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					– Goldfish      Whale          Housecat          Bacterium
   Shark        Octopus        Collie            Bursaria
   Bass         Antelope       Snail             Butterfly
   Tiger        Sheep          Crab              Rattlesnake
   Lion         Cow            Python            Scorpion
   Tomato       Grapevine      Pond Scum/Algae   Buttercup
   Cheetah      Grizzly Bear   Koala Bear        Paramecium
   Chimpanzee   Eel            Armadillo         Roadrunner
   Ape          Mosquito       Toad              Bloodhound
   Elephant     Lobster        Monkey            Coyote
   Oak Tree     Elm Tree       Pine Tree         Banana
   Rhinoceros   Housefly       Frog              Amoeba
   Kangeroo     Asian Beetle   Pig               Goat
   Anteater     Centipede      Badger            Jellyfish
   Mushroom     Rose           Dust Mite         Giraffe
   Condor       Kiwi           Dodo              Pigeon
   Cod          Tulip          Bluegrass         Pfisteria
Mountain Lion, Catamount or Puma?
Which is a fish?
• Science of Classification (nomen = name)

• Necessary because of…
  – Size
  – Convergence
• 330,000 different
  species of beetles

• British entomologist
  Haldane is reported to
  have said that God
  must have "an
  inordinate fondness
  for beetles."
Karl von Linnae
        • Botanist obsessed
          with Latin
        • Changes name to
          Carolus Linnaeus

        • First scientist to use ♂
          and ♀ symbols for
          male and female
Latin Classification
          • Pro:
            – Non-dynamic
          • Con:
            – Length
• 1775 Linneaus writes
  Systemate Naturae

• physalis amno
  ramosissime ramis
  angulosis glabris foliis
  dentoserratis became
  Physalis angulata
         Linnean Taxonomy
• Divides organisms
  into seven divisions
  based upon physical,
  chemical, behavioral
  and evolutionary
• For practical use,
  each organism is
  assigned two names
• The best known animal phyla are the
  Mollusca, Porifera, Cnidaria,
  Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida,
  Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and
• Although there are approximately 35
  phyla, these nine include the majority of
  the species.
American     Market         Blue          Virginia      European
Lobster      Squid          Mussel        Oyster        Oyster
   Phylum     Arthropoda     Mollusca       Mollusca       Mollusca    Mollusca
    Class    Malacostraca   Cephalopod       Bivalvia      Bivalvia    Bivalvia
    Order     Decapoda       Decapoda       Mytiloida      Pterioida   Pterioida
   Family    Nephropidae    Loliginidae     Mytilidae     Ostreidae    Ostreida
   Genus      Homarus         Loligo         Mytilus     Crassostrea    Ostrea
   Species   americanus     opalescens        edulis       virginica    edulis
Three Domains
Dichotomous Key
         • “two choices”
         • A dichotomous key
           must be:
           – Accurate
           – Precise
           – Plastic (able to
             incorporate new
             species with relative
• The most commonly
  used definition of
  species was first coined
  by Ernst Mayr.

• Species are "groups of
  actually or potentially
  interbreeding natural
  populations which are
  reproductively isolated
  from other such groups
 Lab: Creating A Dichotomous Key
• In a container there are several objects
• Create a dichtomous key in
  diagram/bracket form to correctly identify
  all objects
• Your dichotomous key will be tested for
  accuracy, precision and plasticity (with a
  new object not in the original set)