"The newsletter of the Comparative Gastroenterology Society"
CGS Viewpoints 2004 Gastrointestinal Viewpoints Spring Edition, 2004 THE NEWSLETTER OF THE SPECIAL REPORT COMPARATIVE GASTROENTEROLOGY Report from the AGA PhD/MD, PhD/DVM Committee - submitted by Robert J. Washabau, VMD, PhD - SOCIETY The Committee sponsored one session at the 2004 Digestive Disease Week in New Orleans: Stem Cell and Hepatocyte Transfer: Separating the Hype from Reality. Papers were presented by Lola Reid (“Hepatic stem cells and the future of cell therapies”), Sanjeev Gupta (“Liver-derived stem cells”), and Jeffrey Gordon (“Epithelial progenitor group”). The Committee also sponsored the 1st Graduate Student Development Reception and Poster Session at DDW. The Inside… session was designed to recognize talented students who submitted exceptional abstracts to AGA. The AGA is committed to fostering the development of the next generation of SPECIAL REPORT .................... 1 outstanding gastrointestinal researchers. SPOTLIGHT .............................. 2 I am completing my final year of appointment on the PhD/MD, PhD/DVM Committee. I’m pleased to announce that Dr. Jim Fox of the Division of Comparative Medicine at M.I.T. has been NEWS & ANNOUNCEMENTS . 5 appointed as my replacement on this Committee. As a Department Chairman at M.I.T., Jim has a long and successful UPCOMING EVENTS .............. 5 track record of recruiting veterinarians to gastrointestinal research, and Jim will be an excellent advocate for veterinarians QUESTION: .............................. 6 on this committee. My best wishes to Jim. Individuals interested in serving on this Committee in the future should contact Dr. Jim Fox (email@example.com) or Dr. Jim Anderson (JAndersn@med.unc.edu), Chair of the Committee. A second veterinary position on this Committee may be opening up in the next 12 months. An AGA Strategic Planning Committee has recommended the re-charging of this Committee as a Task Force function. The Task Force will have five (5) specific charges: (continued on next page…) 1) Determine and specifically evaluate attitudes Visit the following websites to learn more about of PhDs and basic scientists in GI research to our new representative, Dr. Jim fox: AGA and how well it meets their needs; Faculty webpage at M.I.T Biological Engineering: 2) Recommend adjustments to existing programs http://web.mit.edu/be/people/fox.htm and propose new programs that would make membership in AGA more attractive to PhDs and Research group webpage at M.I.T.: basic scientists; http://web.mit.edu/be/people/fox.htm 3) Recommend adjustments to existing programs and propose new programs that would put AGA publications, educational and scientific programs and activities at the forefront of relevant science; 4) Recommend to the Governing Board appropriate mechanisms and structures to assure continuity and appropriate consideration for the recommendations within AGA; 5) Develop its recommendations into a comprehensive report for the Governing Board. Spotlight The following is the editor’s synopsis of a poster submitted by Tony Buffington. The poster was presented at The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary medicine Research day. Thank you Tony for the submission and the chance to know more about your research interests and efforts. DAS- AGA Task Force on PhDs and editor Basic Scientists Hair Shed and Fecal Hair: Working Term of Task Force: June-December Investigation of the Effects of 2004 Disease (FIC) and Stress on Members: Hairball Expulsion. James Anderson, Chair James Fox, DVM Willis, P.K. and C.A. Tony Buffington D. Neil Granger, PhD Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, PhD Domestic cats commonly expel hairballs, which Mrinalini C. Rao, PhD is widely accepted as a normal behavior by many Jerrold R. Turner, MD, PhD veterinary professionals and cat owners. The fact that hairballs are common, however, does not imply that they are normal. Hairball expulsion could be related to variable combinations of increased shedding (particularly in long-haired cats), increased normal or displacement grooming behavior, and underlying gastrointestinal dysmotility. Currently, there is no veterinary medical literature reporting investigations of the (continued on next page…) CGS Viewpoints 2004 etiology, pathophysiology or treatment of 170g (1 can) of wet maintenance cat food on the hairballs in cats. following morning (day 15) and care for the cats as they normally would. Because the cats had There is increasing evidence in the literature for a become accustomed to being cared for by the central neural contribution to many disease author each day and had become acclimated to processes in cats1, and in a spectrum of the use of clay litter, it was expected that the dermatological disorders.2 Recently published abrupt change in litter substrate, coupled with the studies in mice show alterations of hair follicle abrupt change of caretaker would constitute a cycling and inflammatory changes in the hair significant stressor for the cats. follicle environment as a result of exposure to repeated sonic stress.3,4 3-Day Post-Stress Evaluation. On day 16 the author resumed all care of the cats for a three-day These studies describe a pathophysiological period, repeating all measurements and mechanism that might explain telogen effluvium observations. as a result of animal responses to environmental stressors. This evidence suggests the possibility Abbreviated Results: that one possible cause of a high frequency of Although no differences in HSS or hair hairball expulsion could be part of the animal’s excreted in feces were identified between stress response to prolonged or repeated exposure control and FIC cats, stress resulted in a to environmental stressors. To begin to significant increase (paired t-test) in the investigate the effects of disease (FIC) and stress quantity of hair excreted in the feces of cats in on hairball expulsion, we measured the amount of both groups (See Figure 1 below). hair shed and in the feces of cats under basal and In the cats with FIC, cats with HSS 3 excreted stressed conditions. significantly more hair than did cats with HSS 1, although neither of these were different Abbreviated Methods: Ten neutered male and from cats with HSS 2. In control cats, there female cats; 6 (domestic) short haired (SH), 4 was a trend toward increasing hair in the feces long haired (LH; 3 domestic long haired, 1 with increasing HSS (See Figure 2 on next Himalayan) between the ages of 2 and 7 years page). were included in the study. Five of the cats; 2 LH No association between the length of the hair and 3 SH were previously diagnosed with Feline coat and the amount of hair shed or excreted Interstitial Cystitis (FIC) on the basis of history in the feces hair was identified. (presence of intermittent, antibiotic unresponsive (continued on next page…) hematuria), urinalysis, cystoscopy, and an ACTH stimulation test. Five other cats; 3 SH and 2 LH Figure 1. (1 Himalayan) were used as controls. Effect of Stress on Hair in Feces Hair Shed Scale (HSS). The amount of hair each 200 cat shed was estimated by the author on a daily P=0.01 P=0.03 mg Hair/gm feces basis using a qualitative three-point scale. Stressor. On the last day (day 14) of the baseline 100 period, all cats were cared for as usual with the exception that the litter was abruptly switched back to 100% wood chip litter substrate. Instructions were left with the university 0 laboratory animal care attendants to feed each cat FIC-NS FIC-S H-NS H-S 60g (1/2 cup) of dry maintenance cat food or Group Effect of Stress on Hair in Feces 200 P=0.01 P=0.03 s Figure 2. Hair excreted by Hair Shed Scale (HSS) in cats with FIC (F) and Control cats (C). References cited: 1. Buffington, C. A. T.: External and Internal Data 3 Influences on Disease Risk in Cats. Journal of the 450 P=0.02 P=0.06 American Veterinary Medical Association, 220: mg dry hair/gm dry feces 400 350 994, 2002 300 2. Koo, J. Y. M., Lee, C. S.: Psychocutaneous 250 200 Medicine. New York: Marcel Dekker, p. 477, 150 2003 100 50 3. Arck, P. C., Handjiski, B., Hagen, E. et al.: 0 Indications for a brain-hair follicle axis: -50 F1 F2 F3 C1 C2 C3 inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation and up- Hair Shed regulation of keratinocyte apoptosis in telogen hair follicles by stress and substance P. FASEB J, 15: U54, 2001 F1<F3, P<0.05 4. Arck, P. C., Handjiski, B., Peters, E. M. J. et Discussion: The main findings of this study are al.: Stress inhibits hair growth in mice by the identification of theData 3 a positive relationship induction of premature catagen development and P=0.02 P=0.06 450 hair shed and hair in the feces, between mg dry hair/gm dry feces 400 deleterious perifollicular inflammatory events via particularly in cats with FIC, and the significant neuropeptide substance P-dependent pathways. 350 increase in the amount of hair shed in the feces of 300 American Journal of Pathology, 162: 803, 2003 control cats and cats with FIC after a mild both 250 200 This was observed despite the stressor. If you’d like to know more about this work and 150 insensitivity of the HSS itself in this small 100 Tony’s research interests, check out the sample. The relative contribution of increased 50 following web pages: hair shedding and increased grooming was not 0 determined. -50 F1 F2 F3 C1 C2 C3 Faculty web page: http://www.vet.ohio- Hair Shed state.edu/docs/ClinSci/sam/people/faculty/buffing We were unable to identify a relationship ton.html between hair coat length and HSS or hair The Nutrition Support Service: excreted inF1<F3, P<0.05 the feces in either control cats or cats http://www.nssvet.org/ with FIC. Although a larger sample size would be necessary to investigate these relationships UCLA Center for Neurovisceral Sciences and further, no trend was observed. There also did Women’s Health member web page: not appear to be a relationship between the HSS http://ibs.med.ucla.edu/Bios/BuffingtonT.htm or amount of hair in the feces and the effect of Interstitial Cystitis Association web page: stress on either parameter. http://www.ichelp.com/research/BuffingtonICIBS Study.html The only episodes of vomiting were observed in the cats with FIC, and 3 of the 5 cats studied were affected. These episodes did not appear to be correlated with the period of induced stress, or with the HSS or amount of hair excreted in the feces. This result suggests that the hair may have been contained in vomitus produced by other emetic mechanisms rather than having been a cause per se, although this hypothesis will have to be explored in future studies. CGS Viewpoints 2004 now being determined, and the recognition of News & Announcements subtle abnormalities is quite challenging. Although a number of criteria can be applied in the examination of biopsy specimens, the interpretation by the pathologist is often quite subjective. Discrepancies in biopsy reports between different pathologists are surprisingly common (see, for example, Willard MD et al. Interobserver variation among histopathologic Call For Abstracts: evaluations of intestinal tissues from dogs and The 2004 CRWAD meeting will be held cats. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2002; 220: 1177- November 14 - 16, at the Congress Hotel, 1182.) Consequently, several groups (including Chicago, Illinois. the Comparative Gastroenterology Society, European Society for Comparative DEADLINE FOR ELECTRONIC ABSTRACT Gastroenterology, American College of RECEIPT - August 14, 2004. Veterinary Internal Medicine, and European CHECK LIST REQUIREMENTS FOR College of Veterinary Internal Medicine) have ABSTRACT FORMAT AND SUBMISSION and called for national and international efforts to the ON-LINE FORM are available on the standardize the histologic evaluation of the CRWAD website at: gastrointestinal tract of cats and dogs. The recent efforts of the WSAVA Liver Standardization http://www.cvmbs.colostate.edu/microbiology/cr Group have provided additional impetus and wad/authinst.htm urgency to the need for standardization of the primary disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. CGS Bylaws Updated Specific Aims: The aim of this endeavor is to obtain a world-wide standard for the histological The membership recently approved updates to evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract of cats and our bylaws. You may view the bylaws at the dogs. With the support of the WSAVA, the following CGS website: Gastrointestinal Standardization Group proposes to develop a standardized histologic evaluation http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/org_cgs/About%20C system that will be applied to companion animal GS/by_laws/by_laws.htm gastroenterologic disorders. Standardization will yield several obvious benefits including increased uniformity in the diagnosis of disease, staging of Upcoming events disease, and the subsequent development of controlled clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Membership: The Group is composed of Gastrointestinal Standardization Group internationally recognized scientists in companion animal gastroenterology: - submitted by Robert J. Washabau, VMD, PhD - Dr. Thomas Bilzer, University of Dusseldorf (Germany), Pathology Background: Gastrointestinal diagnosis in Dr. Michael Day, University of Bristol companion animals has been fraught with many (England), Pathology difficulties, particularly in the histologic interpretation of gastrointestinal biopsies. What (continued on next page…) constitutes normal intestinal morphology is only Dr. Grant Guilford, Massey University (New Zealand), Internal Medicine Dr. Edward Hall, University of Bristol (England), Internal Medicine Dr. Albert Jergens, Iowa State University (USA), Internal Gastrointestinal Viewpoints Medicine Published and distributed by The Comparative Dr. Joanne Mansell, Texas A & M University (USA), Gastroenterology Society Pathology Dr. Takeo Minami, Histo-Vet, Pet-Vet, Yokohama (Japan), Pathology CGS Officers Dr. Brian Wilcock, University of Guelph/HistoVet Frank M. Andrews (Canada), Pathology President Dr. Robert Washabau, University of Pennsylvania (USA), Keith Richter Internal Medicine – convener President-Elect Dr. Michael Willard, Texas A & M University (USA), Kenny Simpson Internal Medicine Immediate Past-President Meetings: The inaugural meeting of the Standardization Group Joerg M. Steiner will be held on June 8 & 9 in St. Paul, Minnesota on the Secretary-Treasurer occasion of the ACVIM Forum (in Minneapolis). Preliminary David Twedt findings of the Group will be reported at the Comparative Jane Armstrong Gastroenterology Society (CGS) luncheon meeting, Liver Study At-Large Directors Group (LSG) meeting, and Endoscopy Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting. Future meetings of the Group will be organized to Submit change of address to: coincide with the ECVIM Congress, BSAVA Congress, and Dr. Joerg M. Steiner ACVIM Forum. Secretary-Treasurer, CGS College of Vet Med Sponsorship: The Group’s efforts are supported by the WSAVA, Texas A&M University an organization with over 65,000 members from 65 member College Station, TX 77843-4474 associations, and Hill’s Pet Nutrition, a global leader in pet Or email firstname.lastname@example.org nutrition. Submit newsletter contributions to the editor: Dr. David A. Schneider Question: Editor, GI Viewpoints Dept. of VCAPP Can you Wegner Hall, Room 205 guess what Pullman, WA 99164-6520 is labeled Or email email@example.com green in this 40X image The newsletter is also available of myenteric at the CGS website: neurons www.vetmed.wsu.edu/org_cgs/ (red) from the small intestine of a sheep? Unpublished observation provided by Pawel Jankowski & David A. Schneider (without transfer of ownership).