What was the Industrial
Cause & Effects
• Many European economies, during the 1700s, were based
• on mercantilism and were very labor intensive
• Lasting effects from the Scientific Revolution and a more
• peaceful Europe led to a demand for more change…
• Industrial Revolution: a period of increased output of
• goods made by machines and new inventions
• Was a slow, long, uneven process
• from hand tools to complex Machines
• Inventions such as the sewing machine,
anesthetics, measuring the speed of light, and the Bunsen burner
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
• Agrarian Revolution:
– Build dikes to protect to protect farmland from the sea
– Animal fertilizer to improve soil
– Invent seed drill
• more food production
• Population Explosion:
– People eat better
– Women give birth to healthier babies
– Better medical care
• Slows death rate
• Energy Technology Revolution:
– Water wheels power new machines
– Coal used to fuel steam engine
Britain Led the Rise of Industry
• ���� British revolutionized textile industry
• ���� One invention led to another…
• ���� Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame,
• Mule, Power Loom, Cotton Gin
• ���� These inventions were too expensive for home use
• ���� Welcome to factory life!
• ���� Increased cotton and linen output
• ���� 1785 = 40 million yards
• ���� 1850 = 2 billion yards!
Increased Food Production-
Change in methods of farming…
The Dutch began building dikes and made ways to protect their farmland form the
sea and used fertilizer to improve the soil.
British invented new ways to increase food production, Jethro Tull, invented the
Seed Drill, which planted seeds in rows.
The neighboring farmers took down their fences in an attempt to increase the food
production by having larger crops, and also, it increased the size of fields from
small strip crops to larger crops.
The Revolution lead to a great increase in population, and Europe’s population
increased form about 120 million to about 190 million people.
Factors Aiding Industrial Growth
• Energy Revolution
• Coal was used to power the first steam engine
• James Watt (1769); pump water out of mines
• Vital power source during Industrial Revolution
• By 1780, rail lines crisscrossed Britain, Europe,
and eastern North
• Improved trade
• Encouraged travel
Effects of the Industrial
Economic Effects of the
• 1. Goods were produced more efficiently
• 2. Supply of goods increased
• 3. Prices of goods decreased
• 4. More consumer demand due to lowered
• 5. Jobs were created in factories and on rail
• 6. Social changes as well!
Tenement Life in New York -
Mayor Grace's Tour of Inspection
The sign above the shelf says:
"HOME SWEET HOME"
The already crowded condition are
acerbated by the need to hang
laundry up to dry indoors. This
must have been a common
occurrence in stretches of wet
weather, particularly if there was
illness in the house. Harpers
weekly October 15, 1881, drawn
by W. St John Harper, collection
of Maggie Land
People crowded into already crowded houses.
Rooms were rented to whole families or
perhaps several families.
If there was no rooms to rent, people stayed in
Chimneys, bridges and factory smoke blocked
out most of the light in the towns.
A layer of dirty smoke often covered the streets
like a blanket.
This came from the factories that used steam
to power their machines.
The steam was made by burning coal to heat
Burning coal produces a lot of dirty, black
Children of the City
• The children of the streets were often
orphans with no-one to care for them.
• They stole or picked pockets to buy food
and slept in outhouses or doorways.
• Charles Dickens wrote about these
children in his book "Oliver Twist".
• Some street children did jobs to earn
• They could work as crossing-sweepers,
sweeping a way through the mud and
horse dung of the main paths to make
way for ladies and gentlemen
• Others sold lace, flowers, matches or
muffins etc out in the streets.
In the 1800s, after the Agrarian Revolution, more people had a larger and better selection of food
for their diets.
People began to live longer and be healthier and because of this the population grew.
Because of this population explosion many people began to move to the cities
looking for work.
This was called urbanization
Most city’s population doubled, or even tripled!
Rise of Big Business
• The need for the investment of large amounts of money in business
• Business owners sold stocks, or shares in their companies, to investors
• This allowed businesses to expand into many areas
• Investors and businessmen made large sums of money in short period of time
Social Effects of the
Industry changed Europeans’ way of life
Urbanization: a movement of people to cities
City of Manchester:
17,000 in 1750…
40,000 in 1780…
70,000 in 1801!
Dirty and disease ridden from factories
City governments were corrupt and inefficient
Cities were unsafe
Tenement housing: shabby apartment buildings
No light, no running water, many to one
Rise In The Standard Of Living
During the Industrial Revolution many economic and social changes came.
Settlement patterns shifted over time. People who could afford it now moved out of
the center of cities to cleaner and better sections of the cities
The rich lived in pleasant neighborhoods on the edge of the cities
The poor were crowded into the slums in city centers, near factories.
Over time, conditions in the cities improved.
People were eating more varied diets and were healthier, thanks to the advances in
Changes in Social
The upper class was mostly made
up of very rich industrial and
These people often married into
Upper middle class consisted of:
Lawyers and Doctors (business
Lower middle class consisted of:
Teachers, Office Workers, Shop
Owners, and Clerks.
The lower class was mostly made
up of factory workers and peasants.
These people faced harsh work
and living conditions.
New Class Structure
During the Industrial Revolution a new class structure emerged.
Upper Class Upper Middle Class
• Very rich business families Business people and
• Members of the class professionals (Lawyers and
often married into nobility. Doctors)
High standard of living
Lower Middle Class The Bottom
• Below the upper middle class • Factory workers and peasants.
• Made of teachers, office • Harsh living and working
workers, and shop owners conditions.
Political Effects of the
Capitalism vs. Socialism
Capitalism = individuals, rather than
control the factors of production (land, labor,
capital); businesses are privately owned
Socialism = government owns the means of
production and operate them on behalf of the
Reform movements, unions, anti-trust laws
• This is a new kind of economic system.
• This is means that everybody shares the wealth.
• This idea came from the view of the Industrial revolution that the rich become richer while the poor become
• The founder of socialism is Karl Marx.
• History was a class struggle between wealthy capitalist (bourgeoisie) and working class (proletariat)
• In order to make profits the capitalist took advantage of the working class (Lower wages).
• The proletariat would
– Rise up and overthrow the capitalist system
– Create their own government.
– Take control of the means of production.
– Establish a classless, communist, society.
– Wealth would be shared.
Writer of The Wealth of Nations
in 1776 Adam Smith defended
the idea of a free market
He believed that economic liberty
guaranteed economic progress
He argued in his book that if
people followed only their own
self interest then the world would
be an orderly and progressive
place. And that the economy
would not require any
These ideas were central to the
development of capitalism
Born 1723 died 1790
• “ Laissez faire refers to the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business
set working conditions without government interference.”
• Laissez faire roughly translated is “Let people do as they please.”
• This policy comes from French 18th century enlightenment philosophers.
• These philosophers thought that government restrictions and regulations interfered with the production of
• Laissez faire stresses that free trade is necessary for a prosperous economy.
• Adam Smith wrote a book The Wealth of Nations, in 1776 and in this book he defended the free market idea
and said that “economic liberty guaranteed economic progress.”
Working Conditions of the factories
• Factory work hours were long.
• Men, women, and even children worked for 12 to 16 hours a day.
• Mass production methods led to work that was boring.
• Many machines were dangerous.
• Many people lost limbs in machines.
• Dim lighting.
“In the nineteenth century
many young children Factory Act of 1833
worked in the fields.
changed all this. Today
Other poor children
laboured in textile we would be shocked at
factories or in the mines the idea of children
to help with the family children as young as nine
income. Gradually new working for twelve hours
laws such as the Minds & a day in a mill or a mine
Machines, published or a field – it would be
1999 against the law!”
8 multiple choice DBQ Questions