Field study of sheep production by hcj

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									             Field study of sheep production
                        in Egypt.

1- Introduction
2- Review of letrature.
   1- Populuation and Destribution
   2- Importance.
   3- Breeds.
      a)Major Breeds
       1. Barki
       2.Ossimi.
       3.Rahmani.
     b)Minor breeds.
       4.Saidi.
   4- System of sheep production.
      1.Very extensive.
      2.Extensive.
      3.Intensive grassland .
      4. Intensive arable.
      5.Very intensive.
      6.Transhumance.
      7.Nomadic.
      8.Village and small holder.
   5-System applied in Egypt.
      1.Semi-nomadic transhumance.
      2.Semiautonomous state commercial flocks.
      3.Large private flocks in the Nile Delta and valley.
      4.Smallholders.
   6-Factor effct on economic .
      1.Fattening.
      2.Labour.
      3.Milk production
   3-Material and method.
     1.study sample.
     2.samble technique.
   4-Results and discussion.
1.Heard evalution and stracture.
  a.Heard evaluation in the begening of the year .
    1.1-5 head ownerships
    2.6-50head ownerships
    3.51-100 heads ownerships
    4.>100 head ownerships
  b.Heard evaluation in the end of the year.
    1.1-5 head ownerships
    2.6-50head ownerships
    3.51-100 heads ownerships
    4.>100 head ownerships
    3.Costs.
    4.Sales
    5.Net returen and rat of economic returen
  4-Summary
  5-Referens
Introduction:
Sheep were present in Egypt since approrimately 5000 B.C
Ancient Egyption drawing and engrauings depict hairy sheep
(Ovis longipes paleogypticys) with thin long tail often extending
below the books and with spiral horns extending back ward
from the head.
Beside their use as a source of meet, skin and manure sheep
were also used to thresh field crops. The ram was taken as an
emblem for God Amon and it was considered as a symbol of
feritlity (Maten. undated).
It is belived that the Ovis longipes paleoagypticus had its origin
from ovisorientalis i.e. asiatic (Ghanem,1980)
The Ancient Egyption sheep extended further south and further
west and it is believed that many of the present African thin tail
hair sheep (c.g. desert sheep of the sudan) are relted to the
ancient Egytpion sheep. For tailed wool sheep started to appear
in Egypt aronnd 1800 B.C. and they come from Asia through
sinai peninsula (Epostein, 1971). Modern Egyption broeds are
all for taited with their body covered with coarse wool.
The production in Egypt of plant by products is estimoted as
about 12 million tons ( Table II )

Table II : Available plant by-products in Egypt in the year
1984 (Ali et al., 1988)
               PLant by-      Million
                products        tons
                  Rice straw   2.500
               Wheat straw     2.940
               Barley straw    0.175
               Bean straw     0.351
             Lentlis straw    0.130
             Clover straw     0.167
               Fino graph     0.423
              Corn stover     3.500
                 Sorghum      0.970
                Corn cobs     0.600
            Sesame stover     0.050
               Sugar cane     1.000
                  baggase
                     Total    12,206

Population and Distribution
Sheep number showed a down word trend since 1970 The
number ranged between 1.5 to 2 willion heads. However the
Acount of sheep numbers by sampling 1982 shown that there are
3541 478 (Minitsry of Agricultere. 1983). and the shown
3671895 (Ministry of Agriculture 1981) and 3924299 ( Ministry
of Agriculture 1993) (table 1).
racing such great variation in estimates of population numbers,
one has to be cautions in interpreting changes in them.
Table 2 shows the distribution of the sheep population in Egypt
According to Ministry of Agriculture (1983).
The largest sheep concentration is in the north western coaslal
region . Matrouh governorate, extlencling from west of the city
of Alexanclia to the borders with Libya. This has been a
traditional sheep area and lately an export demand for the sheep
of that region gave a boost to the sheep industy previous
estimates for the sheep number in that area ranged between
35000 and 600000. The estimats reperted in 1982 is 1026 135.
and the number 722660 (Ministry of Agriculare 1991) and
become 702273 (Ministry of Agricaltare, 1993).
Importance
Table 1 shows that the share of sheep population livestock units
raised in Egypt diminished from 3.9% in 1969/70 to 2.6% in
1981.
In the same year the liveshock sector contributed LE 1 573
milion, i.e. 2890 (central Agency for puplic Mobilisation and
statistics, 1983) Egypt has been importing more than 50000
heads of sheep for meat consunption, but the sheep industry has
also been able to export a relatively great number of sheep.
                                                Table 1.   Relevant sheep statistics.(1)
                                                                                                year
                                    statistic   1969/70       1971        1979       1981          1982        1991(3)
                      sheep number (000,s)         2066       1821        1679       1498          3341       3671895
         sheep as% of total livestock units.         3.9        3.2         3.0       2.6            6.0
     contribution of sheepmeat tototal meat         11.0        8.9         7.7       7.1             na
       produced from local livestock %(2)
                                   wool,ton        3074       2711        2499       2227                na

1/ Source : Central Agency for public Mobilization and statistics , Egypt . 1982 .
1981 ststistics of Animal Wealth , Ref. 71- 12412/82:
 1983 from Central Administration of Agricultural Economics ,
 Ministry of Agriculture , Egypt , 1983 .Unpublished date .
                     2/ Including cattle , buffaloes sheep , goats, camels, pigs and equines

                                                3/ Including cattle, buffaloes, sheep , goats, camels.
 Table   2.Distribution and densities of sheep population in Egypt 1 /
                                                 All Land                      Newly reclaimed Land
                    Sheep No       Shp/acre2/    Shp/0-3/     Sheep No.    Shp/acre-2/      shp /o-3/
 Lower Egypt             950              .26         .67            29            .11          1.25
 Upper Egypt            1529              .67        1.43             6            .19          5.88
       Total           2 479              .42         .99            35            .12          1.47
1/     Excluding Matrouh governorate where agriculturee is mainly rain- fed , with
                                                             yearly rainfall ranging
               from 100 to 210 mm during October - April mainly on the coastal strip .
                                        2/ Head of sheep per acre of cultivated land
                                                   3/ head of sheep per farm owner.
Breeds:
Egyption sheep breeds are all fat-tailed, and their fleece is of
course wool. They are considered to be of small to medium size.
There are mainly three major breeds and one minor breed with
two variants of all. Adescription of these breeds was given by
Mason (1967) and ghanem (1980).

Major Breds:

1- Barki
Origin. North Affrica in the coastal Mediterranean zone. The
breed is named after the Libyan provire Barka (cyrenaica) . It is
also called Areb, Bedounin or Libyan, especially by the in
habilats of the north waslern coostal desert of Egypt.

Population and distribyion.
In 1982 by the Ministry of Agriculture (1983) of the sheep
number in the breed in Egypt. is 1062 135. Previous estimates
ranged between 350000 and 600000. raised to 36719895 in
1991 become 3924299 in 1993. (Ministry of Agriculture 1991,
1993).

Colour:
White with the head and legs renging from brown to black.
Sometimes dark spots are found on the body. There are occasion
all individuals that are entirely white.

Fleece: Open. Head, legs are bare.
                              Small with straight profile. Head
                                        Medium in size. Ears:
Horns: The ram is usually horned while the ewe is usually
polled. Horns vary in shape but they are mostly of backword and
down word.
Taile: The smallest as compared to the tail of the other Egyption
major breeds (.66- .80 kg. 1.1-2.8% of liveweight). It has a
triangular shape with a twisted and that does not reach below the
bocks.

Weight: Ram 50-75 kg, ewe 35 - 50 kg
Performance :
Meat: weight at birth 2.6- 3.4 kg. at weaning at 3-4 months 18.2
- 20.6 at one year 29.4 38.5 kg, sloughter weight 30-45 kg.
average daily gain of animals with initial weight of 28-30 kg.
and of 10- 12 months of fattened for 5-10 weeks is 100 - 130g,
dressing percentage (unchilled, liveight basis) 46- 49kg,
Longissmus dors: area at the 13 th rib 10 - 15 cm2 with for
thiekness above it as 24-40 cm, fat: lean, bone ratio in the
carcass 15 : 66: 19
Wool .Greasy fleece weight shown annually 1.5 - 3.5 kg ,clean
fleece waight 1.1 kg, yeild 45 - 71-6 staple lenght 10 - 7 - 17 -0
cm, fiber lenght 11cm, fiber diameter 31.0 - 37 - 54 , follicle
density 18.5 per mm2, kamp 2.4 - 8.4 %.
Milk . thirty to forty - one kg in the first four months, fat
percentage 5.1 - 6.9 , total solids 17.7 %.
Reproduction . Ewes cycl all year round with lesser activity in
late spring, age at puberty in the ewe 8-10 mo. (25kg) , age at
first lambing 18 - 25 mo., twinning rate 2-5%.

22- Ossimi

Origin. In Giza. It is named after ossim, village near cairo. The
breed is the most popular among the Nile valley and Delta
breeds and expanding at the expense of other breeds. It is also
spreading through southen Egypt and has been introduced to the
Oases west of the Nile valley.
Population and distribution. Over 800.000. Most productive in
Middle Egypt and least productiv in Upper Egypt (Aboul - Naga
- 1976 , 1977).
Natural habitat. South of Nile Delta and Middle Egypt under
very intensive cropping system, average temperature 12-30c
and averoge relative hnmidity 25 - 70%. neyligible rainfall,
stubble grassing and as follower to cattle and buffaloes in green
fodder fields mainly berseen (Trifolium alexandrinum).
The breed has wider range of adaptability than the Barki which
is specifically adapted to the desert condition the Rahmani
which is more specifically adapted to the North Delta
conditions.
Description. Narrow shallow body and relalively long legs. The
average length, width and height of the rams is 66,16 and 75 cm,
redpeetivety, and the corres- ponding figures in the ewes are
63,17 and 72 cm.

3-   Rahmani:

Origin. Nothern syris and southern turkey. The breed was first
intr - roduced into Egypt in the nineehth century.and is named
after Rahmania. a villagein Beheira governorate in the north of
the Nile Delta.
Population and distribution. Some 250.000 in the north and
middle of the Nile Delta .Some observations indicate the
Rahmani breed is decreasing in number in the face of the
expansion of the Ossim.
Description. The largest of the Egyption breeds. The body is
relatively deep and wide at the buttocks, The avarge length
width, height and depth in rams is 15,17,75 and 47 cm,
respectively, while the corresponding figures in ewes are
63,18,70 and 43 cm.
Colour. Brown that fades with are to light tan, very rarely there
are while spots on the head or the body.
Fleece. Long and straight, head, legs below knees and knocks
are bare, very short wool on the belly.
Head. Often has Roman Nose.
Ears. Small and quite often vestigial.
Tail. Large with a broad fat base leoding abruptly to sigmoid
part ending in a fine spiral, about 4% of live - weight.

Body wight./ Rams 55 - 70 kg, ewes 45 - 55 kg .

Performance .
Milk Sixty kg. in 12 wk.
Reproduction : Ewes cycle all year round, age at puberty in the
ewes 8-12 mo. age at first lambing 15-22mo. twining rat 12-
40%.
Minor Breeds :
In the Nile Delta and to the east of it there are nondescirpt sheep
that are called Fellahi or Baladi, (In Arebic Fellah means
preasent vis -a- vis city or desert dweller, and Baladi means
native vis - a -vis exotic or outsider) these sheep may be a
product of inter breeding among Rahnani, Ossimi and possibly
others. There are some characleristice like good quality meat ,
that are attached to these sheep but there has been no work to
substantiate such characleristics. The nunber of Fellahi sheep is
decreasing in favour of other native breeds especially the
Ossimi.

4-   Saidi:

Orgin. Oldest of the Egyptian breeds in Upper Egypt.
Population and distribntion. Nunber is unknown, mainly found
south of the city of Naga Hammadi.
Natural habitat. Heavy soil and very intensive cropping system
that is dependent entirely on irrigation; Weather is cold to warm
during the winter and hot during the summer, especially in the
day time.
Meat. Weight at birth 3.4 kg at weaning 15- 17 kg, dressing
percentage 53 - 56 fat : lean:bone ratio 16 .8 - 18.3 : 63.5 - 65.3
16.9 - 19.7 daily gain in rams of 28 kg initial weight 67 - 94
g/day, efficieney of feed utilization 5.9 - 7 kg. starch value / kg
gain.

Production System
The resourse. at this comand to develop the system - resources
of ednstion, motivation, technology, finance and political
stability- vary greatly between the stable highly developed
western countries and the lesser developed countries -
Availability of, and proximity to market also influence whether
a particulur system is economic or not.
It is not proposed hers to detail the many factors and facets of
farming systems, as these are dealt with eles where (Duckham
and Masefield, 1970 Spedding. 1975).
  The classification adopted is an follows:
1- Very extensive
2- Extensive (semi - intensive)
3- Intensive grassland
4- Intensive arable
5- Very intensive.
6- Transhumance
7- Nomadic.
8- Village and small holder.
The first five classes, are Bassed on intensity of managment and
production,and are to be found almost exclusively in the
temperate zone and occupied by peoples of European origin.
The last three classes are concerned mainly with the tropical
zone and/or the less developed countries generaly, the degree of
intensification of sheep in the tropical zones is not as high as in
the temperate regions, probably because of the limited resources
used.

1.1   Very extensive System.

This system is bassed on the grazing of large areas of relatively
unproductive land, most of it unproductive becouse it is arid, or
marginal, so that it is unable to support crop production. It does,
however, include appreciable areas with a subarctic climate
either because of altitude or latitude. Stocking rates are usually
below 0.5 animals / ha. For the system to be economic, flocks
must be large and area involved very large. In fact this class
contains the largest flocks - anything less then about 4000
animals usually being considered uneconomic.


1.2   Extensive system.

This system, which may also be classified as semi- intensive,
occupies an intermediate position between very extensive and
intensive. Flocks are still relatively large, 500-3000 animals.
Stocking rates generally lie within the range 1-4 animals / ha.


1.3   Intensive grassland system.

In temperate regions with adequate rainfall and easy contour,
high levels of pasture production can be achieved. The
utilization of this by sheep constitutes the intensive grassland
system

1.4 Intensive arable system.
As the name implies , this is the very common arable - livestock
system prevalent throughout the grain growing areas of the
world. In terms of numbers of farms or farmers this is the most
number class. Here the main source of income is from
cropping,and stock are maintained to graze leys and stubble for
the purpose of maintaining soil fertility and as a secondary
source of income.
This system is very wid espread throughout all sheep producing
countries. Flock sizes mostly lie within the range l00 - 1000
sheep and farm size 20 - 200 ha.

1.5 Very intensive system.
It involves a high degree of housing, hand feeding and artificial
rearing using very high fertility breeds of sheep breeding more
than once a year. In comparison with the other system it is
almost of no significance guantitatively since it is doubtful if the
number of animals involved exceeds 1 million and experience
may yet show it to be economically nonviable.
It is included nevertheless becouse it repesent the present limit
of intensification and of the application of science to sheep
produetion.

1.6   Transhumance system.

In this system the flock owner has a relatively permanent has at
which he grazes his floek for more than half of the year and then
migrates with his flock to another part of the region for the
remainder of the year. It is a commen system in mountain
counlry where the flock is wintered in the valley or the desert
and is taken to graze the high mountain pastures in the summer.

                                          Nomadic sysytem 1.7

This sub-divison of the wider migratory system involves the
nomad and nomadic tribes, which are constantly on the move
and have little or no established base. By long tradition they
have recognized grazing rights over their territory.
The system is restricted to lesser developed countries and occurs
mostly in the very arid regions. The migrating unit consists of
severeal families with a flock size numbered in several hundreds
of animals.

1.8   Village and small holder system.

Within the tropics and the lesser developed countries the
pressure of the human population or the cultivatable land is very
great indeed and has resulted in the establishment of villages
and the subdivison of the surrounding agricultare land into very
small freehold of the order of 1-2 ha/family.In proximity to the
village there may be some non - cultivatable grazing lands
owned communally.The system of sheep production in these
villages or on these farms is classified village or smallholder”.Of
necessity individual flocks are very small, often less than 10
animals and mostly within the range 5-20, but for purposes of
herding, individual owners may combine to create larger flocks.
Traditionally, main livestock activities revoled around the
utilization of berseen (Trifolium alexandrenum), which is in
relative abundance from October to May. Cropping rotation
followed in most part of egypt stipulates that one- third of the
cultivated areas should be cultivated with berseem, the actual
area is about 2.8 million hectares. Feed resources are very in
adeguate during summer, but the inadeyuacy during winter is
less.

1.    Semi- nomadic transhumance.
This is mainly in the north western coastal desert of Egypt and
in Sinai (FAO, 1972a and shafeldin, 1982). The latest estimate
of sheep numbers in the north western coastal desert is 1.06
million while the human population is about 144 thousand.
In that system, the sheep owners live in communties along the
coast and their sheep graze along the coastal strip up to 2o km to
the south during the rainy season, October - April.
Rain fall is meage and erratic, 100 to 210 mm annually, and
natural vegetation is generally poor, but varies according to
amount of rainfall. Farmare usually run with flocks all year-
round, but the majority of the lambing takes place during the
raing season.
Sheep are looked after either by the owner or by hired shepherds
at the rate of one shepherd for every 150 sheep.
Smaller flocks owned by different people are combind into
larger flocks as a grazing unite for easier managent. The grazing
unite ranges from 300 to 500 ewes, plus the young and the
males.
Many of the sheep owners have orchards of figs, olives and a
lmonds; they also grow barley. The sheep holdings under this
system are much bigger than in the valley and owners have
sheep flocks up to 2000 head goats and camels. sheep do not
reguire much water during the grazing system, but in years they
are confined near to wells and mater collection points.
During the dry months, especially in the region adjacent to the
Nile Detta, flocks move east ward and southward to the Nile
Delta and valley for stubble grazing and to use other available
feed resources. Also, barley straw is used during the summer
months and the state allows sheep producers a small ration of
subsidized concentrate fed. Recently, grain feeding has been
practised on a large scale during the dry season.
Selection is mainly natural. However, breeders select for a
specific weight, wool characteristics, horns and certain colour
patterns, e.g. darkred or brown head and neck. Breeders usually
raise their own rams.

2.    Semiautonomous state commercial flocks
Sheep owned by these semiantoromous state commercial farms
represent about 0-7 percent of the total sheep population- two -
thirds of these sheep are of local breeds, one- quarter of foreign
breads (Mainly Frisch Merino), and the rest are crossbreds.
More intensive systems are followed in these in these flocks,
vize.a lamb crop each 8 months and fattening operations. so far,
the activties in these flocks have been commercialized for
producing meat and wool.
3.   Large private flocks in the Nile Detle and valley.
No statisticvs are available on the number of these flocks or the
number of sheep in them. The size of these flocks probably
ranges from around 100 sheep to over 3000.
Flocks may be divided into two categories:
     1- Strictly commerial flocks for producing meat and wool for
        the domestic market, or animals for export.
     2- Stud flocks.

4.      Smallholders.

Sheep raised under this system represend at least 65 percenl of
the sheep population in the conntry and mainly are owned by
villagers. This system of production includes all five degrees of
intensification stated by purohit (1982) or any combination of
them : intensive, semi - intensive, extensive, tethering, or
scavenging.
In most cases, the farm owner is essentially an agriculturist, with
livestock being only of secondary importance - sheep under this
system derive their feed form grazing at the irrigation and
draining canals, stubble grazing, and grazing berseem field
aftter cattle. During the summer months, they may be
supplemented with straws, berseem hay, concentrate mixtures,
In is traditional to fatten rams for 1020 weeks to reach th market
around the feast, Eid AL-Adha, where sacrificing a ram is a
religious practice among Moslems. Demand also increases
durinng other religious occasions .
These village flocks of sheep and their communal herding
usually are the source of a type of cheesae called “ Dhani”,
which is uspeciality in the northern Delta.

Factor effct on economic
1.      Sheep fattening operations.
Faltening operation became very active 2 to 4 months be for Eid
AL-Adha. Rams weighing 20 to 40 kg are fattened to over 50
kg. In each feed lot, sheep numbers range from as few as 2 to
over 100. Fattened sheep are sold at local markets, to butshers
and restaurants in bigger cities, or taken to urban centres to be
sold to prospective individual buyers on religious occasions.

3. Milk production

The servival and groth of young lambs depend largerly upon the
milking ability of their dambs . There are two methods which are
commonly on the direct estimation of ewe milk production , the
lamb suckling technique and hand milking technique .
The lamb sucking technique is a sufficiently accurate method of
estimating milk production in ewes as reported by Munro (1955)
. Barnicoat et al ., ( 1956) found that the lamb sucking technique
depends on the appetite of the lamb . The very small and the
very large may not alaways take all the available milk
production .
Many workers have shown that nutrition is a major factor
influencing the milk production of ewes which respond rapidly
to any changes in the nutritional stestus in early lactation as
reported by Barnicoat et al. , ( 1949), Thomson ,Thomson (
1953) , Munro ( 1955) , Owen (1957) and Davies ( 1958) .
Maximum milk production is obtained by good feeding during
late pregnancy and throughout the lactation period .
Age of ewe is considered to be a major factor al facting milk
production as reported by Munro ( 1955) , Barnicoat et al .,
(1956) Owen ( 1957) Gorbett ( 1967)and Rinkis (1958).
Boyazoglu and Gattin Vidal ( 1964) reported that the lacaune
ewes which lambed in October to November gave highter milk
production than those lambing in February to May .
Birth weight of lambs was found by many authors to be related
to milk production ( Okhotinas , 1958 ; and peart , 1967 )
Thomson and Thomson ( 1953) reported that birth weight many
be negatively reltaed to milk production when dams were
maintained under low planes of nutrition .
  Milk production is affected by of the lactation period as
  reported by Rinkis ( 1958) and Karimov (1967) .
Labour
RURAL OUT - MIGRAATION . SEASONAL LEABOR SHORTAGES
AND RAPIDLY RISING RURAL WAGES
                          -------------------------------------------------
Until recently , rural labor was abundant and cheep . Between
1950 and 1965 actual rural wages doubled but real wages
declined . perhaps beacuse of the disruptions to the economy
caused by the 1967 Middle East War actual reual wages dropped
during the years after the war and only broke through the 1966
level ($ 0.40) in 1972 and it was not till 1975 that the real wage
index surpassed the 1966 level . Then in 1974 , they began to
skyrocket , trippling by mid 1978 from the 1973 baseline figure
of $ 0. 40 . I n 1974 , a World Bank report showed than of a
total workforce of 9.8 million , 9 million were employed of
which 46. 6% or 4.2 million were engaged in the agriculture
sector. (13) In 1973, daily wages in the rural area for adult
unskilled were less than $ 0. 40 ( LE. 0.28). from late 1973 to
mid 1978 rural wages more than the trippled to $ 1.28 ( LE . 0 .
90 ) per day as shown in Table (I) on the following page . In
1977, during the September - October peak harvest period , daily
wages were as high as $ 2. 15 ( LE . I .50 ) or a five - fold
increase over the 1973 base year figure . The legal minimum
daily wage in the same period increased only from $ 0.40 to $
0.57
        Several factors contribute to this exceptionall
disproportionate rise in rural wages . First , the dramatic rise in
rural to the 1977 high of LE 1.50 daily was thought to be
seasonal - occuring but twice per year ,during the May - June
harvest period and again during the September - October harvest
. During the slack periods in 1977 and 1978 rural wages fell to
We stress again that the above phenomenon was observed in
two governoratates of Upper Egypt where the concentreted rural
development effort , that it appears to represent a significant
departure from past trends but that additional data and further
analysis is obviously required . The principal cause is a
phenomenon relatinelt recent to the history of rural Egypt ; a
substantial drain of adult male labor to high paying construction
jobs in the ever expanding urban and industrial areas throughout
Egypt as well as the major reconstruction activities in the Suez
Canal Zone plus to even higher paid jobs , both rural and
industrial , in the neighborting Arab countries . Since 1975 an
estimated 14.5% of the adult rural labor force have left the farm
area to take up at least and stability . the new objectives for
economic and social development set forth by the president in
the “ October Working Papers” and his announced “
DALLY WAGE RATRE IN RURAL EGYPT ( 1938 _1978)

MAN/DAY RURAL MONEY WAGES ,RURAL COST OF
LIVING INDEX / RURAL

CONSUMER INDEX AND REAL WAGE INDEX OVER A40
YEAR PERIOD
   YEAR                         AVERAGE DALLY
           MAN-DAY WAGE IN      COST OF LIVING
          PIASTRES*P.T.INDEX /RURAL CONSUMER
                                         INDEX
     1938       3.0       100     100       100
     1939       3.5       117     101       116
     1941       3.6       120     139        90
     1942       5.0       167     198        83
     1943       6.3       210     238        87
     1944       9.3       310     262       117
     1945       9.3       310     262       117
     1946       9.5       317     297       107
     1948      10.0       333     271       123
     1949      10.0       333     259       130
        1950             11.6             387             264              147
        1951             12.6             420             263              160
        1952             12.0             400             265              151
        1953             12.0             400             269              150
        1955              7.6             253             294               87
        1956             10.0             333             342               97
        1959             12.5             417             334              124
        1960             12.5             417             337              123
        1961             12.3             410             358              113
        1962             14.0             466             367              122
        1963             15.0             500             377              127
        1964             19.0             633             438              138
        1965             22.0             733             519              135
        1966             25.5             850             468              181
        1967             25.0             833             479              174
        1968             24.0             800             499              160
        1969             25.0             833             536              155
        1970             25.5             850             576              147
        1971             25.8             860             580              148
        1972             26.5             883             613              144
        1973             28.5             950             661              144
        1974             35.1            1170             753              155
        1975             46.5            1550             845              183
        1976             61.6            2053             947              217
        1977             76.0            2533            1039              246
        1978             90.0            3000            1199              250
One piastre equals roughly 1.5 U.S penny . 1 piastre= U.S.$ O.O143. $1.OOO
=70 piastres.
SOURCES:
RADWAN ,S.Agriculture Reformand Rural Poverty ,Egypt 1952- 1975 „LLO, Genva
, 1977.
 Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics .
 ERA 2000 Inc . „Further Mechanization of Egyptian Agriculture „ Maryland USA,
  April 1979
 Ministry of Agriculture , Agriculture Ec onomics Research Institute .
                       Summary


Demand on anemal meat increased while the
pepulation of anemals are limted .Therfore, research
was directed to utilize locally available econmic
information about breeding of sheeep ,Analyses of the
results are so importent to economically assess .The
fesibility of breeding any class from the points of view
of the both the farmer and the national income .
     This study aimed at analyzing the data of the
questineer of4 classof owner ship fisit class owner of (
1-5 ) head .secened class (6-50 ) head , third ( 51-100 )
,and 4 th ( < 100) statisticalavalysis did not detect any
statistical differences between the costs . of the four
closses also no significant the costs. of the fourclosses
also no significant differences were detected between
the return fcononic alalysis indicated that not return
per head in closs 4 increased than that accnring in
classe 1,2,3 rate of retuan was highest for class4 as if
was go 21 co pased to 39.47,42.15 32.04 for classes
3,2,1 respectively the data shoued that average cost
per head in the 4 classes LE 84.76,121.37
138.4.76.12,respestiraly estinates of net return per
head referst to preferancf of class 4 as it increase by
aboutL.E. 50.74, l-E 48.06 , 58-17 than not return per
head in classes 3,2,1 respectively.
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