecasting Overhead rate estimating All of the above A and B only 24/92 A B C D E F G H I is used by management to is a motivational communicate to all technique that promotes employees that everyone is a performance standard for "doing it right the first should do things right the 327 The zero defects concept management time". first time. A and C. B and C What tool have project managers come to use to identify all of the costs associated A work breakdown 328 with a project. A bill of materials A Gantt chart An arrow diagram network. structure. B and C only. _____ is a receipt issued by a carrier for merchandise to be delivered to a party at 329 some destination. Proforma invoice Inspection certificate Packing list Bill of lading None of the above. a grouping of similar projects having no definite a unique undertaking end that supports the a grouping or related tasks lasting one having a definite time product(s) from cradle to a project with a cost over 330 A program is characterized as: year or less. period. grave. $1 million. None of the above. The development of a contingency allowance determined by combining the development of Contingency planning should include all (layering) various estimate segments to schedule alternatives and the management of a an assessment of project 331 but which of the following? form larger estimate segments. work-around contingency budget shut-down liabilities. A and C From an operating or functional To support company perspective, there are various objectives of operations with an To achieve maximum purchasing and materials management. uninterrupted flow of To develop reliable and integration with the other To attain approval from each 332 Which is not one of these objectives? To buy competitively materials and services effective sources of supply departments of the firm department of every purchase Create a quality control department and give the Implement of a formal In order to achieve long-term quality Motivate the employees with seminars, head of the department quality control program improvements, management must do the contests, and institute programs such ultimate responsibility for with worker and Establish financial incentive 333 following: as "Quality Improvement' day. quality improvement. management involvement. packages for worker. A and D Team members want to work for a project manager that can provide them with career path planning. In which organizational form is career path planning difficult for project 334 employees? Matrix Pure project Project coordinator Project expediter Classical/traditional The swiftest and most effective communications take place among people the ability to reduce 335 with common points of view dissimilar interests advanced degrees perception barriers good encoding skills Typically, during which phase in a project life cycle are most of the project expenses Development of design 336 incurred. Concept phase phase Execution phase. Termination phase. None of the above 337 Communication always makes use of. symbols words language gestures All of the above. Fixed-price contracts place more risk on 338 the _____ . owner contractor seller B and C All of the above. The best way to insure quality distribute the responsibility to train each worker to inspect quality into the 339 conformance is to _____. subordinates. maintain total control. implement the work. project. None of the above. 340 The project charter is developed by: senior management the customer the project manager both A and C None of the above. When a project manager is running over Incur a schedule slippage the budgeted costs, the project manager (to obtain more favorable can typically _____ to attempt to get the pricing due to lengthened 341 project back on budget. Reduce features and/or functionality Increase risk. delivery times) All of the above. A and B only Which of the following fall(s) under the Discrimination and equal 342 responsibilities of a project manager? Labor relations with project personnel Affirmative action Personnel training employment opportunity All of the above 25/92 A B C D E F G H I A legally binding document offered 343 unilaterally is a _____ . purchase order scope of work description contract stipulation level of effort proposal request for proposal a communication tool typically describe physical A technical requirement has which of the between the user and the written in non-technical developed in cooperation dimensions and performance 344 following characteristics: easy to understand design team language with the user requirements If a project manager communicates a verbal message to a subordinate, and the subordinate leaves without saying a word, the message was not the subordinate discarded the information was not 345 the project manager should assume: the message was understood understood the information appropriate None of the above. Inspection of a complex project according to specifications is accomplished by quality conformance 346 _____. inspection by attributes. cyclical inspection inspection original inspection None of the above. The behavioral responsibilities of a project 347 manager may also include dealing with: The public Regulatory personnel The legal environment Environmental issues All of the above The difference between the BCWS and the Actual cost of the work 348 BCWP is referred to as the: Schedule variance Cost variance. Estimate of completion performed None of the above "Paraphrasing" is most closely associated with which part of the communication 349 process? encoding decoding barriers feedback None of the above. when a task starts and how tasks are related to who is assigned to do a 350 A Gantt chart is useful in determining: the level of effort for a task stops each other task All of the above. A contract originated bilaterally may be 351 developed by _____ . quotation request from suppliers proposal request bid invitation release B and C All of the above. In a matrix organizational form, which Not being knowledgeable factor(s) make it difficult for a project Employees spend only a enough to evaluate manager to provide a valid input into the Not working directly with the assigned short amount of time employees on technical 352 employee's performance review? functional employees assigned to the project judgment All of the above A and B only Upon completion of 75% of the project, the original schedules and cost estimates that were submitted at the inception of the Estimates upon completion 353 project are referred to as the: Baseline costs Budgeted costs. costs Scheduled costs None of the above Which of the following is not a definition to determine a product's ability to operate as 354 intended? distance performance function condition All are definitions A work breakdown structure is most useful scheduling the start of determining potential 355 for: identifying individual tasks for a project tasks developing a cost estimate delays A and C Reaching an understanding of concessions is accomplished in the _____ 356 stage of negotiations. protocol probing scratch bargaining closure agreement ability the product has to ability of a product to be The primary consideration of product probability of product's performance with perform its intended produced within existing functionality the product will 357 management is to know the _____. specified parameters function parameters provide over its useful life All of the above Project managers do not care about tracking costs, Projects by definition and nature are non- as only schedules are The reason that cost management is so recurring events and are therefore There are no tools for important to all project 358 difficult in project management is that: difficult to predict. identifying project tasks. managers. A and B only B and C only 26/92 A B C D E F G H I strengthen the learning process by adding a stay in view longer, thus Using visual aids during visual dimension to the bringing back listeners who 359 management/customer presentations will: hold the interest of the audience auditory dimension may have strayed All of the above. A and B only Which of the following organizational forms would be likely to have an individual with the title of Vice President for Project 360 Management? Classical / traditional Pure project Matrix Project coordinator None of the above A contract is legally binding and must 361 comprise all but one of the following: legal capacity mutual assent approved negotiations consideration legality History has shown that project managers can be trained in a combination of ways. Formal education and Which method is usually preferred by most special course (degreed Professional activities, 362 companies? Experiential learning, on-the-job programs) seminars Individual readings None of the above The purpose of configuration management control change control change during the generate engineering inform the project manager of 363 is to: insure drawings are updated throughout the project production only change proposals changes Three types of written media used in individually-oriented, organizations are _____, _____, and legally-oriented, guidelines, forms, letters, guidelines, 364 ______. manual, letters, guidelines organizationally oriented procedures brochures letters, contracts, policies. The labor costs of the The rent for the building in The salary of senior Which of the following is considered a The cost of the materials used to workers who actually which the widget was management and the 365 direct cost for producing a widget? produce a widget. produced the widget. manufactured project sponsor A and B only _____ best describes the goal of a project in its relationship with the customer, from conformance to 366 initial contact through delivery. fitness for use customer satisfaction requirements fitness for purpose All of the above. A communicator can present information 367 using the following media except: Visual Audio Tactile Performal Both A and B Advantages of the functional (hierarchical) form of organization include _____ and High information 368 creation of technical competence. Ease of horizontal coordination Clearly defined authority processing capability Single voice to customers 369 Quality and _____ are directly related. productivity cost overruns scope control Pareto diagram None of the above. Resource leveling will often affect the More responsive to 370 project by making it: Shorter. Longer customer needs. A and C B and C. Selection criteria for project selection contribution towards 371 include: cost versus benefit risk organizational goals rate of return All of the above. The Statement of Work (SOW) is 372 developed during the _____ cycle. Award Solicitations requirements contractual requisitions Which of the following depreciation methods provides for accelerated Double sum of the years 373 depreciation of an asset: Double declining balance. Straight line. Exponential depreciation digits Double increasing balance A plan has budgeted three weeks of effort for consultants, but the job was done in 374 only two weeks. Calculate the variance: 1.50% 33% 75% 67% None of the above. the products delivered the plans and the PM has knowledge of the product, comply with the plans specifications produced by A warranty may not be a remedy for inspected it without relying on the and specifications of the the seller match the 375 products delivered unfit when _____ . seller's skill client completed product. A and B None of the above. 27/92 A B C D E F G H I Graphical displays of accumulated cost and labor hours, plotted as a function of 376 time, are called: Variance reports S curves Trend analysis Earned value reporting Baseline control Quality control is normally performed by 377 the _____ . QA personnel project team operating personnel project management None of the above. Situations calling for a matrix organization include outside pressure for dual focus, _____ and pressure for high information Pressure for reduced Pressure for shared Pressure for formalized 378 processing capability. Pressure for clear accountability duplication of effort resources communication The net present value of $110 one year 379 from now at 10% is: $100 $120 $121 $100 less taxes $100 less taxes and interest The receiver filters messages based on all 380 but the following: Language Distance Culture Knowledge Authority/Reputation A greater likelihood that Going from Level 2 to Level 4 in the work Better control of the Lower status reporting something will fall through 381 breakdown structure will result in Less estimating accuracy project costs the cracks None of the above On November 1, $1000 worth of work on task A was supposed to have been done (BCWS); however, the BCWP was $850. 382 Calculate the schedule variance: ($100) $100 ($150) $150 85% will be reflected in the in- is minimized through continuous is considered a long term service life of the project 383 The Quality Risk _____ . monitoring. risk. result. B and C All of the above. The act of conducting or supervising the Communications Communications 384 exchange of information is: Consulting Project Management Management Enhancement None of the above 385 The core function of the project manager is Systems design Client interfacing Quality assurance integration The future value of an annual income flow 386 of $1000 for 2 years at 10% is: $2,200 $2,280 $2,300 $2,310 None of the above The initial cost of a product and the are incidental to each provides perceived function are integrally related with product's operation and maintenance costs increases perceived value when other because initial decreases design costs as value and product social each other because initial 387 _____ . balanced. costs are "sunk" operation periods increase dysfunction costs are "sunk". All of the following may hinder a person's ability to transmit/receive a message 388 except: Unfamiliarity with topic Withholding information Assuming Noise Preoccupation Quality Improvement Programs are normally associated with which two of the 389 following? Juran and Crosby Juran and Deming Crosby and Deming Deming and the Japanese Crosby and the Japanese attempts to formalize considers risk propensity of the decision management's risk works well with decision is considered highly 390 The Utility Theory _____ . maker. considerations. tree analysis. theoretical. All of the above. The document authorizing functional areas 391 to charge against the project is the: Work authorization form Scope baseline Project charter Management plan Linear responsibility chart The purpose of a dummy activity in an Identify a task that could be replaced by Take the slack time into Show a task that is not Show a dependency 392 activity-on-arrow diagram is to: another. account. necessarily needed. Denote a milestone. relationship. When planning, organizing, coordinating, Communicating orally and and controlling a project an important in writing with all levels of Involving senior 393 human resources skill or ability would be Building multi-disciplinary teams Managing conflict personnel management All are important person with authority is 394 Which is not a negotiation tactic? Imposing deadlines surprises absent reasoning together all are negotiations tactics 28/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following is referred to as cost budgeted for expended funds over which 395 sunk cost: management reserve contingency fund construction under waterthere is no further control forecasted budget over-runs Postpone the modification until a separate enhancement A project manager believes that modifying project is funded after this the scope of the project may provide project is completed added value for the customer. The project Call a meeting of the Change the project's according to the original 396 manager should: Change the scope baseline Prepare a variance report configuration control board objectives baseline As a project is carried out and slack time is consumed on individual tasks, the slack 397 left over for the remaining tasks is: Insignificant. Reduced. Unchanged. Increased. Doubled. Group brainstorming encourages all of the 398 following except: Team building Uninhibited verbalization Decision making Analysis of alternatives Convergent thinking Non-conformance penalties are a form of quality assurance 399 _____. quality incentive risk sharing contract negotiations programs None of the above. the severity of the how likely the event is to (Cost + Benefit + Business 400 Risk Event Status is defined as _____ . Risk Probability x Amount At Stake. consequences. occur with risk. Risk) / Insurable Risk. B and C There are hard causes of conflict (e.g. conflicting schedules) and soft causes. Soft causes are as important as hard causes. Soft causes include diversity of disciplinary expertise, _____, and the project manager's power of reward and 401 punishment. Performance tradeoffs Ambiguity of roles Administrative procedures Determining earned value the number of periods required to bring project cost back to the original Which of the following is referred to as the number of periods required to the rate of return on the budget, based on current 402 payback period: recover the initial investment investment performance loan payment schedule None of the above Which one of the following is not an 403 acquisition method? advertising invitation negotiation purchase all are acquisition methods At least _____of the cost of quality are the 404 direct responsibility of management. 25% 85% 50% 100% 33% Speed up a project through parallel Swap one task for Reduce the number of 405 Fast tracking means to: tasks. another. tasks if possible. B and C. None of the above. Formal written correspondence is Client requests additional mandated in which of the following Product undergoes casual in-house work not covered under Project manager calls a 406 situations: testing contract meeting B and C only None of the above useful in determining used with questionnaires continued as an iterative used to derive a consensus arriving at a probability relating to based on established process until a solution is 407 The Delphi Method is _____ . convergent solution future events. scenarios. reached. All of the above. Conflictive situations are Conflictive situations are in The positive value of conflict is in their early stages and their late stages and underestimated. Properly managed, emotional involvement is Conflict may cause a loss emotional involvement is 408 conflict is a valuable tool, particularly when A diversion is needed low high of status or position power settle the invoice with 2 deduct 2% of the invoice incurs a penalty on 10% equal payments; one within Under the terms of 2/10 net 30, the buyer deduct 10% of the invoice amount for for payment within 10 for payments more than 30 10 days and the other 409 may: payment within 30 days days days late within 30 days None of the above 29/92 A B C D E F G H I Mixing tasks, specifications, special Which of the following can result in Using imprecise language (i.e. nearly, instructions and No pattern, structure or Wide variation in the size 410 misinterpretation of the statement of work? approximately) approvals chronological order of tasks or details of work All of the above risk identified in (Standard Project cost of investment loss + inherent risk at conception function of planned time/real time successful project Deviation + Expected least cost to restore status altered by standard project 411 Amount at Stake is the _____ . project costs. completions. Costs)/6 quo. deviations. In communications management, to assimilate through the mind or senses (as 412 in new ideas) is the process of Understanding Communicating Receiving Decoding Comprehending In general, the best long-lasting approach to settling project conflict is the _____ 413 approach . Problem solving Compromise Withdrawal Smoothing Forcing In which of the following cost estimating parametric cost 414 techniques are statistics models used: nonparametric cost estimating estimating life cycle cost estimating bottom-up estimating All of the above. The _____ specification delineates specific end use capabilities which can be tested in 415 the acceptance procedure. performance functional technical base line operational Can be at a different level of detail (i.e. WBS level) Identifies the contractor's The contractual statement of work Must be the same as the proposal Does not identify than the proposal organizational structure for 416 (CSOW) statement of work reporting requirements statement of work the project All of the above technical quality administration, the quality evaluation methods, management's quality philosophy, quality evaluation technical quality quality progress reviews The key ingredient to a successful quality operational quality assurance and methods and functional specifications, and the and the technical quality 417 management program are _____. operational quality control. quality integrators. quality process review. specifications. All of the above. Develop the project road 418 The key purpose of project control is to: Plan ahead for uncertainties. Generate status reports. Keep the project on track. map. All of the above. CIP embodies which of the following customer focus and 419 principals? constancy of purpose involvement total involvement teamwork All of the above. Excessive flexibility in specifying requirements will _____ the likelihood of 420 time overruns. Reduce. Eliminate. Double Increase Not affect Listening involves more than hearing Finishes the speaker's 421 sounds. The good listener Repeats some of the things said sentences Writes everything down Nods his head frequently Project life cycles provide a better means of measurement of progress and control. The four phases of a project are Development, conceptual development, _____, _____, Preliminary planning, detail planning, Implementation, implementation, Execution, reporting, Implementation, termination, 422 and _____. closeout reporting, termination termination finishing post-audit review Response Planning is the responsibility of 423 the functional areas and considers mitigation. deflection. contingency planning. unforeseen occurrences. All of the above. The definitive terms of a contract are written during which of the following 424 contract phases? Contract Phase Post-Award Phase Award Phase Pre-Award Phase Requirement Phase The sending or conveying of information 425 from one place to another is the process of Networking Transmitting Interacting Promoting Interfacing Which of the following types of cost are 426 relevant to making financial decisions: sunk cost opportunity cost material cost A and C only B and C only 30/92 A B C D E F G H I Realize that only the "tip of the iceberg" may be Understand that a project Concentrate mainly on the end product showing. As a project definition/plan is a dynamic In preparing a good project definition, rather than costs or benefits. These manager, you must get rather than static tool, and Try to convert objectives 427 experienced project managers will: come later. beneath it. thus subject to change. into quantifiable terms. All of the above In which of the following is the cost of risk Fixed Price Plus Cost Plus Percentage of 428 hidden by the contractor? Firm Fixed Price Contract Incentive Cost Plus Fixed Price Cost A and B Management of a certain building was receiving complaints about slow elevator service. The solution adopted was to add mirrors in the lobbies to reduce boredom while passengers waited. This is an Potential problem 429 example of _____ . Kepner-Tregoe method analysis Decision analysis Creative problem solving None of the above include chances of loss and no chances for profit must incur business liability Pure Risk differs from Business Risks include chances of both profit or loss associated with the must incur personal loss associated with loss of 430 because Pure Risk's _____ . associated with the business. business. with business liability. pure profit. B and C The actual configuration of a PERT/CPM network _____ the amount of resources Is the only means of 431 that can be devoted to the project. Increases. Is not affected by Does not require Is heavily dependent upon determining The following types of costs are relevant to 432 making a financial decision except: opportunity costs direct costs sunk cost unavoidable costs None of the above The standard types of communication 433 include all but Written Verbal Telepathic Nonverbal None of the above _____ of the extra costs of the project can 434 often be attributed to a lack of quality. 12% 15% 20% 25% less than 10% A budget estimate should give the -25 to +75 percent of -30 to +75 percent of -10 to +25 percent of actual 435 manager cost data accurate to within: -5 to +10 percent of actual cost actual cost actual cost cost None of the above All of the following are categories of a 436 milestone in a schedule except: End date. Contract dates. Key events scheduled. Imposed dates. Task duration. How much time does the typical project manager spend communicating (formal 437 and informal)? 40% - 60% 30% - 70% 60% - 80% 75% - 90% 25% - 55 % In which type of organization is team 438 building likely to be most difficult? Functional Projectized Matrixed Project expediter Project coordinator The plan was "too loose," Too much communication Problems can occur in properly defining a Project goals may not be agreeable to thus allowing priorities to Low turnover of project between the client and The project objectives were 439 project because: all parties change personnel project personnel quantified The cost of a quality program should be 440 budgeted at _____ of the total project. 10-12% 2-3 % 6-8% 3-5% more than 15 % The review for the specification completeness is performed during which of 441 the following cycles. Award cycles requirements cycle requisition cycle solicitation cycle contractual cycle Critical Path when highest risk path that the accumulated "expected' durations Critical Path adjusted by highest risk path that calculated with "most likely" contributes the most risk 442 The schedule risk is the _____ . which maintain project completion. "high-risk" activity float. maintains quality. duration. toward the project completion. Screening of risk events for potential risk 443 is known as _____ . problem structuring. risk identification risk quantification risk modeling risk mitigation 31/92 A B C D E F G H I budget cost of work budget cost of work budget cost of work scheduled divided by actual cost of work scheduled The Cost Performance Index is computed budget cost of work performed divided performed minus actual performed minus budget budget cost of work divided by budget cost of work 444 as: by actual cost of work performed cost of work performed cost of work scheduled performed performed Clearly distinguishes one work package from all Limits the work to be Typical characteristics of a work package Representation of units of work at a others assigned to a performed to relatively 445 include: level where work is performed single functional group short periods of time All of the above A and B only Which of the following is not a cost of non- 446 conformance? maintenance and calibration warranty repairs scrap rework All of the above. Which of the following is not a method of 447 government procurement. Assistance sealed bidding competitive proposals acquisition small purchases Which of the following would most likely not be an essential objective of a project Get team members to Identify project problem Obtain individual and group 448 team kick-off meeting Create a project technology master plan know one another areas commitments Identify the project coordinator You are in a meeting with someone who just ate a slice of garlic bread. Your are distracted by his pungent breath. Which of the following communication barriers Varying Alertness of 449 describe these distractions? Sign Detection Sensory Limitations Selective Perception Perception None of the above Arbitration is a _____ approach to conflict 450 management in resolving conflict disputes. lose-lose win-win win-lose lose-win closed door As project manager, you wish to impose a standard method by which subordinates calculate project costs. Which level of communication should be required for this All of the above should be 451 effort? Face-to-face Telephone Written Non-verbal required. In general, groups will ____ the average individual problem solver on problems with 452 multiple stages. Perform better than Perform worse than Take less time than Do about as well as Project manager, project The scope baseline/project charter is Project manager and Project manager, project office, functional team and Project manager, project 453 prepared by the: Project manager project office office and functional team project sponsor sponsor and customer/user 454 Warranty cost is an example of an _____ . internal failure cost appraisal cost external failure cost customer satisfaction cost All of the above. Which of the following does not contribute 455 to increased Schedule Risk? labor shortage contractor claims lack of access sponsor scope changes all may increase schedule risk Which of the following is considered a 456 method of accelerated depreciation: sum-of-the-years digit straight-line double-declining-balance A and C All of the above. Cost management includes processes that are required to maintain financial control of 457 projects. These processes may include: economic evaluation cost estimating cost forecasting B and C All of the above. Accelerating performance Accelerate performance by 458 In crashing a task, you would focus on: As many tasks as possible. Non critical tasks. of tasks on critical path. minimizing cost. A and D. Inspection processes are considered an effective corrective a necessary control insults to production line 459 _____. an investment in the future process process employees None of the above. an indicator of project Standard deviation of project completion is a relationship of the uncertainty of end date target a function of critical path, 460 _____ . critical path activities. confidence leveling and project costs. A and B All of the above. 32/92 A B C D E F G H I The project team form of organization confers both advantages and Loss of developed disadvantages. Disadvantages of the Conflict in authority between project Dual allegiance on part of Complex prioritization ofprocedures on project 461 project form include: manager and functional managers team members resources dissolution All of the above Which of the following contract types has Cost plus incentive fee 462 the highest risk to the contractor: Firm fixed price (FFP) Time and material (T&M) Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF) (CPIF) A and B only Develop a structured Work authorization forms are needed in Authorize line organizations to charge methodology for release of 463 order to: against the project Establish an audit trail funds All of the above A and C only Your client, with which you have good relations, wants you to provide him with office supplies. This task is not supported under your contract. You respond to your client's informal request using which 464 medium? Speech Written Oral A and C Form letter A project manager wants to transmit a complex message to several subordinates. What is the best medium by which the 465 manager can get his message across? Oral Written Nonverbal A and B only A, B, and C. A technique that can be used to measure the total income of a project compared to the total moneys expended at any period discounted cash flow 466 of time is: return on investment (ROI) net present value (NPV) (DCF) B and C All of the above. risks and opportunities contingency requirements Range estimating in determining cost risk ranked in order of bottom for expected level of probability of cost overrun 467 probabilities requires _____ . an amount of financial exposure. line importance confidence occurrences All of the above. Satisfaction of the functional requirements 468 of a product is called _____ . usability reliability maintainability producibility All of the above. The project charter is a document designed to tell _____ exactly what the Anyone associated with the 469 project entails. The project manager The project office The project team The project sponsor project Which of the following control types has Cost plus incentive fee 470 the highest risk to the owner: Firm fixed price (FFP) Time and material (T&M) Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF) (CPIF) A and B only Theory Y managers view Theory X managers tend to Which of the following statements is in subordinates as being be autocratic whereas agreement with McGregor's concepts Theory X managers view subordinates imaginative, creative, and Theory Y managers are concerning Theory X and Theory Y as being lazy, irresponsible, and willing to accept more likely to delegate 471 managers? resistant to change responsibility responsibility A and B. All of the above Ensuring that all work is both authorized and funded by contractual documentation 472 is the responsibility of: The project manager The functional manager The project sponsor The client All of the above Forecasting human resource requirements necessitates making predictions about both the supply and demand of human resources. Which of the following is not a method used to forecast the demand for 473 human resources? Delphi Method Regression Analysis PERT Charts Staffing Tables Time Series Analysis 33/92 A B C D E F G H I Free float is the amount of time that an activity may be delayed with out affecting Late start of the 474 the _____. Early start of the succeeding activities. succeeding activities. Project finish. Cost of the project. None of the above. should be ignored, since Risks that cannot be identified or should be deflected to the contracting should be handled via should be ignored, since they are not covered in the 475 evaluated _____ . officer. contingency allowances. they cannot be identified. Risk Assessment. C and D sampling, design specifications, QA considerations, prevention, appraisal, internal failures, programs, QC programs, Staffing, Training, reviews, manufacturing The five major cost categories of quality external failures, and equipment parts rejected and parts equipment and rejected considerations, training and 476 are _____ . (measurement and test). returned goods rework. None of the above 477 The process of interpreting a message is: Decoding Receiving Encoding Feedback A and C Which of the following is a formal invitation that requests a formal response that describes the method of work and Request for proposal 478 associated compensation. Request for quotation (RFQ) (RFP) Request for bids (RFB) Invitation for bids (IFB) Letter of intent (LOI) A grouping of projects, similar in nature, which support a product or A grouping of related activities which The first major product line and have no 479 A program can best be described as: last two years or more subdivision of a project definable end point A product line Another name for a project 480 Cost of quality includes: Appraisal cost detection cost prevention cost maintenance cost A, B, and C only Flextime and compressed workweeks are Fatigue is a disadvantage two popular alternative work schedules Both flextime and Both flextime and of compressed workweek used by employers to improve the quality compressed workweek compressed workweek schedules because of work life of their employers. Which of Flextime schedules alter the employee's schedules make schedules can complicate employees must work Under flextime schedules, the the following statements concerning these working hours but not the number of scheduling more complex compliance with overtime longer than the traditional working hours are established 481 alternative work schedules is not true? hours worked each day for the employer regulations eight hour work day by the employer The formalization of management's 482 attitude toward risk is called _____ . Decision Theory. Utility Theory. Decision Tree Analysis. Sensitivity Analysis. Probability Analysis. The range of time allowed for an activity to Float time (LS - ES, or LF Critical time (when ES = 483 be completed in is the _____. Planned time (Duration). - EF). LS, or EF = LF). Scheduled time (LF - ES). Event. the supplier is held liable When items to be purchased for a project the supplier is held liable the supplier is held liable for that the item meets the are specified by performance for the operation of the for the maintenance of the design, dimensions, and 484 characteristics: paperwork is greatly reduced item item tolerance specifications. B and D only You have assembled your thoughts into a message. As you pass this information to a second party, you are giving this person 485 your: Input Output Data Feedback A and C Establishing functions Developing schedule under the project manager Disaster planning and 486 Deflection involves the transfer of risk by: Contracting out to another party alternative. to handle risk events. responses. None of the above. Can help provide new and Filling vacant positions by recruiting within Is exempt from equal employment Is less expensive than innovative ideas to the Is more time consuming 487 the organization opportunity laws recruiting externally organization than recruiting externally A and B 34/92 A B C D E F G H I The accounting head asks an assistant to cut the payroll checks today. The head later arrives to sign the checks, only to find that the assistant shredded (cut) the blank check forms. Which phrase best describes Faulty perception of 488 this lack of communication. Bypass instruction reality Bad attitude of listener Lazy listening Emotionalism the measurement system is Which of the following are among Phil the performance of standard is zero do everything right the constantly improve each the cost of 489 Crosby's "absolutes of quality'. defects first time, each time product and each service nonconformance A and D only Which of the following impacts the critical Reduce the free float of Executing a backward 490 path? Changing the task duration. an activity. pass A or B None of the above. A(n) _____ is defined as a specified accomplishment in a particular instant in time which does not consume time or Event constrained within 491 resources. Activity Event. Correlation Constant planned effort. According to labor law, which of the Forbidding unions from following management actions are Forbidding employees from distributing Implementing previously soliciting workers during Circulating anti-union 492 prohibited during a union organizing drive? union literature in working areas scheduled pay raises working hours petitions All of the above All of the following statements define the Controls irrelevant Resolves strong 493 role of a meeting chairperson except: Initiates and concludes discussion discussion disagreements Produces meeting agenda Consolidates agreements. reflect measurements on a quality data for which the continuous scale of a indicate management's products or services is characteristic of the understanding of the 494 Attributes quality data are: quantitative or qualitative data designed and built. product or service concept of variability A and B only Lessons learned are most often based Predict trends, highlight upon project historical records. Lessons See how others have problems and identify 495 learned can be used to: See what mistakes others have made solved problems alternatives All of the above A and B only Risk mitigation includes all but which of Developing system (policies, Obtaining insurance performing contingent developing planning 496 the following: procedures, responsibilities) against loss planning alternatives identification of project risks. Rephrase unclear ideas All the techniques described below can be Summarize discussion Encourage pursuit of presented by group 497 used to keep a meeting focused except: Recall agenda items/purpose of meeting periodically interesting new ideas members All are acceptable techniques Approval to proceed is normally made at the end of the _____ phase of a typical 498 project. conceptual development implementation execution close-out requires a supervisor and is a method used to evaluate personnel a subordinate to jointly should be the responsibility should always involve the by objectively comparing them to establish performance of the organization's establishment of objectives 499 Management by Objectives (MBO) common performance standards objectives personnel department that are quantifiable B and D is the probability of each is the cumulative effect of risk event minus the sum uncertain occurrences should not be calculated for small of the consequences of which will adversely affect cannot be quantified for 500 Project Risk _____ . projects. potential risk events. project objectives. first time projects. B or D Smoothes out resource Smooths out resource Attempts to reduce Allocates resources to activities to find requirements by requirements by resource requirements shortest schedule within fixed resource rescheduling activities substituting activities with within a constraint on 501 Resource leveling _____. limits. within their float time. unassigned resources. project duration B or D 35/92 A B C D E F G H I reflect measurements on a quality data for which the continuous scale of a Indicate management's product or service is characteristic of the understanding of the 502 Variables quality data are: quantitative or qualitative data designed and built produce or service. concept of variability B and C only Five people are involved on a project that requires significant communication between all project participants. How many lines of communication exist on this 503 project? 5 6 8 10 9 a coordinated a group of activities an undertaking with a an integrated approach to managing undertaking of directed by a project defined starting point and 504 A project may be defined as _____ projects interrelated activities. manger over a life cycle defined objectives All of the above. Quality control charts show a control limits based on control limits based on six characteristic of the product or service three standard deviations standard deviations in each 505 against: the specification limits customer requirements in each direction direction A and D only The performance review interview is a vital component of any personnel evaluation system. Which of the following is not a Discusses the Discusses the employee's Focuses on a limited number characteristic of an effective personnel Performed by a supervisor who has employee's future undesirable personality Completed during a single, of topics so that each topic 506 evaluation interview? adequately prepared for the interview performance goals traits uninterrupted block of time can be discussed in detail Releasing resources Which may be employed to shorten a earlier from tasks which schedule without changing the scope of were scheduled with a late 507 the task? Fast tracking. Crashing start. Alter to task priorities. A or B "Fast-tracked" projects awarded and begun before all planning and risk be in a higher risk not be compatible with assessment information is complete and be completed in reduced overall time category than other project risk and 508 available may _____ . than other projects. projects. assessment A and B All of the above. is expensive, ineffective the best proven method to ensure approach to quality can still leave some 509 100 % inspection of output is: quality management can never be, justified defects undetected B and D only A summary WBS is usually developed in 510 the Conceptual phase implementation phase planning phase close-out phase All of the above phases Management by objectives assumes that is receptive to an unstructured does not require close possesses a self-fulfillment 511 the team environment. supervision philosophy all of the above A and C Achieving effective upward communications in an organization requires that the sender consider which of 512 the following: entropy position the medium A and B. All of the above. Configuration (baseline) control monitors 513 performance against the scope baseline original schedule original budget All of the above. None of the above. Japanese resource management models non-specialized career frequent changes on team 514 exhibit. a cooperative spirit of goal settings paths assignments A and B. All of the above. is an activity of appraising is an activity devoted to the cost and technical is the concept of including all costs optimizing performance of a is a process of predicting 515 Life Cycle Costing: within the total life of a project. cost/performance completed project. the life of a project. None of the above. risk identification must be the degree of greatest uncertainty directly aligned with the it is merely advanced Risk management requires an occurs in the Conceptual Phase of the Work Breakdown preparation for possible it does not imply complete 516 understanding that _____ . Life Cycle. Structure. adverse future events. control of events All of the above. 36/92 A B C D E F G H I The centerline of a standard "Shewhart' the nominal dimension the nominal dimension the true process average or the process sample average 517 control chart represents: the process target specified by the customer specified by the designer mean or mean determining which tasks subtracting the end date of task one have the least amount of totaling the time for all determining the shortest Determining which tasks have 518 The critical path is calculated by from the start date of task two. total slack. activities. path through the network. the most slack defer the decision on type of approach be interpreted as passive tend to emphasize the task be frequently utilized by a 519 Delegation may to be used. and uncaring over the people involved. project manager. All of the above. Final risk quantification considers total risk translates the impacts into economic concentrates on schedule may not consider safety 520 impacts and _____ . terms for analysis. impacts and environmental impacts A and B A and C incentive fees paid to funds used to offset poor accounts to allocate and allowances to account for price changes managers for good cost or schedule maintain funds for 521 Managerial Reserves are: that can occur over the life of a project. performance. estimates. contingency programs All of the above. Become more efficient and effective in Provide guidance in Project management provides accomplishing goals that cannot be Manage high risk Provide clients with accomplishing repetitive 522 organizations with a methodology to: handled well by the traditional structure repetitive work multiple points of contact activities All of the above the responsibility of the the responsibility of the the responsibility of 523 Random cause or system variation is: generally present in every process inspection of the process workers of the process management A and D only The most frequently used construct in 524 Precedent Diagramming Method is: Start to Start. Finish to Finish. Start to Finish. Finish to Start. Dummy activity. The person sending a message is NOT receiver's evaluative and receiver's attitude and 525 influenced by which of the following sender's credibility receiver's assumptions tendency needs sender's knowledge A common mistake in communications is underestimate the underestimate the overestimate the 526 to _____ of the receiver. overestimate the knowledge knowledge intelligence intelligence None of the above. allowing employees to A key to successful Management by insuring that employees have clearly involving employees in permitting employees to perform their own 527 Objectives (MBO) is defined objectives decision meetings set their own objectives evaluations A or C. costs invested in expended costs over which expended costs over which 528 Sunk costs are: future costs held in reserve. commodities. we have no control. we have no more control tax credits The degree to which a company accepts and utilizes project management is often dependent upon the _____ and _____ of Type of industry, Quality requirements, 529 the project. Competition, dollar value manpower requirements Size, nature manpower requirement Type of industry, risk The specification for a particular part is 10" + or - 0.015". The standard associated process produces parts with a means of 10" and standard deviation of 0.002'. The 530 process capability index is: 0.002 1.0 2.5 7.5 None of the above The early finish date is Which of the following is indicative of The late start date is earlier than the The critical path supports equal to the late finish When leads are employed 531 negative float? early start date. the imposed end date. date. in the schedule. The project is sinking. Line of balance charts are used most 532 frequently in: Engineering Marketing Manufacturing Accounting Contracts and procurement Project tradeoffs are usually made by Risk, quality, and Cost, quality, and technical 533 comparing _____ and constraints. Time, cost, and quality Time, risk, and quality manpower availability performance Cost, quality, and risk 37/92 A B C D E F G H I Standard "Shewhart" control charts assume that the distribution of sample 534 means is: uniform normal discrete symmetrical B and D only The type of power most infrequently used 535 by the PM is formal authority reward power referent power expert power penalty Which of the following is NOT a 536 characteristic of message filtering? semantics media ethics organizational status reputation Feasibility studies evaluate alternatives in 537 terms of Cost-effectiveness Ease of performance Risk Safety All or part of A through D the rate of return on an investment when we take the value to us today of future cash account of cash inflows the current estimates of the dollars worth of work 538 Present value measures flows. and outflows our project budget accomplished as of today All of the above. The Project Manager has the responsibility of knowing what kind of message to send because his _____ may avoid 539 communications barriers. business interfaces output technical experience priorities training methods The ability to reduce risk is _____ to how far you have progressed through the the responsibility of the risk is directly proportional to the 540 project life cycle. inversely proportional directly proportional not related executive amount at stake. The risk of accepting a lot of poor quality, 541 in acceptance sampling, is referred to as: buyer's risk consumer's risk producer's risk type I error B and D only Which influence reflects an informal 542 organization? formal authority reward power referent power expert power penalty A life cycle project manager tends to have stronger administrative stronger technical skills stronger human resource 543 the following characteristics: balanced training skills than technical skills than administrative skills skills None of the above. In acceptance sampling, if the sample size is kept the same but the acceptance number is increased, which of the vendor's risk will producer's risk will consumer's risk will 544 following will be true: buyer's risk will decrease decrease decrease increase C and D only 545 Risks include the following types: Business risk pure risk Insurable risk A and B All of the above. being an effective 546 Traits of a participative manager include: being accessible delegator holding social gatherings All of the above. A and C Acceptance sampling plans are never effective at Acceptance sampling plans rejecting nonconforming do not directly control the Acceptance sampling plans are Acceptance sampling units as 100 percent quality of a series of lots; Acceptance sampling plans beneficial when the cost of inspection is plans are necessary inspection, even when the they instead specify the are not very effective for All of the following statements about high and the resulting loss of passing when destructive inspection process is very risk of accepting lots of inspecting small lots of 547 acceptance sampling are true except: nonconforming units is not great. inspections are required. tedious. given quality. custom-made products. All of the above are possible, Interfacing with the customer after project based upon the size and 548 go-ahead is the responsibility of: Project sponsor Project team Project manager Functional manager complexity of the project calculating the individual using the WBS to do bottom up defining the perimeters of estimates of work using a statistical model to 549 Parametric cost estimating involves estimates the life-cycle packages estimate costs A and C who is going to be held 550 Risk exposure refers to _____ . the amount at stake. what might happen. the likelihood of something accountable All of the above. 38/92 A B C D E F G H I is used when resolution is The compromise conflict resolution is necessary when both participants results in both sides more important than 551 technique must win. losing relationships B and C All of the above. the project manager will future group most likely have to utilize a When a majority of team members must some team members may become effectiveness may conflict resolution 552 agree before a decision is reached _____. alienated become damaged. the PM may lose credibility technique All of the above. You are managing an internal project See the sponsor after you where a vice president from the user group have evaluated Inform your senior is acting as the sponsor. You have just alternatives, management of the problem been informed by your team that the recommendations, and and tell them that you will get critical path has slipped by three weeks. Immediately inform the sponsor and ask Do nothing until the performed an impact Look for someone to blame back to them after you 553 You should: for advice slippage occurs analysis before you see the sponsor assessed the situation A quality control manager decides to increase his daily sample size from three not determinable from 554 to six. The size of the control band will: increase decrease remain unchanged given data None of the above. consensus on project involvement in developing 555 Obtaining team commitment depends on: clear and interesting job assignments goals task objectives All of the above. B and C reducing uncertainty on identifying all possible risk monitoring status and 556 Risk mitigation is the process of _____ . transferring risk to another party. the project events making adjustments All of the above. The low levels of the work breakdown structure are Marketing is unsure of known with certainty for what the customer the next three to six actually wants and months, but the remaining The "rolling wave" or "moving window" The baseline is frozen for the duration of reserves the right to tasks are based upon the concept is used most frequently on the project and no scope changes are make major scope results of the first three to Networking techniques are 557 projects where: permitted changes six months of work not appropriate All of the above The Cost Performance Index (CPI) performance over a 558 measures total costs period of time costs at a point of time variable costs All of the above. control charts are used to detemine acceptance limits when no limits are stipulated by the product specification; otherwise, all data points outside the one should use the limits control chart limits are All of the following statements about Control charts can be used to establish dictated by the variations explained by 559 control charts are true except: as well as maintain process control specification. assignable causes. A and B. B and C As a control tool, the bar chart (Gantt) depicting actual versus showing the outer 560 methods is most beneficial for: rearranging conflicting tasks planned tasks dependencies of tasks A and C. A and D 561 Cost forecasting calculations include: EAC = ACWP + (BAC - BCWP) EAC = BAC/CPI EAC = ACWP + (BAC/CPI) All of the above. A and B Whether the organization The appointment or selection of a project is project or non-project- The profitability of the 562 sponsor is often based upon: The strategic importance of the project Who the customer is driven project All of the above team members are more likely to be functional managers no assigned to the project office in a strong strong matrix is more the balance of power has longer has control over the 563 The strong matrix versus a weak matrix. matrix difficult to manage. shifted away from the PM. technical processes. All of the above. When all members must unanimously decisions are reached future decision making 564 agree before a decision is reached all members become committed slowly integrity is developed ability is enhanced All of the above. 39/92 A B C D E F G H I A team may not be fully functional until feels personal depends on the team 565 each member seeks consensus in decision making acceptance leader for direction A and B. All of the above. Quality management deals with all of the conformance to satisfying the needs of making products more 566 following except: requirements/specifications the customer desirable and luxurious A and C. B and C A program requires at A project is a one-shot The difference between a project and a A program is made up of multiple least three times longer deal while a program is on- 567 program is that: projects to plan than a project going A and C B and C The functional organization is effective with a mature product or single product 568 line. true false The most common non-behavioral reason for projects being completed behind Selecting the wrong person as the Selecting the wrong Accepting a high-risk 569 schedule and over budget is: project manager person as the sponsor project Ill-defined requirements All of the above You have summarized the project and note that 28,000 hours have been scheduled, 25,000 hours have been earned and 26,000 hours paid. The correct conclusion The project is operating at a favorable the project is spending the project is behind the project is ahead of 570 is: cost efficiency ratio. more than planned schedule schedule B and C Considering alternate suppliers is a form of 571 _____. Value engineering. Risk Analysis Contract Management Project integration All of the above. The project manager is The project manager must provide cost Oversimplification assigned after the project The scope of a project can be expected to estimates without having a design (underestimating) of the is defined, and the cost A clear objective is not All of the above are possible 572 change if: concept nature of the work occurs and schedule are approved provided based upon the situation Which of the following organizations has 573 the best technical project control? matrix functional projectized B and C A and B cause inner tension Clearly defined group goals are important within team members encourage member 574 because they _____. motivate team behavior until they are met interaction All of the above. A and C The estimated cost to complete (ETC) is the forecasted and final (ACWP-BCWP)/BCWP * 575 _____. BCWP/ACWP cost - cost to date 100 Total estimate - ACWP None of the above. Within time, cost and Within time, cost, The most common definition of project technical performance performance and accepted 576 success is: Within time Within time and cost requirements by the customer/user None of the above Which of the following results are Win/Win 577 conflict resolution? compromising forcing problem solving smoothly withdraw During the planning phase of a project, you realize that more than one functional department possesses the skill and Let the affected line technical know-how to perform a given Make the decision, document it in the groups decide among task. The best way for the project manager linear responsibility chart, and distribute themselves who will Ask the executive sponsor Allow each line group to 578 to handle this would be to: the chart to all departments. perform the work to make the decision perform part of the task All of the above The ability to achieve cost savings is the estimated costs to 579 inversely proportional to _____. the earned value achieved to date complete empowerment to the P.M. productivity None of the above. the satisfaction of understanding the the individual's professional 580 The most effective team motivator is: the visibility of the team's contribution meeting a challenge importance of the project challenge All of the above. Which of the following is based on an individual identification with a more 581 powerful person. expert power reward power referent power A and B. A and C 40/92 A B C D E F G H I assuming that because a One of the most common pitfalls in nor considering the message is sent, it has 582 effective communication is: not selecting the correct medium position of the receiver been received All of the above. A and B 583 The core function of the PM is client interfacing project integration quality assurance personal administration All of the above. Value engineering/Analysis is the provide the required systematic use of techniques which does establishing values for required functions at the lowest identifies the required seeks to trade performance 584 not include _____. functions overall cost. function of an item for cost None of the above. You have been assigned as a project leader and must first review the statement of work provided by the customer. Which Customer-furnished Long-lead procurement Customer-imposed Other subcontractor interface 585 of the following is most often overlooked? Data item deliverables equipment and facilities items milestones requirements Project team building is most difficult in strong matrix 586 which type of environment? weak matrix organization organization projectized organization functional organization expediter organization The role of the _____ can be invaluable in 587 problem solving. recognition seeker devils advocate dominator topic jumper A or C Which of the following are types of status document, variance, trend and cost, trend, schedule and cost, schedule, technical analysis, cost, performance 588 reports? exception acquisition performance and schedule All of the above. Continually measuring and monitoring the actual cost versus the budget is done to 589 _____. analyze the reasons for variances establish the variances identify the problems All of the above. None of the above. Using "I" or "My' instead of "most people" 590 or "our group" ______ message credibility. decreases increases has no effect on distorts A and B Which of the following can be tracked 591 using the WBS? time cost performance scope None of the above. they provide MIS with an Cost and schedule data are usually optimized project cash flow can affect integrated system to they control escalation they account for omissions they predict future 592 integrated because: financial requirements produce reports allowances in the definitive estimate performance In which of the following organization(s) does the Functional Manager have the 593 LEAST authority? coordinator weak matrix strong matrix functional expediter When a project incorporates an Organizational Breakdown Structure 594 (OBS), it is integrated with the WBS at the task level of effort sub-task project work package An effective Project Manager does not share project _____ with the team 595 members. Vision responsibility solution to problems accountability status Parametric estimates are based on Physical characteristics The WBS and similar Project objectives and Precise measurements and 596 variables such as: Detailed planning and cost restraints. and historical data. projects. manpower allocations. multiple inputs. The time necessary to complete a project 597 is called the _______ of a project. Implementation Time Life Cycle Operation Time Critical Path Completion Phase Selection of appropriate The Communications Management Plan media to meet specific 598 should contain the following: Communications policy Communications media Reporting channels needs All of the above The Cost Performance Index (CPI) cost of work performed vs planned work performed vs cost work performed vs planned direct costs vs indirect 599 measures: costs. of work performed. work. costs. floating costs vs. sunk costs. 41/92 A B C D E F G H I The extent of project management techniques to be used on a project are determined mainly by the _____ and quality requirements, 600 _____ of the project. budget, schedule schedule size, type of industry nature, size project manager, sponsor Which theory(s) prescribes a form of 601 participative management? theory X theory Y theory Z A or B B or C Most project management leadership theories focus on all of the following Personal characteristics of the project Personal traits of the Behavioral styles of the Usefulness of authority and 602 except: manager The situation at hand subordinates project manager power in leadership direct cost, indirect cost, contract terms, scope and 603 Project trade-offs vary between risk, cost and schedule. and resource availability quality, schedule and time cost, quality and schedule budget The following individuals are responsible for determining the content of the Director of 604 Communications Management Plan. Project Sponsor Task Manager(s) Communications Project Manager When comparing the cost of competing projects, which of the following is typically 605 NOT considered? Opportunity costs. Direct costs. Sunk costs. Indirect costs. Burden rates. Input into the Communications Management Plan includes the following 606 information from the stakeholder analysis: Information needs Information content Frequency of distribution Method of distribution All of the above The computation for Cost Performance 607 Index is: BCWP/ACWP BCWP-ACWP BCWP-BCWS ACWP/BCWP ACWP-BCWS We assign human and non-human resources in the _____ phase of the 608 budget. conceptual planning development implementation close-out Which of the following can the project manager use as a means of measuring Sponsor-approved salary 609 project team effectiveness? Absenteeism increases Efficiency of the team Turnover of personnel Grievances Project alternatives are examined during 610 the _____ phase of the project conceptual finish development implementation A and C Project leadership requires that the project manager pay attention simultaneously to Tasks to be performed and needs of the Quantity and quality of Efficiency and Time, cost and 611 the: team the work to be performed effectiveness of the team performance deliverables All of the above A project manager believes that the best way to manage is to form a good, harmonious working relationship with the team, and high performance will follow. The project manager could be defined as a 612 _____ manager. 1,9 9,1 1,1 9,9 5,5 Which of the following are included in the Acquisition phase(s) of the project life development and planning and 613 cycle. concept and development planning execution and phase-out implementation concept and planning Budgetary estimates are the output of the 614 _____ phase(s) of the project. conceptual development implementation finish All of the above. The capacity to get an individual or group 615 to perform a given task is described as: Authority Power Influence Leadership Motivation Orientation and Opportunities for dialogue and 616 A team that is just forming needs: An organization chart Alternatives and choices Structure and specificity organization conflict resolution 42/92 A B C D E F G H I subdivides the project provides the project into manageable sponsor with a time-phase 617 A work breakdown structure: assures all work is identified. segments. task summary. both A and B. All of the above. For effective communication, the message 618 should be oriented to the _____. Initiator Receiver Media Management style Corporate culture A basis for future decisions about a A baseline to accomplish A baseline to evaluate 619 The scope statement provides project. verification measures. potential scope changes. All of the above B and C only A Work Berakdown Structure is most Scheduling the start of Developing a cost Determining potential 620 useful for: Identifying individual tasks for a project. tasks. estimate. delays. A and C. 621 Communication plays a major role in: Planning Organizing Controlling Directing All of the above The LEAST effective form of 622 communication for complex situations is: verbal - face to face written formal informal A and C The most common form of organizational Downward to 623 communication is Upward to management subordinates Horizontal to peers Horizontal to customers All of the above The most common form of project Downward to Lateral to the team and Diagonally to the client's 624 communication is: Upward to executive sponsor subordinates line organizations Lateral to customers senior management The primary source document for establishing the content of the Project The ASTM Project The summary work 625 Status Report is: The project charter The Project Plan Document Guide breakdown structure A Project Status Report would include all Changes to scope. cost Narrative explanation of Personnel problems on the 626 of the following except: Cost and schedule reports or schedule variances project Upcoming activities The project is over The project will be overrun A negative cost variance and positive The project is under budget and ahead budget and behind The project is over budget but ahead of schedule at 627 schedule variance means: of schedule schedule and ahead of schedule completion Records Archive, Closure The following reports are normally Report, lessons learned Records Archive, Closure Communications developed during the project closure Communications Management Plan and & Formal Acceptance Report, & Specifications Management Plan and 628 phase? Lessons Learned Report Document Closure report None of the above Which of the following tools and techniques can be used to collect Document and 629 information for the project closure reports? Customer Surveys Brainstorming Performance Analysis Lessons Learned All of the above A project manager who, in a deference of opinion with the project controls engineer on how costs are to be reported, dictates the format of the cost report may be said 630 to have a conflict management style. Withdrawing Forcing Confrontational Authoritarian Combative His decisions will promote high satisfaction His decisions will require 631 Using the situation the the Special window: Productivity will increase among his team less time All of the above A and C only Using the situation stated in the Special window, which WBS element is behind 632 schedule but under budget? Element P Element Q Element R Element S None of the above. Using the situation stated in the Special window, which WBS element has a 633 favorable cost variance of $150? Element P Element Q Element R Element S None of the above. 43/92 A B C D E F G H I Using the situation stated in the Special window, the cost performance index (CPI) 634 for WBS Element R is: 0.875 1.14 0.952 0.833 1.20 Using the situation stated in the Special window, the schedule performance index 635 (SPI) for WBS Element P is: 1.10 0.90 0.956 1.15 0.869 Using the situation stated in the Special window, WBS Element Q is _____ budget 636 by _____ percent. Over, 16.66 Under, 16.66 Over, 10.0 Under, 10.0 None of the above. Using the situation stated in the Special window, a comparison of the cost schedule of August as compared to July shows that the magnitude ($ value) of the variance has _____ and the percentage 637 change has _____. Become worse, become worse Become worse, improved Improved, increased Improved, become worse None of the above are correct Using the situation stated in the Special window, the total price variance of direct 638 material is: $80,245 -$4236 -$3479 $0.69 $83,994 Using the situation stated in the Special 639 window, the labor rate cost variance is: $66,927 $68,329 $386 -$0.22 $18.36 Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is the total fixed costs for 640 manufacturing the widgets? $3,000 $27,000 $27,270 $1,335 $1,000 Using the figure in the Special window, 641 The critical path is: A-B-G C-G C-D E-F A-B-G and C-D Using the figure in the Special window, By how many weeks can activity "F" slip without extending the end date of the 642 project? 0 1 2 3 4 Using the data shown in the Special window, Activities P, Q, and T are critical path activities. In order to shorten the time duration of the project, which activity 643 should be "crashed" first? P Q R S T Using the possible profit and loss outcomes shown in the Special window, 644 find the expected profit (loss) ($1000) $1000 $2000 $1200 None of the above Using the figure in the Special window, 645 The Critical path is _____ weeks. 21 22 23 24 25 Using the possible loss outcomes shown in the Special window, find the expected 646 (loss) $0 ($1300) ($2000) ($ 3000) None of the above Using the diagram in the Special window, what is the probability that Alternative I will 647 be adopted and completed below budget: 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.12 None of the above Using the figure in the Special window, Activity "L" has an early start time of _____ weeks and an early finish time of _____ 648 weeks. 11, 13 12, 14 13, 15 14, 16 15, 17 Using the figure in the Special Window, what is the probability of success for 649 Project B? 0.30 0.20 0.35 0.15 0.12 44/92 A B C D E F G H I Using the figure in the Special window, Activity "D" has a latest start time of _____ weeks and a latest finish time of _____ 650 weeks. 2, 10 4, 12 6, 14 7, 15 9, 17 Using the figure in the Special window, The slacktime in Activity "G" is _____ 651 weeks. 2 3 4 5 7 Using the WBS in the Special window, an 652 instance of a work package is: Build house Excavate Prepare Foundation B and C None of the above Using the problem stated in the Special window, Calculate the expected value of duration (in days) using the PERT concept 653 of the expected duration of a task 8.0 8.8 9.1 9.7 10.5 Using the problem stated in the Special window, Calculate the deviation of duration for the task, using the PERT concept of 654 standard deviation of task duration. 0.5 1.0 1.8 2.2 2.8 Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is the total variable costs for 655 producing one widget? $1,020 $1,010 $1,015 $20.00 None of the above. Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is the total price variance for 656 direct material? $140.00 $736.00 $0.02 -$350.00 $5850.00 Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is the labor rate cost 657 variance? $5500.00 $1500.00 -$100.00 -$0.10 $5600.00 Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is net present value of an annual income flow of $1600 at 14% over 658 the next three years? $3713.60 $0.68 $1080.00 $476.19 $2.32 Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is present value of $1000 at 659 12% at the end of 5 years? $3605.00 $0.57 $567.00 $892.86 $3.61 Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is the cost variance for Case 660 #9? -$1000 1000 -2000 2000 0 Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is the schedule variance for 661 Case #8? 1000 2000 -1000 -2000 0 Using the table in the Special window, 662 Which task is completed? dig hole remove debris survey set forms place concrete Using the situation stated in the Special window, what is the cost performance 663 index for Case #9? 1.10 1.91 0.83 1.20 None of the above Using the WBS shown in the Special 664 window, a typical work package would be: Software development Systems design Coding A, B, and C None of the above. Which of the statements regarding benefit- cost analysis in the Special window are 665 true? 1 and 2 2 and 3 1 and 3 1, 2 and 3 None of the above. 45/92 A B C D E F G H I Using the cumulative cost curve in the total budgeted costs for 666 special window, height B represents actual cost to date the project planned cost for month 6 cost variance earned value Using the situation stated in the Special window, a comparison of the cost variance of August as compared to July shows that the magnitude ($ value) of the variance has _____ and the percentage change has 667 _____. Become worse, become worse Become worse, improved Improved, increased Improved, become worse None of the above are correct Using the situation shown in the Special window and assuming continues efficiency for work-in-progress and fixed price contract for task four. The estimate at 668 completion is: $19K $21K $26K $29K indeterminate Using the scenario in the special window, the project manager appears to be a 669 _____ manager. 1, 9 9, 1 1, 1 9, 9 5, 5 Using the scenario in the special window, will probably spend the weekend Won't ask for the report Has a preference for Has chosen an Is experiencing 670 the project manager: reviewing the data. again. written communication. inappropriate medium. communication overload. In which of the following scope management processes are subject matter 671 experts used? Initiation Scope planning Scope Definition Scope change control Scope verification The work breakdown structure (WBS) is first developed in which scope 672 management process? Initiation Scope planning Scope change control Scope Definition Scope verification The project charter is prepared in which 673 scope management process? Initiation Scope planning Scope Definition Scope change control Scope verification In which of the following scope management processes is the scope 674 management plan prepared? Initiation Scope planning Scope Definition Scope change control Scope verification Which of the following is not a scope 675 management process? Initiation Scope planning Scope Definition Scope change control Scope verification The initial document that formally recognizes the existence of a project is the 676 _____ . Scope baseline Management plan Project charter Configuration control report None of the above Which of the following are included as part 677 of a scope statement? Project justification Project deliverables Project objectives All of the above B and C Configuration Project life cycles are very useful for Objective setting, management, weekly 678 _____ and _____ . Configuration management, termination information gathering Standardization, control status updates Approval, termination Clearly distinguish one work package from all Limit the work to be Represent units of work at a level where others assigned to a performed to relatively 679 Work packages are used to: work is performed. single functional group. short periods of time. All of the above. A and B only "Hard logic" in the preparation of a network 680 refers to: Discretionay dependencies External depenencies Mandatory dependencies All of the above A abd B only The erection of foundation formwork before the placement of foundation concrete would be an example of a _____ 681 dependency. Discretionary Mandatory External Soft logic Subcontracted Sources for data on activity durations and Commercial techniques Past project team resource requirements can be gathered (standard practices, rules members knowledge 682 from which of the following: Past project records (historical data) of thumb) (experience, oldtimers) All of the above A and C only 46/92 A B C D E F G H I Which of the following can affect network 683 durations? Skills of the resource pool Calendar dates Constraints All of the above A and B only A completion of a local government study resides on your critical path. This would 684 most likely be referred to as: Soft logic Hard logic An external dependency A mandatory dependency A lost cause 47/92 J K L M N O P 1 ANSWER 2 E 3 E 4 B 5 E 6 E 7 E 8 D 9 E 10 A 11 E 12 E 13 C 14 E 15 E 16 B 17 D 48/92 J K L M N O P 18 E 19 A 20 E 21 E 22 A 23 A 24 B 25 B 26 C 27 E 28 D 29 E 30 C 31 A 32 C 33 E 49/92 J K L M N O P 34 A 35 E 36 C 37 E 38 A 39 C 40 C 41 C 42 E 43 C 44 E 45 E 46 E 47 B 48 A 49 A 50/92 J K L M N O P 50 C 51 E 52 D 53 B 54 A 55 B 56 C 57 A 58 B 59 C 60 A 61 A 62 E 63 C 64 E 51/92 J K L M N O P 65 A 66 D 67 D 68 D 69 D 70 D 71 C 72 D 73 C 74 A 75 B 76 D 77 A 52/92 J K L M N O P 78 D 79 E 80 E 81 A 82 C 83 D 84 A 85 B 86 C 87 E 88 B 89 E 90 C 91 C 53/92 J K L M N O P 92 C 93 C 94 B 95 D 96 E 97 C 98 D 99 B 100 D 101 B 102 C 103 A 104 A 105 D 106 B 54/92 J K L M N O P 107 C 108 A 109 D 110 B 111 E 112 D 113 D 114 B 115 B 116 E 117 D 118 D 119 D 120 D 121 A 55/92 J K L M N O P 122 D 123 A 124 E 125 E 126 D 127 E 128 A 129 D 130 E 131 C 132 C 133 E 134 D 135 E 136 E 137 C 56/92 J K L M N O P 138 A 139 C 140 B 141 E 142 A 143 A 144 D 145 B 146 A 147 D 148 B 149 B 150 C 151 C 57/92 J K L M N O P 152 E 153 E 154 A 155 E 156 E 157 C 158 B 159 B 160 A 161 A 162 B 163 C 164 C 165 E 58/92 J K L M N O P 166 D 167 D 168 A 169 E 170 D 171 D 172 D 173 C 174 C 175 B 176 A 177 A 178 B 179 C 180 C 59/92 J K L M N O P 181 C 182 C 183 C 184 A 185 A 186 A 187 B 188 C 189 B 190 D 191 C 192 B 193 D 194 B 195 E 196 E 60/92 J K L M N O P 197 E 198 D 199 D 200 A 201 C 202 C 203 B 204 D 205 C 206 B 207 C 208 B 209 A 210 C 211 E 61/92 J K L M N O P 212 A 213 A 214 C 215 E 216 D 217 B 218 B 219 E 220 B 221 E 222 B 223 C 224 C 62/92 J K L M N O P 225 D 226 A 227 A 228 B 229 E 230 C 231 E 232 A 233 C 234 E 235 A 236 A 237 A 238 E 239 C 240 C 63/92 J K L M N O P 241 C 242 B 243 C 244 D 245 B 246 E 247 A 248 E 249 D 250 A 251 E 252 C 253 C 64/92 J K L M N O P 254 B 255 E 256 B 257 B 258 D 259 C 260 E 261 B 262 C 263 D 264 C 265 E 266 E 65/92 J K L M N O P 267 C 268 A 269 D 270 D 271 A 272 D 273 E 274 A 275 E 276 C 277 C 278 B 279 C 280 A 66/92 J K L M N O P 281 C 282 A 283 B 284 D 285 E 286 C 287 C 288 B 289 B 290 E 291 D 292 E 67/92 J K L M N O P 293 D 294 A 295 A 296 A 297 A 298 D 299 A 300 C 301 D 302 C 303 E 68/92 J K L M N O P 304 E 305 B 306 C 307 D 308 A 309 D 310 C 311 A 312 E 313 E 314 B 69/92 J K L M N O P 315 A 316 E 317 D 318 C 319 B 320 D 321 D 322 E 323 E 324 A 325 C 326 E 70/92 J K L M N O P 327 D 328 D 329 D 330 C 331 A 332 E 333 C 334 B 335 A 336 C 337 E 338 D 339 C 340 D 341 D 342 E 71/92 J K L M N O P 343 A 344 E 345 E 346 C 347 E 348 A 349 D 350 B 351 E 352 D 353 A 354 E 355 E 356 D 357 D 358 A 72/92 J K L M N O P 359 D 360 C 361 C 362 A 363 B 364 D 365 E 366 B 367 D 368 B 369 A 370 B 371 E 372 C 373 A 374 B 375 D 73/92 J K L M N O P 376 B 377 C 378 C 379 A 380 B 381 E 382 C 383 E 384 C 385 D 386 D 387 A 388 A 389 D 390 B 391 A 392 E 393 E 394 E 74/92 J K L M N O P 395 D 396 E 397 C 398 E 399 C 400 A 401 B 402 A 403 A 404 B 405 A 406 B 407 E 408 B 409 B 75/92 J K L M N O P 410 E 411 D 412 C 413 A 414 B 415 B 416 C 417 A 418 C 419 E 420 D 421 A 422 C 423 E 424 C 425 B 426 E 76/92 J K L M N O P 427 E 428 D 429 D 430 B 431 D 432 C 433 C 434 C 435 D 436 E 437 D 438 C 439 A 440 D 441 C 442 B 443 B 77/92 J K L M N O P 444 A 445 E 446 A 447 D 448 A 449 A 450 A 451 C 452 A 453 E 454 C 455 E 456 D 457 E 458 C 459 C 460 D 78/92 J K L M N O P 461 E 462 A 463 D 464 C 465 E 466 E 467 E 468 E 469 E 470 B 471 E 472 A 473 C 79/92 J K L M N O P 474 A 475 B 476 A 477 A 478 B 479 C 480 E 481 E 482 B 483 D 484 B 485 B 486 A 487 B 80/92 J K L M N O P 488 A 489 E 490 A 491 B 492 D 493 D 494 E 495 D 496 E 497 C 498 A 499 B 500 C 501 E 81/92 J K L M N O P 502 E 503 D 504 D 505 C 506 C 507 A 508 D 509 E 510 A 511 C 512 E 513 A 514 E 515 A 516 E 82/92 J K L M N O P 517 E 518 B 519 E 520 E 521 D 522 A 523 E 524 D 525 C 526 A 527 E 528 D 529 C 530 C 531 A 532 C 533 D 83/92 J K L M N O P 534 E 535 A 536 C 537 E 538 A 539 B 540 A 541 B 542 C 543 B 544 E 545 E 546 D 547 C 548 C 549 D 550 A 84/92 J K L M N O P 551 B 552 E 553 C 554 B 555 E 556 B 557 C 558 C 559 E 560 B 561 E 562 E 563 A 564 E 85/92 J K L M N O P 565 D 566 C 567 D 568 A 569 D 570 C 571 A 572 E 573 D 574 D 575 B 576 D 577 C 578 B 579 A 580 A 581 C 86/92 J K L M N O P 582 C 583 B 584 D 585 A 586 A 587 B 588 C 589 D 590 B 591 D 592 E 593 C 594 E 595 D 596 B 597 B 598 E 599 B 87/92 J K L M N O P 600 D 601 B 602 C 603 D 604 D 605 C 606 E 607 A 608 D 609 C 610 E 611 E 612 A 613 C 614 B 615 E 616 C 88/92 J K L M N O P 617 D 618 B 619 D 620 E 621 E 622 E 623 E 624 C 625 B 626 D 627 C 628 B 629 E 630 B 631 B 632 D 633 C 89/92 J K L M N O P 634 B 635 A 636 A 637 E 638 C 639 D 640 E 641 B 642 D 643 A 644 D 645 D 646 B 647 D 648 E 649 C 90/92 J K L M N O P 650 A 651 C 652 E 653 B 654 C 655 E 656 B 657 D 658 A 659 C 660 B 661 C 662 B 663 A 664 E 665 C 91/92 J K L M N O P 666 B 667 B 668 C 669 E 670 E 671 A 672 D 673 A 674 B 675 D 676 C 677 D 678 C 679 D 680 C 681 B 682 D 92/92 J K L M N O P 683 E 684 C
"Do Arbitration Agreements Let Companies Ignore Law"