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Vitamin B Summary by hcj

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									Vitamin B Summary

                   Active Form (not sure all
     Vitamin                                                  Function1                 Source in Diet      Example              Other Notes
                    are important to know)
                         NAD+/NADH                   Dehydrogenation (1H)                 Almost all        Lactic
     Niacin                                                                                                                     Also creates H+
                   NADP+/NADPH (has P)                 alcohol  ketone                     foods       Dehydrogenase
    Riboflavin           FAD/FADH2                   Dehydrogenation (2H)                 Almost all       Succinate         Often see covalently
     (Flavin)               FMN                       (forms double bond)                    foods       Dehydrogenase        bound to enzymes
                                                    Decorboxylation of α-Keto             Rice, pork,
                                                                                                            Pyruvate
    Thiamine                  TPPi                            acids                     green veggies,                      Sulfur ring active part
                                                                                                          decarboxylase
                                                          (remove CO2)                        fruit
                                                                                           Made by
                                                           Carboxylation                                    Pyruvate            Binds CO2, then
      Biotin                Biocytin                                                       intestinal
                                                            (add CO2)                                      carboxylase       transfers to substrate
                                                                                            bacteria
                                                                                                                               Used in almost all
                                                    Carries 1 carbon units – can
                                                                                                                             biosythesis reactions;
                                                           add or remove                                   Serine
    Folic Acid                 FH4                                                          Plants                          Important in Nucleotide
                                                       (Methyl, methylene,                                  Glycine
                                                                                                                             synthesis; deficiency
                                                             Methenyl)
                                                                                                                                causes anemias
                                                                                                         Homocysteine
                        Cobalamine-CH3                     Methyl carrier                                                       Only B vitamin
                                                                                                          methionine
   B12                                                                                                                      associated with a metal
                                                  Hydride-functional group shift
(Cobalamin)                                                                                              XC1- C2H         (Co); deficiencies lead
                        Cobalamine-DA               (switches H with another
                                                                                                           HC1- C2X               to anemias
                                                   group on adjacent carbons)
                     (seems unimportant –                                                                 Pyruvic acid +
                      Pyridoxal, pyridoxal                                                                glutamic acid      Important in making
    Pyridoxine             phosphate,                Transamination reactions                             Alanine +        glucose from alanine
                         pyridoxamine,                                                                    α-ketoglutaric        and vice versa
                   pyridoxamine phosphate)                                                                     acid
                                                                                                             Choline
Pantothenic                                             Acyl transfer group                Almost                            Deficieny gives foot
                    Coenzyme A (CoA-SH)                                                                     Acetylase;
   Acid                                                (transfers 2 carbons)             everywhere                                problem
                                                                                                         Citrate Synthase

Key:       Orange – Dehydrogenation reactions
           Green – One Carbon Handling/Processing reactions

1
    Remember – enzymes can function in reverse! (so dehydrogenase can add a hydrogen)

								
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