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Kingdom_Animalia

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					KINGDOM ANIMALIA
Fun stuff!!
SEPARABLE CHARACTERISTICS
 No cell wall
 Sexual reproduction is the norm

 Dominant life cycle stage is diploid

 Most animals are motile

 Most have muscle & nervous tissue



 Multicellular heterotrophs
 Animals store glucose as glycogen
       Plants store glucose as starch
DEFINITIONS
 Zygote – Fertilized Egg
 Cleavages – mitotic cell divisions w/o cell growth
  between cycles
 Blastula – A hollow ball of cells surrounding a
  cavity called the blastocoel
 Gastrula – form that begins to feature embryonic
  tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm)
 Ectoderm – Outer tissue layer

 Endoderm – Inner tissue layer

 Blastophore – opening into the gastrula

 Archenteron – pouch formed by gastrulation
ANIMALS CHARACTERIZED BY…
1.    Body Plan or symmetry
     1.   No symmetry – sponges
     2.   Radial symmetry – any cut through central axis =
          mirror images
          1.   Example: Cnidarians
     3.   Bilateral symmetry – Right & left sides
          1.   Most Chordates, molluscs, arthropods, annelids, &
               nematodes
          2.   Dorsal (back) & Ventral (front)
          3.   Anterior (head) & posterior (tail)
ANIMALS CHARACTERIZED BY…
1.    Body Cavity
     1.   Acoelomates – No cavity between their alimentary
          canal and the outer wall of their bodies
                  -- Playthelminths

     1.   Pseudocoelomates – cavity formed from mesoderm
          and endoderm
                 -- Nematoda

     1.   Coelomates –
                 -- Mollusca, annelida, arthropoda,
                      echinodermata, & chrodata
 EVOLUTIONARY PROGRESSION



                       Eumetazo            Bilateri
Choanoflagellates
                       a                   a



                    Parazo        Radiat
                    a             a
EVOLUTIONARY PROGRESSION
CONTINED
(NOTE: THIS SLIDE STARTS @ BILATERIA)

                                             Protosomes
Bilateri         Body        Coelomates
a                Cavity

                                             Deuterosome
           Acoelomates    Pseudocoelomates   s
EVOLUTIONARY LINKAGE
 Choanoflagellates
 4 major branching points from choanoflagellates
    1.        Following multicellularity came the first branch
              point into Parazoa (Protista) and Eumetazoa
    2.        Eumetazoa branches due to body symmetry
         1.     Radiata – radial symmetry, single orientation
                       -- Jellyfish, corals, and hydras
         1.     Bilateria – Bilateral symmetry, top/bottom
                (dorsal/ventral) and head / tail (anterior/posterior)
    3.        Bilateria branch due to vascularity & body cavity
         1.     Acoeleomates – No blood vascular system, and no coelem
                      -- Coelom is a fluid-filled body cavity
         1.     Those with a fluid-filled body cavity
EVOLUTIONARY LINKAGES
   Those with a fluid filled body cavity can be
    separated into:
       Pseudocoelomates
         Fluid-filled body cavity not enclosed by mesoderm
         Roundworms

       Coelomates
           Possess coelom that is derived from the mesoderm


   Protosomes vs. Deuterosomes
       Protosomes – bilaterally symmetric, (first hole)
         The first indentation develops into the mouth
         Annelids, arthropods, & mollusks
DEUTEROSOMES
 First indentation develops into the anus
 Second indentation develops into the mouth

 Chordates & echinoderms



   The difference between Protosomes &
    Deuterosomes is in embryonic development
     Protosomes – first embryonic indent develops into the
      mouth
     Deuterosomes – the first embryonic indent takes an
      ugly turn – it develops into the anus, not the mouth
ANIMALIA : 9 MAIN PHYLA
1.   Porifera
2.   Cnidaria
3.   Platyhelminths
4.   Nematoda
5.   Annelida
6.   Mollusca
7.   Arthropoda
8.   Echinodermata
9.   Chordata
3 GERM OR CELL LAYERS
 Ectoderm – outer layer cover
 Mesoderm – Muscle & organ layer

 Endoderm – Digestive tract
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN
ANIMALIA
PHYLUM PORIFERA
 Sponges
 Simple creatures
 Marine & fresh water
 No true tissues, so no organs
 No specialized cellular function
 Most are Hermaphroditic - perform female &
  male functions
 Can reproduce sexually or asexually
 Sessile – do not move
 Suspension feeders


   If you cut a sponge, it will spontaneously
    reaggregate back into a sponges
ARE YOU SPONGEWORTHY?
PORIFERA PHYSIOLOGY

 Water flows into the sponge through Porocytes,
  entering a cavity called Spongocoel
 The spongocoel is lined with feeding cells called
  choanocytes
       Choanocytes beat their flagella to create a current
        that draws water into the porocytes
   Ameobocytes – transfer nutrients to other cells of
    the sponge’s body
CNIDARIA
 Eumetazoans
 Jellyfish & Corals

 Radial Symmetry

 Lack Mesoderm

 2 Body arrangements:
     Polyp – Asexual, cylinder-shaped, & Attached
     Medusa – Sexual, flat, and Roams for food

   Use tentacles to capture & eat prey
CNIDARIA
QUESTIONS
1.   Are Cnidarians protosomes or deuterosomes?

2.   How do sponges feed?



3.   What are Choanocytes & what is their function?
PLATYHELMINTHS
 Flatworms
 Acoelomates
 Protosomes
 Bilaterally symmetrical
 Some Cephalization – Formation of head
  structure

   3 Important forms
     Flukes – Parasitic & alternate between asex & sex
      reprod.
     Planarians – Free-living carnivores in fresh water
     Tapeworms – Parasitic flatworms that tend to live in
      vertebrates, like humans!!
ROTIFERA

 Pseudocoelomates
 Bilateral Symmetry

 Separate mouth & anus

 Microscopic

 True digestive canal
NEMATODA
 Roundworms
 Protosomes

 Pseudocoelomates

 Bilaterally Symmetric

 Some cause Trichinosis
       GI illness due to tainted pork
MOLLUSCA
 Snails, slugs, octopus, & squid
 Protosomes

 Coelomates – full digestive systems

 Soft body with calcium-containing shell

 Bilateral symmetry

 Bivalves – Clams and Oysters
       Have hinged shells that are divided into 2 parts
ANNELIDA
 Segmented Worm
 Earthworms & Leaches

 Protosome, Bilaterally Symmetrical, Coelomates

 Digestive tract is tube-within-a-tube

 Hermaphroditic

 Blood with hemoglobin

 Closed circulatory system

 Gas diffusion across skin

 Nephridia used for excretion – precursor to
  kidneys
EARTHWORM ANATOMY
ARTHROPODA
 Protosome Coelomate
 Jointed Appendages

 Segmented: head, thorax, & abdomen

 Chitinous exoskeleton

 May have a larval stage

 Open circulatory system

 Malphigian tubules – removes nitrogenous waste

 Trachea – air ducts, bring air in from the
  environment
 Some have book lungs or gills
ECHINODERMATA
 Sea stars
 Deuterosome coelomates

 Sessile or slow moving

 Bilateral symmetry as embryo, but reverts to
  primitive form of symmetry (radial) as an adult
 Water Vascular system

 Sexual Reproduction – External fertilization

 Asexual Reproduction – fragmentation &
  regeneration
 Calcium based endoskeleton
ECHINODERMATA PHYSIOLOGY
Examples of
Echinoderm
s
CHORDATA
 Deuterosome coelomates
 Invertebrates & Vertebrates
       Vertebrates – possessing backbone


 Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord – forms the nervous
  system & becomes the Brain & spinal cord
 Notochord – Long support rod that is replaced by
  bone in vertebrates
 Pharyngeal Gill slits – functions in breathing or
  feeding
 Tail – Lost in many animals by birth
CHORDATES
   Can be homeothermic (homo – same) or
    poikilothermic
       Homeothermic – maintains consistent body
        temperature
           Birds & Mammals
       Poikilothermic – Cold blooded, attain heat from
        external environment
           Iguanas and cold environment
MAMMALS
 Mothers provide milk to their young
 Hair or Fur
       Composed of Keratin
 Homeotherms – Maintain stable internal
  environment
 Can be a placental, marsupial, or monotreme
  mammal
3 BASIC CATEGORIES OF
MAMMALS
 1. Placental Mammals (Eutherians)
   -- Embryo develops internally in a uterus
   -- Placenta – Part of uterus that connects
   embryo to mother, allows nutrients to diffuse
   from mother, but serve as barrier to protect
   embryo as well
 2. Marsupials
   -- Born early in embryonic development but
   completes its development while nursing in
   the mother’s pouch
 3. Monotremes
   -- Egg-laying mammals
   -- Derive nutrients from a shelled egg
   -- Duck-billed platypus
 MAMMALS EXAMPLES




                    Karl Rove
G. W. Chimp         Kangaroo




                    So that’s where Scooter
                    Libby has been hiding
PRIMATA
 Descended from insectivores
 Dexterous hands & opposable thumbs

 Nails – instead of claws

 Eyes are front-facing & set close together
     Creates overlapping fields of vision
     Enhances depth perception and hand-eye
      coordination
   Significant amount of energy devoted to
    parenting
     Single birthing
     Nurture young for extended time periods

   Gorillas, Chimps, Gibbons, Old-world & New-
    world monkeys
Phylum
               COMPLETE THE TABLE
                Example -Some Coelom Symmetry   Germ
                                                Layer
                                                s
Porifera        Sponge

Cnidaria        Hydra

Platyhelminth   Planaria
s
Nematoda        Pinworm

Annelida        Earthworm

Mollusca        Clam

Arthropoda      Insect

Echinodermat    Starfish
a
Chordata        Dog/Huma
                n
Phylum
               COMPLETED TABLE
                    -Some
               Example    Coelom Symmetr                   Germ
                                              y            Layer
                                                           s
Porifera       Sponge     Proto    Acoelom-       None       1
Cnidaria       Hydra        P      A              Radial     1
Platyhelmint   Planaria     P      A                Bi       1
hs
Nematoda       Pinworm      P      Pseudo-          Bi       2
Annelida       Earthwor     P      Coelomat         Bi       3
               m                   e
Mollusca       Clam         P      Coelomat         Bi       3
                                   e
Arthropoda     Insect       P      Coelomat         Bi       3
                                   e
Echinoderma    Starfish   Deuter   Coelomat         Bi       3
ta                          o      e
Chordata       Dog/Huma   Deuter   Coelomat         Bi       3
               n            o      e
SUMMARIZE INFO FOR THE
KINGDOMS
   Focus on Differentiating Characteristics

				
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