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					                             Water World!
          Created for SPICE by Alexis Morris and Towanda Luckie
                               May 2008

                         Mysteries of the Deep
                         Lesson 4: Teacher Guide

Key Question: What is the purpose of adaptation?

Science Subject: Life science

Grade Level: 6-8

Science Concepts: adaptations

Overall Time Estimate: one 50 minute period

Learning Styles: kinesthetic and Visual

Lesson Summary: In this lesson, students will learn what adaptations mean
and why organisms adapt to their environment in order to increase their
survivability. Students will be shown different pictures of various ocean
creatures and interpret why a particular creature has a particular
adaptation based on what they see. Then as a class, they will discuss the
correct answers and see how close they are to the correct answers.

Student Learning Objectives:
   The students will be able to…
   1) Understand how animals evolve to deal with their environmental
      surroundings through various real life examples.

Materials:
     Per teacher:
     Mysteries of the deep power point
     Mysteries of the deep Answer key
     Per student:
     Mysteries of the deep worksheet
Background Information:
Useful Vocabulary:
Adaptation: a trait that improves an organism’s chances for survival and
reproduction in its environment.
Producer: an organism that captures energy and stores it in food as chemical
energy. For example, plants.
Consumer: an organism that get their energy by eating, or consuming other
organisms.
Habitat: an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular
species.
Food chain: describes the feeding relationship between a producer and a
single chain of consumers in an ecosystem.
Food web: a model of the feeding relationships between many different
consumers and producers in an ecosystem.
Mammal: are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the
presence of a sweat gland, include milk producing glands, and by the
presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing
Fish: are aquatic vertebrates that are cold-blooded, covered with scales,
and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins.

Background about organisms listed in lab:
Killer Whale: Orcas are versatile and opportunistic predators. Some
populations feed mostly on fish, and other populations hunt marine mammals,
including sea lions, seals, and some whales. Although Orcas are not an
endangered species, some local populations are considered threatened or
endangered due to pollution, depletion of prey species, conflicts with fishing
activities and vessels, habitat loss, and whaling. Wild Orcas are usually not
considered a threat to humans.

Sea Lion versus Seal: Pinnipeds, fin-footed marine mammals, are divided
into two categories: earless seals (true seals) and eared seals (sea lions).

Seals (phocids) lack ear flaps, instead have a tiny opening (pinnae) that
serves as an ear. A seals has short foreflippers with a claw on each toe. The
hind flippers are also clawed. The flippers have a thin webbing of skin,
enabling them to move through the water with great agility. Seals can flex
their toes to groom themselves or haul themselves out of water. The hind
flippers angle toward the rear and cannot be rotated forward. For a seal to
move across dry land, it must balance its weight on to the fore flippers and
crawl along using their bellies.

Sea lion (Otariidae) differs from the seal in that its pinnae are covered by
external ear flaps. Sea lions also have longer necks than seals. The body of
the sea lion is much sleeker than that of the seal, even though sea lions are
generally larger than most seals. Furthermore, a sea lion’s front flippers
have only a partial fur covering, unlike the seal, whose flippers are covered
entirely by fur. Sea lions’ first toes are longer than the other toes. Their
hind flippers are extremely flexible, and can actually rotate forward and
beneath the body. This enables sea lions to move around on land with ease,
unlike the seal. Sea lions are also more vocal than seal, giving them the
name “sea dogs”.

Whale Shark: a filter feeding shark that is the largest living fish species.
It feeds on phytoplankton, macro-algae, plankton, krill, and small nektonic
life, such as small squid. The many rows of teeth play no role in feeding. A
whale shark sucks in a mouthful of water, closes its mouth and expels the
water through its gills. During the slight delay between closing the mouth
and opening the gill flaps, plankton is trapped against the dermal denticles
(like small teeth) which line its gill plates and pharynx. Therefore, any
material caught in the filter between the gill bars is swallowed.

Angler Fish: Since finding a mate is quiet difficult in the abyssal and
continental shelves, angler fish have adopted a unique adaptation to fix this
problem. Male angler fish are equipped with a well developed olfactory organ
that senses female angler pheromones. He uses this organ to find a female.
Once found, the male bites the female’s skin and becomes fully fused to her.
Enzymes are released that digest the skin of his mouth and the female’s
body, which allow the male’s blood stream to fuse with the females. Over
the next few days, the male atrophies into nothing more than a pair of
gonads. When the female is ready to release her eggs, her hormone levels
will trigger the release sperm from the male. Thus, the female angler fish
now has a permanent supply of sperm to fertilize her eggs.

 Hermit Crab: They live in shells as a way to aid in their protection. As a
hermit crab grows, they will abandon their shell and find a new bigger shell
to live in.
Octopus: Three defense mechanisms that octopuses have are their ink
sacs, camouflage, and autotomising limbs. Most octopuses can eject a black
ink cloud that aids in their escape from predators. Camouflage is controlled
by specialized skin cells which can change color, opacity and reflective ability
of the epidermis. Thus, allowing an octopus to blend in with their
environment. Color changes are also used for communication with other
octopuses. When under attack, some octopuses can detach their limbs thus
allowing the octopus to get away.

Bamboo Shark: Bottom dwelling sharks that live in coral reefs. Their
distribution ranges from Indonesia to the Philippines, and other Southeast
Asian waters. These sharks do not grow more than 3 feet and are quiet
docile. They are nocturnal and feed mostly invertebrates. Also, bamboo
sharks are oviparous, which means that they lay eggs.

Porcupine Fish: Also known as puffer fish. They inflate their bodies by
swallowing water (or air) and thus become a round ball; thereby making it
harder to predators to eat them. Second defense mechanism is their sharp
spines, which radiate outwards when the fish is inflated. Some species
spines contain poisons, which act as last defense mechanisms.

Macaroni Penguin: The Macaroni Penguin is a black and white penguin with
yellow and black plumes on the top of its head. Macaroni Penguins average
about 5 kg (11 lbs) in weight and average 50-70 cm (20-28 in) in height. They
eat squid, krill, other crustaceans, and fish. The distribution of Macaroni
Penguin extends from the sub-Antarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula, but
overall they are found further south than the rest of the crested penguins.
A female lays two eggs - the first egg laid is ignored by the penguin and
usually eaten by other birds, while the second egg hatches around 34 days
after it is laid. Like all penguins, they swim efficiently but cannot fly.

False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens): a cetacean (whales, dolphins,
porpoises) and one of the larger members of the family Delphinidae. It lives
in temperate and tropical waters throughout the world. The False Killer
Whale shares characteristics with the more widely known killer whale (Orca)
due to the fact that the two species look somewhat similar. Furthermore,
like orca, false killer whales attack and kill other cetaceans.
Walrus: Both male and female walruses have tusks but males are longer and
straighter. Tusks are primary functions are establishing social dominance
and hauling out onto ice or rocky shores. Vibrissae (whiskers) are extremely
sensitive tactile organs. A substantial nerve system transmits tactile
information from the vibrissae to the brain, which is useful for finding
mollusks and clams buried in sediment. Walruses have a thick blubber layer
to help within temperatures as cold as -20oC (-4oF).

Barton, Michael. 2007. Bond’s Biology of Fishes: 3rd Edition. Thomson.
Belmont, Ca.

Online Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/programmes/tv/blueplanet/ - Under “sea of
life” section on the left hand topic bar, resources include classroom games,
quizzes, animal facts (can learn about sea urchins, mollusks, fish,
crustaceans, etc.), and The Blue Planet facts.

Advance Preparation:
Watch “The Blue Planet: Seas of Life – The Deep” so that students can
understand why organisms adapt to their environment in different ways. If
unable to watch movie before hand, that is alright. Review before hand what
it means for an organism to adapt to their environment. Make photocopies
for students and have PowerPoint slides available for the class to see.

Procedure with Time Estimates:
 Expected    Classification of     Teacher Activity         Student      Materials
   Time       Lecture Parts                                 Activity
   (min)
     5         Introduction to          Explain lab          Listen
             worksheet & reading
                of background
                 information
    40               Body          Facilitate answers to   power point   Power point
                                    power point picture      picture        slides,
                                                                          worksheet
     5            Wrap-up          Collect worksheets        Turn in
                                                           worksheets
    Total
  Time: 50
     min
Sunshine State Standard:
       SC.7.E.6.6 - Identify the impact that humans have had on Earth, such
as deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air and water
quality, changing the flow of water.
       SC.7.L.15.2 - Recognize and explain ways in which genetic variation and
environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and
diversity of organisms.
       SC.7.L.15.3 - Relate how the inability of a species to adapt within a
changing environment may contribute to the extinction of that species.
       SC.7.L.17.1 - Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships
among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy
transfer in a food web.
       SC.7.L.17.2 - Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms
such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalisms.
       SC.7.L.17.3 - Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the
local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food,
shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites.
       SC.8.P.8.4 - Classify and compare substances on the basis of
characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured;
for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic
properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are
independent of the amount of the sample.

Directions to Lab:
Students should be using the information they have gained in life science to
figure out the questions in their lab.

Have students break into lab groups of about 3-4 students. One by one,
show them a slide and have them discuss as a group what they think is the
answer to the question asked. Try not to discuss answers to the pictures
before hand but instead let the students discuss in their lab groups what
they think maybe an appropriate answer. After about one to two minutes of
discussion time, have the lab groups tell you what they think the answer
maybe. Then, give them the correct answer and see how it matched up to
the students guesses. Process as previously described with each new slide.
Answer Key to Power Point Pictures:

     Picture            Question         Your Answer        Actual Answer
                                         (Just Guess)
Killer Whale        Am I a producer    Answers may vary   Consumer
                    or a consumer?



Sea Lion and Seal   What makes a       Sea Lion –         Sea Lion – ear
                    sea lion a sea     Answers may vary   flaps, large front
                    lion?                                 flippers useful for
                    What makes a                          walking
                    seal a sea?
                                       Seal –             Seal – no ear flaps,
                                       Answers may vary   small front
                                                          flippers, moves in
                                                          a worm-like motion



Whale Shark         Am I a mammal      Answers may vary   Fish, plankton,
                    or a fish?                            krill, small fish.
                    What do you                           Whale sharks are
                    think I like to                       filter feeders
                    eat?

Angler Fish         What is that red   Answers may vary   Male angler fish
                    arrow pointing
                    to?




Hermit Crab         Why should I       Answers may vary   Protection from
                    carry my house                        predators
                    with me?
     Picture           Question         Your Answer       Actual Answer
                                        (Just Guess)
Octopus            Name some          Answers may vary   Flexible body,
                   adaptations that                      ability to ink
                   I have.                               predators to get
                                                         away, suction
                                                         cups on tentacles

Bamboo Shark       What habitat do    Answers may vary   Coral reefs,
                   I live in?                            warm water,
                                                         shallow water



Porcupine Fish     How do I scare     Answers may vary   Spikes help have
                   off predators?                        porcupine fish
                                                         hard to shallow,
                                                         can blow
                                                         themselves up to
                                                         larger size
Macaroni Penguin   Can I fly?         Answers may vary   No, penguins can
                                                         not fly, can only
                                                         swim



False Killer       Why do you think   Answers may vary   Trick predators
Whale              that’s my name?                       into thinking
                                                         they are a
                                                         fiercer killer
                                                         whale
                                                         (camouflage)
Walrus             What are some      Answers may vary   Tusks, blubber,
                   of my                                 whiskers to find
                   adaptations?                          food,
                                             Names:

                         Mysteries of the Deep

Some Useful Vocabulary:
Adaptation: a trait that improves an organism’s chances for survival and
reproduction in its environment.
Producer: an organism that captures energy and stores it in food as chemical
energy. For example, plants.
Consumer: an organism that get their energy by eating, or consuming other
organisms.
Habitat: an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular
species.
Food chain: describes the feeding relationship between a producer and a
single chain of consumers in an ecosystem.
Food web: a model of the feeding relationships between many different
consumers and producers in an ecosystem.
Mammal: are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the
presence of a sweat gland, include milk producing glands, and by the
presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing
Fish: are aquatic vertebrates that are cold-blooded, covered with scales,
and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins.


Directions:
   -   Get into your lab groups and make sure that you have a lab paper and a
       pencil.
   -   As each picture comes onto the screen spend two minutes discussing
       with your group what you THINK the answer maybe. Write down your
       answer in the space provided.
   -   Discuss as a class the true answer and write that down in the space
       provided.
Let’s Begin:

     Picture            Question         Your Answer    Actual Answer
                                         (Just Guess)
Killer Whale        Am I a producer
                    or a consumer?



Sea Lion and Seal   What makes a       Sea Lion –
                    sea lion a sea
                    lion?
                    What makes a
                    seal a sea?
                                       Seal –




Whale Shark         Am I a mammal
                    or a fish?
                    What do you
                    think I like to
                    eat?

Angler Fish         What is that red
                    arrow pointing
                    to?




Hermit Crab         Why should I
                    carry my house
                    with me?
     Picture           Question       Your Answer    Actual Answer
                                      (Just Guess)
Octopus            Name some
                   adaptations that
                   I have.




Bamboo Shark       What habitat do
                   I live in?




Porcupine Fish     How do I scare
                   off predators?




Macaroni Penguin   Can I fly?




False Killer       Why do you think
Whale              that’s my name?




Walrus             What are some
                   of my
                   adaptations?

				
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