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EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF by hcj

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									    EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF
        RADISH (Raphanus Sativus L.) Cv. Pusa. Chetki (Short)
                            V. Sundaram1, A. Udaykumar2, E. Vadivel3,


                                              ABSTRACT
           The present investigation was aimed to study the possibility of reducing the use
   of chemical inputs by the use of Effective Microorganisms (EM). In this study 14
   treatment combinations were tried. The treatment included the use of EM both as seed
   treatment (1:3000; soaking for 30 minutes) and foliar spray at two different dilutions
   (1:500 and 1:1000).             EM treatments were combined with the applications of
   recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers and 75% of the recommended dose of
   fertilizer.      The treatment without fertilizer application served as control.
   Morphological, physiological and yield contribution characters were recorded. The
   randomized block design was adopted and data showed significant differences in
   combined use of EM as foliar spray and recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer in all
   the above said characters of Radish Cv. Pusa Chetki


                                         INTRODUCTION

           India is the second largest producer of vegetable next to China, accounting for
   about 10 per cent of the world’s production. In 2002, 78.20 million tones of vegetables
   were produced from an area of 5.73 million half of land (Shanmugasundaram, 2004).
   This progress could be achieved by adopting improved varieties/hybrids and modern
   production technologies. (Rai and Pandey, 2004). Still for several vegetables, the
   national productivity is lesser than the world average and raising the levels of
   productivity and quality standards to internationally competitive and acceptable
   standards has become one of the major challenges following WTO agreement.


           Further, it is projected that the domestic vegetables requirement would rise from
   the current level of 83-91 million tones to 151-193 million tones by 2030. Even today

1. V. Sundaram, Assistant Professor (Horticulture) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture, Karaikkal, INDIA
2. A. Udaykumar, Training Associate (Agronomy) Krishi Vidyan Kendra, Rural University, Gadhigram, Dindigul – 624302, INDIA
3 . E. Vadivel, Dean (Horticulture, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641003, INDIA.
                                                            -1-
3.
the domestic requirements are not fully met with and annually vegetables worth 678
million dollars are being imported (Shanmugasundaram, 2004).

      Modern agriculture is heavily dependant on chemicals, which has caused
problems related to environmental degradation and human health.             In intensive
cropping system with vegetables, a number of crops are grown in each year on the same
piece of land and accordingly the nutrient supply of each crop is to be balanced by the
use of organic manures and fertilizers. The farmers tend to over use fertilizers in
vegetables.


      The major thrust in the later half of the last century was to increase food
production utilizing all possible resources. There must be an optimum nutrient balance
for sustainable vegetable production. Recently organic farming is gaining momentum
as a means of sustainable agriculture production. Organic farming completely keeps
away the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers and other plant protection chemicals,
depending only on naturally available materials for the supply of plant nutrients and for
the control of pests and diseases. Though Nature farming and organic farming concepts
are fast gathering momentum, they are also beset with problems like low yield and poor
returns to investment made. In addition it also requires large quantities of good quality
organic matter.


      Hence there is an absolute need for developing alternate technologies which
reduces the dependence on use of exernal inputs without compromising productivity so
as to meet the domestic as well as export requirements. The micro organisms play a
vital link in all the ecosystems and the use of the biofertilizer the agricultural
production is a positive approach towards sustainability. The recognition of this factor
by Professor Teruo Higa of University of Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan led to the
accidental discovery of the significant impact on a patch of grass produced by a
microbial mixture and this paved the way for the development of Effective
Microorganisms (EM) in the late 1979’s.




                                           -2-
         Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the important root vegetables cultivated
in India, mainly for its tender roots which are used as salad or cooked vegetable. Being
a short duration crop it has the ability to fit well into multiple cropping under intensive
agriculture production system.      Radish is grown in an area of 67,345 ha with a
production of 8.03 lakh tones in our country. Radish is also having several therapeutic
value.    The work on developing sustainable vegetable production technologies to
reduce the dependence on external inputs (inorganic) is meager and hence the present
study was taken up in Radish cultivate Pusa Chetki (Short)’ with the following
objectives.
         1. To study the effect of EM on growth and yield of radish.
         2. To study the effect of EM on some of the physiological characters in radish.
         3. To study the possibility of reducing the dependence on external inputs by use
            of EM spray solution in radish.




                                              -3-
                        MATERIALS AND METHODS

       The present study was taken up to study the performance of Effective
Microorganisms (EM) on ‘ growth and yield of Radish Cv. Pusa Chetki (Short)’. The
details pertaining to the material used and the methodologies adopted during the course
of investigation are presented.


1. Material used
   The stock EM solution Manufactured and marketed by Maple Orgtech (India)
   Private Limited, Dehradun (Uttaranchal) was used for the present study.


2. Experimental Site
   The field experiment was conducted during 2004 in field No. 52 C of the Orchard.
   Horticulture College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univesity,
   Coimbatore, A plot size of 3.0 M x 2.5M maintained.


3. Climate
   Coimbatore lies between a latitude of 110 latitude and 770E longitude, with an
   elevation of 426.72 M above MSL. The months of April and May are the hottest,
   experiencing a mean temperature of 34.60 C. The mean annual rainfall is 672 mm.
   the Relative Humidity is maximum during March (80 per cent) and minimum
   during September (50 per cent)


4. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
   Crop                                : Radish
   Variety                             : Pusa Chetki (Short)
   Spacing                             : 45 x 10 cm
   Design                              : Randomized Block Design (RBD)
   Number of Replications              : 2
   Date of sowing                      : 04-05-2004



                                             -4-
Treatment Particulars
     As the present investigation was aimed to study the possibility of reducing the use
of chemical inputs by the use of Effective Microorganisms (EM), there were 14
treatment combinations. The treatments included the use of EM both as seed treatment
(1 : 3000; soaking for 30 minutes) and as foliar spray at two different dilutions (1:500
and 1: 1000). EM treatments were combined with the applications of recommended
dose of inorganic fertilizer and 75% of the recommended dose of fertilizer. The
treatment without fertilizer application served as control. The treatment particulars are
furnished.
T1 -      Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF)
T2   -    EM as seed treatment (soaking in EM solution of 1:3000 dilution for
          30 minutes)
T3 -      EM spray at 15 days interval (dilution 1: 10000)
T4 -      EM spray at 15 days interval (dilution 1:500)
T5 -      T1 + T 2
T6 -      T1 + T3
T7 -      T1 + T 4
T8 -      T1 + T 2 + T 3
T9 -      T1 + T 2 + T 4
T10 -     75% RDF + T2
T11 -     75% RDF + T3
T12 -     75% RDF + T4
T13 -     75% RDF + T2+ T3
T14 -     75% RDF + T2+ T4


Application of fertilizers
     The recommended dose of fertilizer used in the present investigation was 25:100:50
kg NPK/ha as a basal dressing and 25 kg N/ha was top dressed on 30th day of sowing.
Calculated quantities of fertilisers were applied to different treatment plots as required.
Urea, Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash were used as source of N1P2O5 and K2O
respectively.



                                            -5-
   Effective Microorganisms was used both for seed treatment as well as for foliar
spraying. Seed treatment was done for 30 minutes using activated EM solution of
1:3000 dilution. EM spraying was done at fortnightly intervals (on 15th and 30th days
after sowing) at two different concentrations viz., 1:500 and 1:1000 dilution. Other
standard recommended cultural practices were followed during the entire crop growth
period (Anon., 2004) and no other plant protection spraying was taken up.




                                          -6-
                     EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

   It is well understood that the microorganisms play a vital role in the farming Eco
system.    However, the activities pertaining to its production, preservation and
utilization on commercial scale in agriculture sector are fast increasing in the recent
times. One such technology is the use of Effective Microorganisms, which is liquid
concentrate containing a consortium of beneficial microbes, which acts as a microbial
inoculants in the soil as well as develops a conducive environment for the crop to grow.


EM has its application in Agriculture in the following areas.
    As seed treatment to accelerate germination and to protect the seeds and
       seedlings from harmful pathogens.
    In composting of farm wastes to prepare enriched compost.
    As foliar spray to improve growth, yield and quality of crops by way of
       enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency and protecting crops from pests and
       diseases.
    Soil application through irrigation water.
The inoculation of EM culture to the soil/plant ecosystem can improve the soil health
and thereby the growth, yield and quality of crops (Higa, 2002).


The results of the present investigation carried out in ‘Radish Cv. Pusa Chetki-Short’ to
study the performance of EM on some of its morphological, physiological and yield
contributing characters are presented here.


EM on morphological characters of Radish
Application of EM solution was found to improve the morphological characters such as
plant height, number of leaves and leaf area in radish. Among the various Treatments
T6 (Recommended Dose of Fertiliser + EM spray on 15th and 30th days after sowing at
1:1000 dilution) had recorded the maximum values for most of the morphological
characters studied (Table 1). The plant height was the maximum (25.39 cm) in T 6
followed by T8 (24.16 cm) and T12 (23.24 cm). The highest leaf area (120.57 cm) and
Leaf Area Index (1.1521) were also recorded for T6 which was followed by T8 and T14.

                                              -7-
                                Table 1


       Effective Microorganisms on Morphological Characters of
         Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Cv. Pusa Chetki (Short)


              Plant    Number     Leaf    Leaf       Leaf        Leaf
Treatments    Height     Of      Length   Width      Area       Area
               (cm)    Leaves     (cm)    (cm)       (cm2)      Index
    T1        21.64     7.40      18.22    6.83     72.15       0.64
    T2        18.52     7.90      15.83    6.29     65.79       0.54
    T3        18.78     8.00      16.44    6.76     70.77       0.62
    T4        21.28     7.60      15.27    6.95     71.62       0.61
    T5        22.44     9.80      20.15    8.19     92.99       1.01
    T6        25.39     8.50      25.15    8.80     120.57      1.15
    T7        22.91     8.60      20.95    8.70     105.91      1.00
    T8        24.16     8.80      23.73    8.88     101.48      0.99
    T9        22.35     9.00      20.27    7.54     86.88       0.87
    T10       22.41     8.60      21.56    8.28     94.80       0.90
    T11       22.33     8.70      22.19    8.33     90.61       0.87
    T12       23.24     8.40      22.62    8.53     102.77      0.80
    T13       16.68     7.30      21.36    6.47     91.42       0.84
    T14       21.97     8.40      17.98    8.06     75.65       0.63
   SEd        2.15      0.76      1.88     0.89     13.62       0.16
CD (P=0.05)   4.64      1.65      4.06     1.92     29.43       0.34
CD (P=0.01)   6.47      2.30      5.67     2.67     41.04       0.48




                                  -8-
                                 Table 1


         Effective Microorganisms on Physiological Characters of
           Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Cv. Pusa Chetki (Short)


           Specific Total Dry
                               Harvest                                    Total
             Leaf     Matter           Chlorophyll‘a’ Chlorophyll’b’
Treatments                      Index                                  Chlorophyll
           Weight Production              mg g-1         Mg g-1
                -2          -1   (%)                                     mg g-1
            g cm     g plant
    T1     0.0078     17.60     62.88     0.5187         0.1434          0.6872
    T2     0.0077     11.73     57.72     0.7889         0.2767          0.7560
    T3     0.0072     12.65     58.93     0.8519         0.3575          1.1867
    T4     0.0056     12.77     60.58     0.7068         0.2025          0.9417
    T5     0.0068     13.80     62.12     0.6120         0.1810          0.9026
    T6     0.0112     26.91     66.97     0.8253         0.2388          1.1037
    T7     0.0080     14.15     58.28     0.6120         0.1861          0.8281
    T8     0.0100     21.16     61.78     0.8249         0.2369          1.0110
    T9     0.0066     17.02     54.79     0.3572         0.2032          0.4405
    T10    0.0067     15.18     57.80     0.5799         0.1195          0.7249
    T11    0.0081     16.56     61.06     0.5779         0.1496          1.1382
    T12    0.0112     19.44     60.69     0.8407         0.2561          1.0715
    T13     0.008     13.34     67.61     0.7321         0.1754          0.9401
    T14    0.0066     12.60     62.91     0.8270         0.2114          1.0797
   SEd     0.0019      1.75      4.99     0.0712         0.0402          0.0952
   CD
 (P=0.05)
           0.0041      3.79     10.77     0.1539         0.0809          0.2057
   CD
 (P=0.01)
           0.0057      5.28     15.02     0.2142         0.1211          0.2869




                                     -9-
                         Fig 1 : Effective Microorganisms on Harvest Index of Radish



                    80


                    60
Harvest Index (%)




                    40


                    20


                    0
                     T1
                     T2
                                T3
                                T4
                                         T5
                                         T6
                                                  T7
                                                  T8
                                                             T9

                                                              0
                                                              1
                                                              2
                                                              3
                                                              4
                                                            T1
                                                            T1
                                                            T1
                                                            T1
                                                            T1

                                             Treatments




                                                     -10-
                              Table 3


    Effective Microorganisms on yield contributing characters of
        Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Cv. Pusa Chetki (Short)


              Root Length    Root Girth   Root Weight    Plot Yield
Treatments
                 (cm)          (cm)          (gm)           (kg)
    T1           12.87         13.03         96.00        7.50
    T2           11.76         10.93         65.30        6.20
    T3           12.70         11.22         84.17        7.25
    T4           12.15         11.86         70.90        5.90
    T5           14.42         10.95         72.10        8.60
    T6           17.84         14.86        164.85        12.60
    T7           14.53         11.31         83.07        9.90
    T8           15.94         13.61        141.05        11.70
    T9           15.78         12.57         84.72        8.13
    T10          14.24         12.48         95.95        8.10
    T11          15.94         11.52        116.30        11.10
    T12          17.62         14.76        137.15        11.35
    T13          13.62         12.73        104.85        9.70
    T14          12.53         11.83        102.09        7.60
   SEd           0.94          0.75          19.15        0.93
CD (P=0.05)      2.04          1.61          41.38        2.00
CD (P=0.01)      2.84          2.25          57.71        2.80




                                 -11-
                    Fig. 2 : Effective Microorganisms on Root Length of Radish




                   20
Root Length (cm)




                   15


                   10


                   5


                   0
                        1


                              3


                                     5


                                             7


                                                        9


                                                            11


                                                                   13


                                                                           15
                                              Treatments




                                                 -12-
                   Fig. 3 : Effective Microorganisms on Root Girth of Radish




                   20
Root Length (cm)




                   15

                   10

                   5

                   0
                        T1


                             T3


                                    T5


                                            T7


                                                     T9


                                                              T11


                                                                    T13
                                                 Treatments




                                              -13-
 Fig.4 : Effective Microorganisms on Root Weight of Radish




         180
         160
         140
 Root
         120
Weight
 (cm)    100
          80
          60
          40
          20
          0

               1   2   3   4 5   6   7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15

                                         Treatments




                                     -14-
However, the number of leaves was found to be the maximum in T5 (9.80). The
average number of leaves produced per plant in T6 was 8.50. The treatments T6, T8,
T10, T11, T12 and T13 were found to be the best performers in terms of leaf length, with
the maximum leaf length being recorded for T6 (25.15 cm).


EM on physiological characters of Radish
   Significant differences could be observed among the treatments for various
physiological characters viz., Specific Leaf Weight (SLW), Total Dry Matter
Production (TDMP) and Harvest Index (HI) (Table 2).            The Total Dry Matter
Production was the maximum in T6 (26.91 gm plant-1) followed by T8 (21.16 gm
plant-1). The treatment T6 was found to be significantly different from rest of the
treatments for TDMP and was followed by T7, T8 and T12. The Harvest Index (Fig.1)
ranged from 54.79 per cent (T9) to 67.61 per cent (T13). The Harvest Index recorded for
T6 was 66.97 per cent. The total chlorophyll content of leaves was also found to be
high in all the treatments which had recorded higher yields. The treatments T3, T6, T8,
T11, T12 and T14 were found to be superior and on par with each other for total
chlorophyll content.


EM on yield contributing characters of Radish
   EM was found to have profound effect on yield contributing characters of radish
(Table 3). The effect of EM on yield contributing characters of radish were more
pronounced than on growth and physiological parameters. The weight of root was
maximum in T6 (164.85 gm), followed by T8 (141.05 gm) and T12 (137.15 gm).
Similar trend was noticed for the yield of radish roots per plot (Table 3).         The
treatments T6 and T8 had received the recommended dose of fertilisers along with EM
(1:1000 dilution), while the treatment T12 had received EM spray at 1:500 dilution with
only 75 per cent of the recommended dose of fertiliser. The length of radish root
ranged from 11.76 cm (T2) to 17.84 cm (T6). The treatments T6, T8, T11,and T12 were
found to be the best for root length (Fig.2) and differed significantly from other
treatments. The treatments T6, T8, and T12 were also superior in terms of root girth
(Fig.3). The girth of root was also found to be high for T6 (14.86 cm) followed by T12
(14.76 cm) and T8 (13.61 cm) and there was no significant differences among these

                                          -15-
treatments. The weight of the root was the lowest (65.30 gm) for T2 (Fig.4), which had
also recorded the lowest root length (11.76 cm) and root girth (10.93 cm.) The
treatment T2 had received only seed treatment with EM, while T1 received only the
recommended dose of fertilizer.


   The use of EM as seed treatment was not found to have any influence on
morphological, physiological and yield contributing characters of radish.




                                          -16-
                                 DISCUSSION

   Tremendous Progress had been made in the recent past to augment vegetable
production and productivity. This could be accomplished by adoption of modern
production and protection technologies (Rai and Pandey, 2004).          In an intensive
cropping systems with vegetables the nutrient requirement of each crop is to be met
with the use of organic manures and fertilizers. The nutrient supply and requirement of
the entire cropping system needs to be managed. Further, the use efficiency of applied
fertilisers must also be enhanced. Baneficial microorganisms present in the farming
eco-system play a very important role in improving the fertilizer use efficacy by
improving the soil health. The application of bio fertilisers is one of the approaches to
improve the beneficial microbes.       Another possible approach which is gaining
momentum is the use of Effective Microorganisms, a liquid concentrate containing
consortium of beneficial microbes capable of improving soil health and provides a
conducive environment for the crop to grow.              The performance of effective
microorganisms on various morphological, physiological and yield contributing
characters of Radish Cv. Pusa Chetki (Short) is discussed.


Morphological Characters
   The application of EM as spray solution was found to produce significant
differences on various morphological characters of radish. The treatment T6 was found
to be the best for most of the morphological characters studied (Table 1). Corrodus
(2002) had reported increased fresh and dry weight of shoots of Lettuce and Radish by
the application of EM fermented compost. The improvement in growth characters may
be attributed to the fact that the use of EM enhances the beneficial microbes in the
environment (Higa, 2002) and can improve the photosynthetic efficiency due to an
increase in nutrient availability. EM is also capable of producing beneficial organic
acids, bioactive substances and vitamins (Higa, 2002).




                                          -17-
Physiological Characters
   Among the 14 treatments, T14 was again found to be the best in terms of various
physiological characters such as Leaf Area Index, Specific Leaf Weight, Total Dry
Matter Production and Harvest Index, ultimately leading to increased yield of roots
(Table 2). The increase in the photosynthetic efficiency and nutrient uptake of crops
with EM application could be the possible reasons for the better physiological
activities. This is in conformity with the findings of Corrodus (2002), who reported
increase in chlorophyll level of radish leaves by EM application. The treatment T 6
which received the combined application of Recommended Fertilisers with EM spray at
fortnightly interval (1: 1000) had recorded the highest values for LAI, SLW, TDMP
and HI.    The treatments T8 and T12 had also recorded higher values for these
physiological characters.


Yield Contributing Characters
The application of EM spray solution had recorded an yield increase of 70.50 per cent
in radish as reported by Yadav (2000). In the present investigation also significant
differences were observed among the treatments for various yield contributing
characters (Table 3). The yield was highest in T6 (12.60 kg/plot) followed by T8 (11.70
kg/plot) and T12 (11.35 kg/plot. This was further confirmed by the increased weight of
root length and width of root observed in these treatments. All these might be due to
the increased nutrient uptake, improved photosynthetic efficiency and increased
fertilizer use efficiency due to the application of EM spray solution (Higa, 2002).
Another important observation was the delayed hardening quality of radish roots in the
EM treated plots. The use of EM as seed treatment could not exhibit any significant
differences and might possibly due to the prolonged and incessant rains received
immediately after sowing.




                                         -18-
                               SUMMARY

 Among the 14 treatments T6 (Recommended Dose of fertilizer + EM spray of
   1:1000 dilution at fortnightly interval) was found to be the best for most of the
   morphological, physiological and yield attributes studied.


 The treatment T6 had recorded the highest values for root length (17.84 cm), root
   girth (14.86 cm) and root weight (164.85 gm).


 The treatments T8 and T2 were also found to be superior and on par with T6 for
   yield and other yield contributing characters.


 The treatment T12 had received only 75 per cent of the recommended fertilizer
   along with EM spray (at fortnightly interval/1:500 dilution) , indicating the
   possibility of reducing the dependence on inorganic fertilizer by the use of EM.


 The treatment of seeds with EM was not found to have any influence on growth
   and yield of radish.




                                       -19-
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