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					           Management Styles
                   Overview
   External variables affecting management
                       style
               Internal variables

       Managerial perspectives revisited

                Strategic choice

              Management styles

               The Irish context
Management Style
 …the distinctive approaches, policies &
    practices which organisations may
 adopt in the management of I.R. issues.

What seems reactive is often guided by
 implicit management philosophy.
External          Internal
Variables         Variables
                 
          
Managerial Perspective
          
   Strategic choice
          
  Management style
Internal Variables
• Managerial ideology

• Business strategy

• Size/structure

• Current workforce
  External Variables
• Economic climate
• Government/EU policy
• Cultural/societal values (U.S.A. V‟s
  Japan)
• Labour market (nature & size)
• Product market (monopoly V‟s
  competition)
Frames of Reference

         - Unitarist

         - Pluralist

         - Marxist
Strategic Decisions

     Nature of Business
       Location of plant
         Recruitment
   Training & development
   Management techniques
     management styles
1.   Traditionalist
      - oppose unions
      - little attention to employee needs
2.   Sophisticated Paternalist
      - emphasises employee needs
      - discourages unionism
      - demands loyalty & commitment
(Purcell & Sisson 1983)
3.   Sophisticated Modern
      - accepts T.U. role within limits
      - encourages direct dealing
4.   Standard Modern
      - accepts T.U. role
      - no overall strategy - „fire fighting‟
Key Dimensions
         1. Collectivism

        2. Individualism

     3. Strategic Integration
    Collectivism
 ….extent to which management acknowledges
       the right of employees to collective
                 representations.

-------------------------------------------------------
LOW                                        HIGH
(unitarist)                                (pluralist)
no co-operation                            co-operation
Individualism
    ….extent to which the company seeks to
      develop & encourage each employees
                 capacity & role.

--------------------------------------------------------
LOW                                               HIGH
Employee = commodity Employee = resource

Individualism/collectivism are not necessarily in
  opposition.
     Strategic Integration
 …degree to which I.R. issues are part of strategic
     decision making and the degree to which
  decisions on I.R. are linked to business strategy.

LOW                                               HIGH
-----------------------------------------------------------
Traditional            Business-led               Strategic
“reactive”           “dependent”               “integral”
Historically
Philosophy – very pluralist
Practice - high collectivism
          - low individualism
          - low strategic integration

Style - Traditionalist
Today
Philosophy – still pluralist
Practice - collectivism not so high
          - individualism on the up
          - strategic integ. on the up

Style – towards Sophisticated Modern
    Historically…
• HRM issues rarely concerned strategic
  decision makers

• Reliance on adversarial collective
  bargaining

• Personnel policies short-term & reactive
  with little link to business policy
• I.R. primary personnel role

• High levels union density

• Highly developed collective bargaining
  locally
   Modern Approaches
Move towards employee-relations styles
which incorporate HRM:
 - Traditional HRM (“soft”)
 - I.R. plus HRM (“dualism”)
 - Strategic HRM (business-led)

Degree of change depends on type of HRM
 adopted
So what is the connection
between IR & HRM??
IR = nature & regulation of employment
  relationship – MACRO View

HRM = the management of the relationship at
 workplace level – MICRO view

Link between the two = Management Styles

				
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