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					OVERVIEW OF MARINE HAZARDS
There are a number of hazardous creatures in the sea.
Many can cause serious harm to unaware or inattentive
divers. Some may even cause death, although this often
depends on the amount of venom used, individual
reactions, nature of injury and location of accidents (deep
water victims often drown).

This presentation will provide some basic first aid tips,
although by far the best policy is not to meddle with these
creatures
There are four major types of injury
patterns from marine life.

         contact irritants
         ingested toxins
         injected toxins
         predators
•   Sea anemone
•   Sea cucumber
•   Stinging corals
•   Crown-of-Thorns starfish
•   Hydroids
•   Box jellies
•   Sea urchins
• Shellfish- dinoflagellates (PSP)
• Scomboid- fish left a room temp., bacterial
  breakdown of tissue
• Tetradoxin- pufferfish, blue-ringed octopus
• Ciguatera- dinoflagellate
• Cone shells
• Blue ringed octopus
• Venomous fish:
  Stonefish
  Scorpion fish
  Sting rays
• Sea snake
•   Barracuda
•   Moray eel
•   Grouper
•   Sharks:
      Bull shark
      Tiger shark
      Great white
      Galapagos shark
      Mako
COMMON HABITAT: All Hawaiian waters
from tide pools to deep offshore waters.         Anemone
PREVENTION:Avoid direct contact with skin. While tide
pooling use footwear and don't put fingers/hands into holes
and crevices.
INJURY MECHANISM: Tentacles have stinging cells that are
used for catching prey.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Burning and itching sensation,
redness and swelling where contact was made. Severe
Reaction: may include shortness of breath; loss of
consciousness.
FIRST AID TREATMENT: Rinse thoroughly with fresh or salt
water. Apply ice for pain. IMMEDIATE medical attention may
be required for severe reactions.
       Barracuda

                        Open waters/bay areas in the
  COMMON HABITAT
                       shadows, under floating objects.
                      Don't wear shiny objects. They are
   PREVENTION          attracted to reflective things that
                                look like dinner.
                        Sharp jagged teeth with strong
 INJURY MECHANISM
                                tearing jaws.
                      Slashed and jagged tears in your
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
                                   skin.
                      Stop bleeding with pressure. Get
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                               medical help.
                               Cone Shell
                      Tide pools, sandy areas, shallow to
   COMMON HABITAT
                            deep offshore waters.
                      Do not handle (even with gloves),
   PREVENTION
                             especially near tip.
                       Poisonous, dart-like mechanism
 INJURY MECHANISM       near tip used for stunning and
                         killing fish and invertebrates.
                      Stinging, burning pain, numbness,
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
                            coma or cardiac arrest.
                        Scrub the wound. Get medical
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                         help for severe reactions.
                               Stinging limu


   COMMON HABITAT     shallow to deep offshore waters.


   PREVENTION                   Do not handle


 INJURY MECHANISM               Stinging cells


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS      persistent itching or skin rash
                      Wash skin with soap & water, use
FIRST AID TREATMENT   rubbing alcohol, hydrocortisone,
                                 Benadryl
                                    Coral

  COMMON HABITAT                    All depths.
                      Protect feet while tide pooling or reef
   PREVENTION         walking. Don't touch coral. Stay out of
                              rough shallow waters.
                        Sharp edges cause abrasions and
 INJURY MECHANISM
                                  lacerations.
                       Bleeding, torn skin causing irritation,
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
                                   mild swelling.

                      Stop any bleeding with pressure, clean
                       thoroughly with soap and water. Get
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                         medical help for deep cuts and
                               embedded pieces.
                                                Box Jellyfish
COMMON HABITAT: Very common in all
water bodies. Box jellyfish regularly swarm
to Hawaii's Leeward shores 9 to 10 days
after the full moon. Carybdea alata cause
the most "trouble" for humans in Hawai`i.

PREVENTION: Don't go into areas where sighted, or if dead
ones are seen on the beach. Observe posted signs.

INJURY MECHANISM: Stinging tentacles.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Stinging, burning, redness, swelling of
lymph nodes. Severe reaction: difficulty with breathing and
cardiac arrest. Occasional long welt lines.

FIRST AID TREATMENT: Douse with vinegar. Apply ice for pain.
IMMEDIATE medical attention may be required for severe
reactions.
                                   Moray eel

                       Rocky areas, in holes, under
   COMMON HABITAT      rocks, crevices and tide pool
                                  ledges.
                     Keep hands out of rocky areas,
                     holes and crevices. Use stick to
    PREVENTION
                      probe. Dead fish, blood or bait
                    will bring them out of their holes.
 INJURY MECHANISM   Razor sharp teeth, powerful jaws.
                         Bleeding, severe muscle
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS    damage, but more commonly
                        tendon and nerve damage.
                       Stop bleeding with pressure,
FIRST AID TREATMENT  clean thoroughly. Get medical
                      help (guard against infection).
                                     Needle fish

                         Near surface in bay areas and open
    COMMON HABITAT                     waters.

   PREVENTION          Use caution when night lighting/fishing.

 INJURY MECHANISM                  Long pointed jaw.

                       Pointed jaw may puncture and break off
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
                             leaving a puncture wound.


                          If point doesn't break off, clean with
                      antiseptic if stabbed. If point breaks off do
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                         not remove it. Stop any bleeding with
                      pressure. Get medical help immediately!
                           Portuguese Man-O-War
                                  Jellyfish

                      Open ocean. Bays and beaches during strong
   COMMON HABITAT
                                   onshore winds.

                         Avoid areas where they frequent. Usually
   PREVENTION         found when winds blow in from the ocean onto
                               land. Observe posted signs.

 INJURY MECHANISM            Long blue, threadlike tentacles.

                      Stinging, burning, redness, swelling of lymph
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS        nodes. Severe reaction: difficulty with
                      breathing and cardiac arrest. Long welt lines.

                      Pick off any visible tentacles. Rinse with fresh
                      or salt water. Apply ice for pain. IMMEDIATE
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                         medical attention may be required for
                                    severe reactions.
                              Scorpion Fish
    COMMON HABITAT
                     Protected ledges, rocky areas, and
                           shallow inshore areas.
                     Do not handle. Keep out of crevices
  PREVENTION
                     and places into which you can't see.
INJURY MECHANISM     Toxic dorsal, pelvic, and anal spines.
                         Punctured skin, extreme pain,
                        throbbing for hours. Sometimes
   SIGNS AND
                      convulsions and cardiac arrest; but
   SYMPTOMS
                      rarely, in Hawai`i, such very serious
                                    reactions.
                       Immerse in hot water to tolerance.
    FIRST AID
                         Get medical help for serious
   TREATMENT
                          reactions or for infection.
                              Yellow Bellied
                               Sea Snake

                      Seldom found in Hawaiian waters.
   COMMON HABITAT
                       If sighted stay clear, leave the
   PREVENTION             area. Report to the Waikiki
                                  Aquarium
 INJURY MECHANISM           Venom through fangs.
                        Paralysis, severe pain, cardiac
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
                                    arrest.

                      Keep the victim calm and warm.
                      Transport to a medical facility or
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                         call 911 for an ambulance,
                               IMMEDIATELY.
                                 Sea Urchin

                     Shallow reef areas to 100 foot
  COMMON HABITAT
                                  depths.
                     Wear foot protection. Don't walk
    PREVENTION      on rocky areas with poor visibility.
                              Do not handle!
 INJURY MECHANISM    Long, extremely brittle spines.
                         Throbbing pain. Purplish
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
                               discoloration.
                       Pull out protruding spines. If
                       spines(s) is/are in a joint,
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                        nerve, or when wound is
                      infected - get medical help.
                                    Sharks
COMMON                   Shallow inshore waters to open
HABITAT                                 ocean.
                       Avoid murky waters. Leave water
                       if sighted, if you have an open cut
      PREVENTION
                        or are pulling a string of speared
                           fish. Try not to look like food.
                          Jaws and rows of razor sharp
  INJURY MECHANISM     teeth. Abrasions from sandpaper-
                                      like skin.
                           Severe bleeding, injury to or
 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS       excision of muscle, bone and
                                    appendages.
                         Control bleeding with pressure.
                        Transport to medical facility or
 FIRST AID TREATMENT
                         call 911 for an ambulance for
                            severe shark attack bites.
                                    Stingray


  COMMON HABITAT
                       Shallow, sandy areas to deep oceans.

                         Shuffle feet when walking in shallow
   PREVENTION          inshore waters. Stay clear of disturbed
                           (swimming) ray. Do Not Molest!
                        Tail with poisonous barb near base of
 INJURY MECHANISM
                                         body.
                      Lacerations and severe pain. Punctures in
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS      abdomen or chest are very serious - a
                                  medical emergency.
                       Stop any bleeding, clean thoroughly with
                         mild soap and water. Immerse in hot
                       water to tolerance for pain. Get medical
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                      treatment for deep cuts and embedded
                         barb pieces. Do not try to remove
                         pieces yourself - get medical help.
                              Surgeonfish

  COMMON HABITAT       Wave zone to 150 foot depths.
   PREVENTION              Take care in handling.
                      Spine and knife-like razors near
 INJURY MECHANISM
                                    tail.
                      Throbbing pain, itching, bleeding
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
                              and numbness.
                      Stop bleeding with pressure, clean
                       thoroughly with soap and water.
                      Get medical treatment for deep
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                         cuts and embedded spine
                        pieces. Do not try to remove
                              pieces yourself.
                              Tube Worm

  COMMON HABITAT            Shallow reef areas.
                        Use protective footwear and
   PREVENTION
                                  gloves.
                      Hardened, razor sharp opening to
 INJURY MECHANISM
                              worm's shelter.
                        Circular cut with fragments that
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
                         may be embedded. Bleeding.
                      Stop bleeding with pressure, clean
                       thoroughly with soap and water.
                      Get medical treatment for deep
FIRST AID TREATMENT
                      cuts and embedded pieces. Do
                           not try to remove pieces
                                    yourself.
Box jellyfish have been known to kill people
within three minutes, blue-ringed octopus
in 30 minutes and pufferfish (eaten) in 17
minutes.

You are more likely to die from a box
jellyfish sting than a shark attack. Reef
sharks are not normally aggressive to
humans but should be treated with respect.
Do not carry bleeding fish and avoid
swimming after dark.

				
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