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					            Sectoral e-Business Watch
   European Commission, DG Enterprise & Industry

      e-Mail: entr-innov-ict-ebiz@ec.europa.eu
         e-Mail: info@ebusiness-watch.org
          Web: www.ebusiness-watch.org




Table Report No. 04 - 2007

   e-Business in the
    Retail Industry


                  Based on the

     SeBW Survey 2007



            November 2007
                  Version 1.2




          European Commission
Enterprise & Industry Directorate General
About Sectoral e-Business Watch and this report




Disclaimer




Acknowledgements




Contact
About Sectoral e-Business Watch and this report

           The European Commission, Enterprise & Industry Directorate General, launched the
           Sectoral e-Business Watch (SeBW) to study and assess the impact of ICT on
           enterprises, industries and the economy in general across different sectors of the
           economy in the enlarged European Union, EEA and Accession countries. SeBW
           continues the successful work of the e-Business W@tch which, since January 2002, has
           analysed e-business developments and impacts in manufacturing, construction, financial
           and service sectors. All results are available on the internet and can be accessed or
           ordered via the Europa server or directly at the SeBW website
           (www.europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/ict/policy/watch/index.htm, www.ebusiness-
           watch.org).


           This table report contains the main results of the e-Business Survey 2007 for the retail
           industry. The survey sample in this sector consists of 1151 enterprises from 7 European
           countries and the USA. Interviews were conducted with ICT decision-makers by
           telepone, using CATI (computer-assisted telephone interview) method.




           Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is
           responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. The views
           expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of
           the European Commission. Nothing in this report implies or expresses a warranty of any
           kind. Results from this report should only be used as guidelines as part of an overall
           strategy. For detailed advice on corporate planning, business processes and
           management, technology integration and legal or tax issues, the services of a
           professional should be obtained.




Acknowledgements

           This report was prepared by empirica GmbH on behalf of the European Commission,
           Enterprise & Industry Directorate General. It is a deliverable in the context of the Sectoral
           e-Business Watch, which is implemented by empirica GmbH in cooperation with Altran
           Group, Databank Consulting, DIW Berlin, IDC EMEA, Ipsos, GOPA-Cartermill and
           Rambøll Management, based on a service contract with the European Commission.




           European Commission
           Enterprise and Industry Directorate General
           'Technology for innovation, ICT industries and e-business'
           entr-innov-ict-ebiz@ec.europa.eu

           Sectoral e-Business Watch
           c/o empirica GmbH
           Oxfordstr. 2, 53111 Bonn, Germany
           info@ebusiness-watch.org
Table of Contents

  IMPR

 Table

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21



Abbreviations and references

NACE



This Table-Report distinguishes (where indicated) between the following sub-sectors:
Table of Contents

           Imprint

           Indicators in Overview

           Internet access & connection type
           Use of LAN, WLAN, website, intranet, extranet & remote access
           Use of RFID and VoIP
           Use of eBusiness software systems
           Use of EDI, secure server technology, digital signature & open source software
           Companies placing orders online
           Companies receiving orders online
           Customers ordering online, online and mobile marketing activities
           Accepted payment methods for online orders
           eInvoicing & data exchanges with business partners
           Pressure from customers / suppliers to adopt e-business
           ICT and product & process innovation
           ICT and organisational innovation / patents
           ICT skills
           ICT budgets & investments
           Share of processes conducted electronically
           Barriers for e-business adoption
           ICT and competition
           Anticipated ICT impact
           Background information: market area & customers
           Background information: market characteristics



Abbreviations and references

           Nomenclature générale des activités économiques [European industry standard classification system
           consisting of a 6 digit code.]

This Table-Report distinguishes (where indicated) between the following sub-sectors:
           NACE Rev. 1.1
           NACE 52.12, 52.3, 52.4, 52.5 = Retailers that sell non-food items in store (= non-food)
           NACE 52.11, 52.2 = Retail sale of food items in store (= food)
           NACE 50.5, 52.6 = Retail sale of automotive fuel in specialised stores, retail sales not in-store, stalls or
           markets
Table 1: Internet access & connection type
                                                                                                     Companies whose internet access has a maximum bandwidth of
                                                                             Average share of                                    ...
                                                Companies with               employees with
                 Retail
                                                internet access             internet access in                                   ... 144 kbit/s – 2
                                                                                  firms                 ... < 144 kbit/s                                     ... > 2Mbit/s
                                                                                                                                       Mbit/s

                            Weighting: % of empl.             % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                     97                     95           48           68           8            11           48           57           44           32
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)             97                     95           59           72           9            11           44           56           47           32
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                   96                     91           27           52           11           17           53           53           36           31
NACE 50.5, 52.6                          100                     99           43           62           1            2            57           69           42           29
Retail -by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                              95                        69                        12                        58                        31
10-49                                                            96                        46                        10                        46                        44
50-249                                                           99                        32                        6                         48                        45
250+                                                            100                        37                         2                        36                        61
Retail -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                          98             97            56           76           4            6            39           52           57           42
Spain                                            99             97            46           51           1            3            20           36           79           60
France                                           98             91            27           72           7            1            55           57           38           42
Italy                                            92             91            48           53           4            4            59           59           37           37
Poland                                           96             96            72           76           23           24           67           68           11           8
Sweden                                           97             96            82           91           9            14           38           36           53           50
United Kingdom                                   99             100           35           61           2            10           33           34           65           55
USA                                              97             89            50           65           11           17           26           30           63           53
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                            99              97           39           53            8           17           51           52           41           31
                               Base (100%)              all                  A1 = Yes; excl. DK        A1 = Yes; excl. DK        A1 = Yes; excl. DK        A1 = Yes; excl. DK
                 N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))          1151                       1105                        839                       839                       839
                     Questionnaire reference            A1                         A2                         A3                        A3                        A3
  Survey Questions:
  A1: "Does your company have access to the internet?";
  A2: “What percentage of your employees have access to the internet at their workplace?;
  A3: "What is the maximum bandwidth of your internet connection available for download?"
Table 2: Use of LAN, WLAN, website, intranet, extranet & remote access
                                                                                                                Companies having ...                                                                             Companies whose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   employees can
                    Retail                                                                                                                                                                                      remotely access the
                                                  a Local Area Network                                                                                                                                            firm's computer
                                                                                  a Wireless LAN                     an Intranet                    an Extranet                  their own website
                                                          (LAN)                                                                                                                                                        system

                              Weighting: % of empl.                % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                       66                        49           40                 25           50                 28           20                 8            69                 48           45                 22
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)               62                        49           39                 29           43                 29           13                 9            70                 53           46                 24
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                     69                        50           36                 17           63                 25           30                 2            61                 34           39                 17
NACE 50.5, 52.6                             78                        49           56                 16           55                 33           29                 12           78                 42           53                 25
Retail -by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                                   48                              25                              27                              7                               48                              22
10-49                                                                 65                              34                              41                              12                              59                              28
50-249                                                                80                              44                              56                              17                              81                              45
250+                                                                  87                              57                              73                              35                              89                              68
Retail -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                     67                        47           51                 51           48                 32           23                 14           79                 63           41                 16
Spain                                       83                        65           51                 37           40                 20           25                 4            52                 24           53                 23
France                                      80                        40           33                 20           72                 19           35                 15           63                 33           48                 5
Italy                                       63                        55           15                 6            33                 21           7                  0            42                 32           20                 12
Poland                                      48                        43           23                 20           41                 38           8                  8            62                 60           38                 36
Sweden                                      55                        42           28                 23           48                 27           14                 7            78                 71           39                 34
United Kingdom                              70                        58           66                 48           54                 23           23                 8            88                 47           62                 31
USA                                         57                        50           51                 30           56                 43           23                 11           89                 65           44                 20
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                       75                        50           39                 22           52                 24           24                  6           74                 40           49                 24
                                   Base (100%)               all                             all                             all                             all                             all                             all
                   N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))             1151                         1151                            1151                            1151                            1151                            1151
                        Questionnaire reference             A5a                          A5b                             A5c                             A5d                             A5e        A4
Survey Questions:
A4: "Can employees of your company access your computer system remotely from outside the company, for instance from home, from a hotel or while travelling?"
A5: "Does your company have (a) a Local Area Network, that is a LAN; (b) a Wireless LAN; (c) an Intranet within your business with access restricted to employees; (d) an Extranet with access restricted to
business partners; (e) its own website on the internet?"
Table 3: Use of RFID and VoIP
                                                                                                                        Companies using ...


                                                                        RFID to support                                                                              RFID to track and
               Retail                                                                                   RFID to manage
                                                                       ordering of goods,                                             RFID to support                manage the whole
                                             RFID technology                                          goods, products and                                                                             Voice-over-IP
                                                                         products and                                                customer services              organisational value
                                                                                                       services in-house
                                                                            services                                                                                       chain

                            Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.        % of firms   % of empl.        % of firms   % of empl.        % of firms   % of empl.        % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                      8                  0          (64)*             (85)*        (92)*             (36)*        (49)*             (63)*        (62)*             (73)*         21                 13
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)              4                  0          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        23                 16
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                   14                  0          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        15                 4
NACE 50.5, 52.6                           17                  2          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        28                 11
Retail -by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                          0                             (--)**                         (--)**                         (--)**                         (--)**                           13
10-49                                                        2                             (--)**                         (--)**                         (--)**                         (--)**                           15
50-249                                                       6                             (--)**                         (--)**                         (--)**                         (--)**                           18
250+                                                         15                            (--)**                         (--)**                         (--)**                         (--)**                           27
Retail -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    2                  0          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        24                 27
Spain                                     13                  3          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        10                 4
France                                    19                  0          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        21                 20
Italy                                      1                  0          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        9                  3
Poland                                     1                  0          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        15                 15
Sweden                                     2                  1          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        8                  5
United Kingdom                            14                  0          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        35                 9
USA                                       15                  7          (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        6                  6
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                     13                  2           41                77           73                82           45                36           43                29           21                 13
                             Base (100%)            all                  A9f = Yes; excl. DK            A9f = Yes; excl. DK            A9f = Yes; excl. DK            A9f = Yes; excl. DK                       all
              N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))        1151                              54                             54                             54                             54                        1151
                  Questionnaire reference          A9f                            A10a_a                         A10a_b                         A10a_c                         A10a_d                           A8
Survey Questions:
A9f: Does your company use any of the following software packages for e-business? (f) RFID technology, that is Radio Frequency Identification?
A10a: "You said you use RFID technology. For what purpose do you use RFID? Is it to…(a) support ordering of goods, products and services; (b) manage goods, products and services in-house such as
tracking, transport, logistics, labelling and packing; (c) support customer services; (d) track and manage the whole organisational value chain
A8: "Does your company use Voice-over-IP, to make phone calls over the internet?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 25 - 50)
** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<25)
Table 4: Use of eBusiness software systems
                                                                                                                      Companies having ...


                                                                                                                                            a software
               Retail                                                                                                                                                    a warehouse or
                                                                                                                                          application to
                                             an ERP system               an SCM system                   an CRM system                                                 depot management                a Bar coding system
                                                                                                                                       manage the placing
                                                                                                                                                                             system
                                                                                                                                       or receipt of orders

                            Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                     16                 11           19                  6           20                 10           60                 48           51                 42           59                 36
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)             15                 11           20                  6           17                 8            64                 47           52                 43           54                 35
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                   17                 13           17                  5           24                 17           55                 52           47                 39           71                 45
NACE 50.5, 52.6                           23                 3            16                  8           29                 6            51                 43           60                 41           58                 22
Retail -by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                          10                              5                               9                               47                              42                              35
10-49                                                        29                              9                               13                              52                              43                              53
50-249                                                       37                              18                              23                              59                              52                              66
250+                                                         33                              35                              38                              76                              65                              81
Retail -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                   65                 51           13                 1            34                 20           54                 35           44                 36           49                 26
Spain                                     31                 4            37                 25           30                 15           65                 43           64                 51           42                 23
France                                    17                 3            24                 5            26                 11           70                 63           56                 21           81                 61
Italy                                     10                 3            13                 6            10                 6            61                 55           66                 60           64                 58
Poland                                     1                 0            8                  7            8                  7            52                 51           50                 49           26                 22
Sweden                                     2                 2            6                  2            5                  4            46                 31           54                 36           65                 50
United Kingdom                             1                 3            28                 5            23                 7            64                 34           44                 4            80                 19
USA                                        6                 2            35                 9            35                 7            60                 42           46                 22           69                 39
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                     21                  6           21                  6           17                 10           44                 20           42                 15        No cases           No cases
                             Base (100%)            all                             all                             all                             all                             all                             all
              N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))       1151                          1151                            1151                            1151                            1151                            1151
                  Questionnaire reference         A9a                           A9b                             A9c                             A9d                             A9e                             A9h
Survey Questions:
A9: "Does your company use any of the following software packages for e-business? (a) an ERP system, that is Enterprise Resource Planning; (b) a Supply Chain Management system; (c) a CRM software
system, that is a customer relationship management system; (d) a software application to manage the placing or receipt of orders; (e) a warehouse or depot management system; (h) a Bar coding system?"
Table 5: Use of EDI, secure server technology, digital signature & open source software
                                                                                                               Companies using ...


                  Retail
                                                 EDI-based          secure server         digital signature     digital signature   open Source           open Source          open Source
                                                 standards           technology              frequently            sometimes      operating system         databases            browsers


                             Weighting: % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                      28         6          48         31         12         8          16         16         22         9          22         8          31         24
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)              22         3          43         33         13         6          15         16         17         10         20         8          38         27
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                    35         13         44         18         10         16         18         14         27         7          24         10         13         18
NACE 50.5, 52.6                            41         8          77         30         11         5          18         22         33         3          33         4          35         11
Retail -by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                   5                     29                    8                     16                    9                     7                     24
10-49                                                 12                    46                    10                    24                    17                    20                    22
50-249                                                29                    49                    12                    17                    21                    27                    33
250+                                                  53                    58                    20                    18                    40                    40                    42
Retail -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    39         2          48         30         16         4          22         19         23         8          27         8          34         24
Spain                                      40         13         59         27         17         7          28         23         37         10         20         9          44         17
France                                     47         11         75         26         12         15         23         12         43         20         29         8          24         18
Italy                                      12         8          33         28         15         18         19         13          8         0           9         3          15         14
Poland                                      3         0          35         33          3         2          20         20         15         13         15         11         37         35
Sweden                                     25         23         49         41          6         6          10         10          5         5           9         5          18         19
United Kingdom                             28         7          44         28         15         3           2         9          16         11         29         10         34         26
USA                                        25         7          60         61         29         5          16         22         12         2          14         3          27         23
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                      29         9          48         30          8         4          23         20         17         8          25         10         34         21
                               Base (100%)         A9=Yes         A5(e) = Yes; excl. DK   A1 = Yes; excl. DK     A1 = Yes; excl. DK        all                  all                  all
                N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))         821                  768                   1113                   1113               1151                 1151                 1151
                     Questionnaire reference        A10b                  A11                   A12                    A12               A13a                  A13b                 A13c
Survey Questions:
A10b: "Does your company use EDI-based standards, for example EDIFACT, EANCOM, ANSI X12 or TRADACOM?"
A11: "Is your company using secure server technology, for example SSL, TLS or a comparable technical standard?"
A12: "Is your company using a digital signature in any message sent? That is an encryption method assuring the authenticity and integrity of the message."
A13: "Does your company use Open Source Software for the following application areas?What about… (a) Open Source operating systems like Linux; (b) Open Source databases like mySQL; (c) Open
Source browsers like Mozilla Firefox?"
Table 6: Companies placing orders online
                                                 Companies ordering
                                                                                                           Companies that order more than ... of supply goods online
                                                   supply goods or
                                                    services on the
                   Retail
                                                 internet or via other
                                                                                      <5%                       5 -10%                    11-25%                    26-50%                    >50%
                                                 computer-mediated
                                                       networks
                                   Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                            55                 52           35           30           18            11          8             9           14            16          26           33
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)                    55                 50           34           35           13            9           5             7           17            14          30           36
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                          60                 58           38           16           25            22          10            12          9             22          18           27
NACE 50.5, 52.6                                  46                 56           30           21           26            8           17            19          7             23          19           30
Retail -by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                                 52                        29                         11                        9                         17                       34
10-49                                                               63                        41                         18                        7                         8                        26
50-249                                                              67                        46                         21                        8                         10                       15
250+                                                                58                        34                         26                        8                         12                       20
Retail -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                             67              63           32           44           24            7           14            16          8             6           22           27
Spain                                               55              49           20           20           33            12          7             17          19            16          21           35
France                                              66              63           61           38           9             10          7             7           8             13          15           32
Italy                                               48              46           34           24           11            8           1             0           26            37          27           31
Poland                                              47              47           16           15           15            15          10            10          14            14          44           47
Sweden                                              81              76           33           28           19            21          6             9           9             13          33           29
United Kingdom                                      48              51           32           47           23            15          3             9           20            10          22           19
USA                                                 70              63           22           20           5             19          24            12          19            26          30           22
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                               58              41           54           54           15            16          16            16           7            6            8            7
                                  Base (100%)              all                  B1 = Yes; excl. DK        B1 = Yes; excl. DK        B1 = Yes; excl. DK        B1 = Yes; excl. DK        B1 = Yes; excl. DK
                  N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))            1151                         699                       699                       699                       699                       699
                       Questionnaire reference             B1                          B2a                       B2b                       B2c                       B2d                       B2e
  Survey Questions:
  B1: "Does your company use the internet or other computer-mediated networks to order goods or services from suppliers online, not counting manually typed e-mails?";
  B2: "Please estimate the percentage of orders your company places online."
Table 7: Companies receiving orders online

                                               Companies whose                                         Companies that receive ... of orders from customers online
                                              customers can order
                                              goods or services on
                Retail
                                               the internet or via
                                                other computer-                      <5%                       5 -10%                      11-25%                   26-50%                       >50%
                                               mediated networks

                              Weighting: % of empl.          % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.     % of firms    % of empl.    % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.    % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                       38                  26            47            57         19                14          6               12        12             14         16              4
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)               37                  27            54            64         21                10          6               9          8             13         10              4
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                     36                  17            53            63          4                 2          6               34        20              0         18              1
NACE 50.5, 52.6                             44                  40           (8)*          (14)*      (35)*             (51)*       (5)*            (0)*      (15)*          (32)*      (37)*           (3)*
Retail -by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                             26                          56                           14                          12                       14                          4
10-49                                                           24                          61                           15                          12                        5                          8
50-249                                                          35                          56                           21                          10                        7                          6
250+                                                            45                         (41)*                        (18)*                       (5)*                     (12)*                      (25)*
Retail -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                     41                  38          (48)*          (55)*      (14)*             (10)*      (18)*          (26)*        (5)*           (0)*      (14)*            (9)*
Spain                                       26                  28          (18)*          (32)*      (16)*             (48)*      (14)*           (0)*       (20)*          (11)*      (33)*           (10)*
France                                      34                  20          (71)*          (66)*      (14)*             (12)*       (1)*          (10)*         2            (11)*      (12)*            (1)*
Italy                                        9                  8           (--)**         (--)**     (--)**            (--)**     (--)**         (--)**      (--)**         (--)**     (--)**          (--)**
Poland                                      34                  34          (58)*          (57)*      (14)*             (14)*       (8)*           (7)*       (19)*          (21)*       (1)*            (0)*
Sweden                                      33                  36            55             60         25                18         6              8           6              5          9               9
United Kingdom                              60                  24          (33)*          (69)*      (27)*             (19)*       (1)*           (1)*       (14)*          (10)*      (25)*            (1)*
USA                                         56                  36          (14)*          (34)*      (25)*              (5)*      (22)*          (10)*       (10)*          (27)*      (29)*           (23)*
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                       35                  30           42             51         19                12         13              14         12             16         15               7
                              Base (100%)              all                  B3 = Yes; excl. DK        B3 = Yes; excl. DK           B3 = Yes; excl. DK         B3 = Yes; excl. DK        B3 = Yes; excl. DK
               N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))           1151                           315                        315                         315                        315                       315
                   Questionnaire reference             B3                            B4a                        B4b                         B4c                        B4d                       B4e
Survey Questions:
B3: "Can customers order goods or services from your company online on the internet or through other computer-mediated networks?";
B4: "Please estimate the percentage of orders you receive online."
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 25 - 50)
** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<25)
Table 8: Customers ordering online, online and mobile marketing activities

                                                    Companies whose online orders come mainly from ...

                                                                                                                                   Companies engaging        Companies placing         Companies using
                Retail                                                                                                               in search engine        online ads on non-        mobile services for
                                                                                                          international                optimisation          company websites          marketing or sales
                                               regional customers        national customers
                                                                                                           customers



                              Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.      % of firms   % of empl.      % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                        51                47           46              49            3               4           47           40           16           13           11                 9
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)                44                47           55              52            1               1           46           40           16           16           10                 11
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                      79                46           18              53            3               0           52           55           19           3            8                  7
NACE 50.5, 52.6                            (27)*              (47)*        (62)*           (31)*        (11)*           (22)*         42           13           8            6            25                 4
Retail -by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                            47                           50                           3                         40                        13                              9
10-49                                                          58                           33                           9                         45                        11                              9
50-249                                                         36                           61                           3                         41                        21                              14
250+                                                          (50)*                        (47)*                        (3)*                       46                        20                              12
Retail -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    (35)*              (26)*        (58)*           (73)*         (7)*            (1)*         42           40           13           6            10                 7
Spain                                      (59)*              (70)*        (41)*           (30)*         (0)*            (0)*         30           25           31           22           10                 16
France                                     (67)*              (45)*        (32)*           (54)*         (1)*            (1)*         61           43           10           32           13                 5
Italy                                      (--)**             (--)**       (--)**          (--)**       (--)**          (--)**        55           63           17           9            7                  6
Poland                                     (52)*              (53)*        (42)*           (40)*         (6)*            (7)*         36           36           13           11           14                 13
Sweden                                       39                 27           55              65           6               8           25           32           24           22           12                 12
United Kingdom                             (49)*              (42)*        (50)*           (58)*         (0)*            (0)*         51           24           19           30           9                  11
USA                                          54                 54           39              32           8               14          53           42           43           19           13                 6
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                        41                46           45              45           14               9           33           35           13           14           13                 16
                               Base (100%)      B3 = Yes; excl. DK         B3 = Yes; excl. DK           B3 = Yes; excl. DK          A5(e) = Yes; excl. DK     A5(e) = Yes; excl. DK                 all
                N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))           329                          329                          329                        768                       768                      1151
                    Questionnaire reference            B5                           B5                           B5                         A6a                       A6b                           A7
Survey Questions:
B5: "Please indicate where the majority of your online orders come from. Are they mainly from regional, national or international customers?"
A6a: "Does your company engage in search engine optimization to have your websites appear on the first couple of pages of a search engine?"
A6b: "Do you place online ads on non-company websites?"
A7: "Do you use mobile services for Marketing or sales purposes such as text message services for customers?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 25 - 50)
** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<25)
Table 9: Accepted payment methods for online orders

                                                                                                                          Companies accepting ...



                Retail
                                                                                                    third-party                                                               cash on delivery
                                                credit cards for         debit cards for                                                              advance bank                                       on account
                                                                                                   payment for                   cheques                                         for online
                                               online payments          online payments                                                                 transfers                                         payments
                                                                                                 online payments                                                                  payment


                              Weighting:        % of       % of firms    % of       % of firms    % of       % of firms       % of       % of firms   % of       % of firms    % of       % of firms   % of       % of firms
                                                empl.                    empl.                    empl.                       empl.                   empl.                    empl.                   empl.
Retail - Total (EU-7)                            63             38        55             28        15             15           26             23       36             58        48             69       40             47
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)                    62             36        56             26        19             16           20             24       37             56        45             63       39             51
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                          67             23        53             39         5              2           38              4       24             57        56             93       57             55
NACE 50.5, 52.6                                 (62)*          (62)*     (57)*          (26)*     (15)*          (21)*        (30)*          (42)*    (54)*          (69)*     (42)*          (78)*    (10)*          (10)*
Retail - by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                             38                       27                       14                          23                      58                       70                      46
10-49                                                           40                       34                       19                          29                      60                       60                      59
50-249                                                          52                       35                       13                          33                      57                       44                      47
250+                                                           (68)*                    (61)*                    (17)*                       (27)*                   (34)*                    (36)*                   (43)*
Retail - by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                         (39)*          (20)*     (37)*          (36)*     (23)*           (2)*        (29)*          (27)*    (67)*          (55)*     (60)*          (64)*    (87)*          (83)*
Spain                                           (33)*          (48)*     (23)*          (20)*      (0)*           (0)*        (20)*          (40)*    (80)*          (81)*     (16)*          (31)*     (0)*           (0)*
France                                          (57)*          (55)*     (39)*          (13)*      (2)*           (2)*        (23)*          (47)*    (29)*          (34)*     (43)*          (45)*    (18)*          (33)*
Italy                                           (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**       (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**
Poland                                          (28)*          (31)*     (17)*          (19)*     (24)*          (25)*         (1)*           (0)*    (63)*          (63)*     (90)*          (94)*    (29)*          (31)*
Sweden                                            52             49        40             45        14             19           9              12       44             56        43             49       48             42
United Kingdom                                  (97)*          (71)*     (97)*          (80)*     (15)*          (38)*        (41)*          (85)*     (4)*          (39)*     (25)*          (29)*    (39)*          (58)*
USA                                               96             81        86             55        15             18           37             30       40             17        62             35       65             32
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                            29             18        14             17         8             10            29            35        50            62        36             53        31            31
                               Base (100%)     B3 = Yes; excl. DK       B3 = Yes; excl. DK       B3 = Yes; excl. DK           B3 = Yes; excl. DK      B3 = Yes; excl. DK      B3 = Yes; excl. DK       B3 = Yes; excl. DK
                N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))             339                      339                      339                         339                     339                      339                     339
                    Questionnaire reference              B6                       B6                       B6                          B6                      B6                       B6                      B6
Survey Questions:
B6: "Which of the following methods of payment do you accept when customers order online? Do you accept... (1) credit cards; (2) debit cards; (3) third-party payment providers such as PayPal; (4) cheques;
(5) advance bank transfers; (6) cash on delivery; (7) on account?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 25 - 50)
** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<25)
Table 10: eInvoicing & data exchanges with business partners

                                                                                                                      Companies where data with business partners ...
                                                                                            Companies
                                                                                              sharing                                            is mostly
                                             Companies that           Companies that
                                                                                          information on                   is processed and    electronically  is processed and
               Retail                        send electronic         receive electronic
                                                                                         inventory levels is processed and     exchanged      processed, but       exchanged
                                                invoices                  invoices                            exchanged
                                                                                        electronically with                 mostly in paper    exchanged in           mostly
                                                                                        business partners   mostly verbal
                                                                                                                             based format      paper based       electronically
                                                                                                                                                   format
                            Weighting:       % of       % of firms    % of       % of firms   % of       % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms
                                             empl.                    empl.                   empl.                   empl.                  empl.                  empl.                  empl.
Retail - Total (EU-7)                         28            27         48            44        15            10        26            36       30            33       22            17       22            15
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)                 28            26         52            45        14            7         26            35       34            35       21            15       19            15
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                       25            29         32            37        17            16        20            32       31            31       21            21       28            16
NACE 50.5, 52.6                               34            23         71            50        17            15        36            49       11            25       30            16       23            11
Retail - by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                         27                       43                      9                       36                     33                     16                     14
10-49                                                       22                       55                      16                      25                     35                     20                     20
50-249                                                      27                       55                      22                      20                     30                     25                     24
250+                                                        29                       55                      23                      15                     26                     29                     29
Retail - by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                       26            24         54            49        16            2         27            36       23            24       26            18       24            21
Spain                                         27            23         69            53        14            6         17            41       31            32       21            18       30            9
France                                        20            12         36            37        18            22        11            42       29            27       23            8        37            22
Italy                                         29            28         46            38        16            12        21            26       47            47       17            17       14            9
Poland                                        29            30         46            45        12            11        31            32       31            32       24            23       14            14
Sweden                                        16            16         43            39        22            18        49            57       21            17       9             5        21            20
United Kingdom                                36            37         54            50        15            5         33            54       28            27       22            3        18            15
USA                                           39            19         61            44        32            9         18            34       25            23       43            31       14            12
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                         33            25         55            46        19            4         26            43       36            34       15            10       23            13
                             Base (100%)              all                      all                     all              all; excl. DK          all; excl. DK          all; excl. DK          all; excl. DK
              N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))           1151                     1151                    1151                    1125                   1125                   1125                   1125
                  Questionnaire reference            B7                       B8                      B9                      B10a                   B10b                   B10c                   B10d
Survey Questions:
B7: "Does your company send electronic invoices to customers, for example, in PDF format through email?"
B8: "Does your company receive electronic invoices from suppliers, for example, in PDF format through email?"
B9: "Does your company share information on inventory levels electronically with business partners?"
B10: "All in all, which of the following statements best describes the way your company exchanges data with business partners: Is data…(a) mostly transmitted verbally, e.g. via telephone; (b) mostly
processed and exchanged in paper based format, that is by letter or fax; (c) mostly electronically processed internally, but then exchanged in a paper-based format; (d) mostly processed and exchanged
electronically?"
Table 11: Pressure from customers / suppliers to adopt e-business

                                                 Companies who      eBiz pressure from suppliers: Companies ...
                                                                                                                   Companies
                                                   experienced
                                                                      who experienced                            demanding from
                                                  pressure from                            having introduced
                Retail                                                 pressure from                            suppliers that they
                                               customers that their                       new ICT solutions in implement new ICT
                                              ICT solutions should suppliers that their order to comply with
                                                                    ICT solutions should                            solutions
                                                   be adapted                              suppliers' requests
                                                                         be adapted
                              Weighting: % of empl.      % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                       11              9            12           10            60           41          20           10
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)               13              9            13           11            65           39          23           11
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                      9              7            10           5           (39)*        (17)*         15           5
NACE 50.5, 52.6                             12              18           11           15          (--)**       (--)**        14           12
Retail - by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                         9                         10                       (40)*                      9
10-49                                                       8                         12                       (63)*                      15
50-249                                                      15                        14                       (72)*                      22
250+                                                        13                        13                       (--)**                     37
Retail - by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                     10              7            12           7           (--)**       (--)**        27           8
Spain                                        6              5            18           16          (--)**       (--)**        23           4
France                                      13              3            13           10          (--)**       (--)**        23           10
Italy                                        5              3            9            6           (--)**       (--)**        13           9
Poland                                      16              17           12           13          (--)**       (--)**        14           13
Sweden                                      17              16           13           9           (--)**       (--)**        17           14
United Kingdom                              11              10           10           10          (--)**       (--)**        22           8
USA                                         14              4            32           13          (--)**       (--)**        8            5
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                    No cases        No cases        14            8           77           74           20            9
                                Base (100%)           all                       all                     B13 = Yes                   all
               N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))          1151                      1151                       149                      1151
                   Questionnaire reference           B11a                      B13                        B14                      B15
Survey Questions:
B11a: "Has your company ever experienced pressure from customers to adopt e-commerce, which is the sale of products and services over the
internet?"
B13: "Has your company experienced pressure from suppliers that your ICT solutions or data exchange formats should be adapted to comply with their
requirements?"
B14: "Have you implemented any new ICT solutions or exchange formats in order to comply with such requests?";
B15: "Is your company demanding from suppliers that they implement new ICT solutions or exchange formats in order to facilitate data exchange with
your company?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 25 - 50)
** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<25)
Table 12: ICT and product & process innovation


                                              Companies which             Percentage of                                    Percentage of
                                                                                                     Companies which
                                             have launched new          product innovators                               process innovators
                                                                                                    have introduced new
                Retail                        products/services           whose product                                    whose process
                                                                                                    processes during the
                                             during the past 12         innovation(s) were                               innovation(s) were
                                                                                                       past 12 months
                                                   months                 enabled by ICT                                   enabled by ICT



                             Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.     % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.      % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                      32                 21           70             59           45                 26           81               68
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)              36                 23           75             62           45                 23           79               77
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                    18                 15           45             59           38                 28           80               47
NACE 50.5, 52.6                            41                 20          (69)*          (30)*         61                 44           91               64
Retail - by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                           21                          60                              25                            68
10-49                                                         25                          43                              45                            67
50-249                                                        30                          51                              52                            78
250+                                                          44                         (67)*                            68                            83
Retail - by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    25                 14          (33)*          (45)*         58                 30           69               63
Spain                                      41                 27          (47)*          (76)*         70                 45           70               68
France                                     29                 20          (58)*          (24)*         56                 28           87               66
Italy                                      29                 26          (68)*          (66)*         17                 12          (80)*            (75)*
Poland                                     21                 19          (77)*          (78)*         33                 30           72               71
Sweden                                     32                 32           47             52           37                 31           81               72
United Kingdom                             47                 24          (90)*          (32)*         48                 27           94               63
USA                                        51                 25          (47)*          (57)*         42                 19          (69)*            (62)*
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                      25                 13           76              57          43                 22           75               66
                             Base (100%)             all                        D1 = Yes                         all                          D3 = 1
              N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))          1151                          343                       1151                               476
                  Questionnaire reference           D1                            D2                         D3                                D4
Survey Questions:
D1: "IDuring the past 12 months, has your company launched any new or substantially improved PRODUCTS or SERVICES?"
D2: "Have any of these product or service innovations been directly related to or enabled by information or communication technology?"
D3: "During the past 12 months, has your company introduced new or significantly improved internal PROCESSES,?"
D4: "Have any of these process innovations been directly related to or enabled by information or communication technology?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 25 - 50)
Table 13: ICT and organisational innovation / patents

                                                                       Companies having introduced major changes ...



                Retail                                                                                in their
                                                in their corporate         in their management                                              in their marketing
                                                                                                  organisational
                                               strategy in the past          techniques in the                                             concepts in the past
                                                                                               structure in the past
                                                    12 months                 past 12 months                                                    12 months
                                                                                                    12 months

                              Weighting: % of empl.           % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                       24                   16           25                 18           36                 24           30                 23
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)               26                   13           28                 16           38                 23           38                 23
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                     25                   22           23                 23           32                 28           18                 22
NACE 50.5, 52.6                             17                   25           15                 28           35                 26           12                 19
Retail - by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                              15                              18                              24                              22
10-49                                                            20                              23                              30                              29
50-249                                                           26                              24                              36                              31
250+                                                             35                              32                              48                              38
Retail - by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                     24                   18           22                 17           44                 44           36                 28
Spain                                       42                   13           28                 15           28                 15           39                 14
France                                      29                   20           26                 23           39                 27           19                 26
Italy                                       19                   17           16                 12           21                 17           16                 12
Poland                                      13                   13           22                 21           21                 19           24                 24
Sweden                                      22                   15           21                 13           29                 20           34                 36
United Kingdom                              31                   15           33                 24           53                 20           42                 35
USA                                         23                   15           20                 12           20                 17           49                 21
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                       21                   17           19                 14           37                 23           18                 13
                               Base (100%)              all                             all                             all                             all
                N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))          1151                         1151                            1151                            1151
                    Questionnaire reference            D5                           D5                              D5                              D5
Survey Questions:
D5: "(a) During the past 12 months, has your company introduced major changes in its corporate strategy?; (b) And in its management techniques?; (c) And
in its organisational structure?; (d) And in its marketing concepts?"
Table 14: ICT skills
                                                                                                        Companies having
                                                                                                        outsourced any ICT    Companies saying
                                                Companies                Average number of              services to external    that e-business
                Retail                        employing ICT               ICT practitioners              service providers developments have a
                                               practitioners                 employed                       which were       significant impact on
                                                                                                            previously        skills requirements
                                                                                                        conducted in-house
                              Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.        % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                       23                 11           15                2            56                 46           49                 41
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)               26                 9             6                2            58                 47           54                 41
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                     16                 13           53                2            53                 51           40                 35
NACE 50.5, 52.6                             20                 18          (14)*             (1)*          49                 28           41                 54
Retail - by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                            10                            (--)**                           45                              41
10-49                                                          15                              3                              59                              44
50-249                                                         32                              3                              63                              50
250+                                                           48                            (23)*                            67                              58
Retail - by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                     35                 11          (14)*              (3)*         52                 24           48                 26
Spain                                       21                 2           (--)**            (--)**        33                 29           46                 44
France                                      20                 3           (--)**            (--)**        67                 56           48                 31
Italy                                       20                 14           (3)*              (1)*         77                 74           33                 29
Poland                                      17                 11            10                1           41                 39           68                 66
Sweden                                      21                 12           (2)*              (1)*         54                 41           35                 35
United Kingdom                              25                 12           (5)*              (3)*         59                 38           42                 31
USA                                         42                 8           (--)**            (--)**        45                 24           25                 31
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                       35                  8            6                 2           56                 45           45                 33
                              Base (100%)             all                  E1 = Yes; excl. DK                        all                             all
               N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))        1151                             257                          1151                            1151
                   Questionnaire reference            E1                              E2                             E3                              E5
Survey Questions:
E1: "Does your company currently employ ICT practitioners? These are persons who were hired primarily to take care of the company's ICT
infrastructure.";
E2: "How many ICT practitioners does your company employ?";
E3: "In the past 12 months, has your company outsourced any ICT services to external service providers which were previously conducted in-house?";
E5: "Do you think that e-business developments have a significant impact on skills requirements in your company?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 25 - 50)
** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<25)
Table 15: ICT budgets & investments
                                                                                  Companies expecting ...                                  Companies which
                                                                                                                                          made investments in
                                                                                                                                              ICT hardware,
                    Retail                                                                                          their company’s ICT
                                                    their company’s ICT            their company’s ICT                                    software or networks
                                                                                                                   budget to roughly stay
                                                     budget to increase             budget to decrease                                     during the past 12
                                                                                                                          the same               months
                                     Weighting: % of empl.           % of firms    % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Retail - Total (EU-7)                              34                   28             3                  5           58                 61           74                 57
NACE 52.12, 52.3-5 (non-food)                      38                   30             4                  5           54                 60           76                 59
NACE 52.11, 52.2 (food)                            27                   22             3                  6           64                 61           68                 46
NACE 50.5, 52.6                                    32                   29             0                  0           67                 69           81                 62
Retail - by Size (EU-7)
1-9                                                                     28                                5                              61                              56
10-49                                                                   30                                3                              64                              69
50-249                                                                  30                                1                              65                              73
250+                                                                    39                                6                              52                              91
Retail - by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                                 18              14             6                 7            73                 76           80                 66
Spain                                                   49              29             1                 0            48                 65           75                 59
France                                                  18              20             6                 10           72                 69           78                 52
Italy                                                   31              26             7                 8            46                 49           41                 32
Poland                                                  41              39             1                 0            56                 59           78                 77
Sweden                                                  41              36             6                 2            53                 62           61                 48
United Kingdom                                          48              33             1                 5            50                 60           82                 49
USA                                                     32              29             4                 1            54                 63           54                 39
Other sectors (EU-7)
Transport & Logistics                                   33              30             3                  2           59                 65           76                 56
                                    Base (100%)                all                              all                             all                             all
                    N (Retail, Total (EU-7+USA))              1151                          1151                            1151                            1151
                         Questionnaire reference               E6                               E6                              E6                              E9
Survey Questions:
E6: "In the forthcoming financial year, do you expect your company’s ICT budget to increase, decrease or will it roughly stay the same?"
E9: "Did your company make investments in ICT during the past 12 months, for example for new hardware, software or networks?"

				
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