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					                                              Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum

Course:                 02.42400 Veterinary Science
Unit 5:                 Hospital Procedures

Lesson 9a: Dispensing Medications: Lab Exercise on Filling
                              Prescriptions (Pills)

QCC: .................................................................................................................................................
Objectives:

                  1.    Correctly read and interpret a veterinarian’s prescription
                  2.    Correctly calculate dosage and amount of medication to dispense
                  3.    Correctly fill the prescription
                  4.    Correctly label the bottle

Teaching Time:                             90 minutes

References:
Veterinary Science Teachers Guide, First Edition. Cornell University Agricultural
       Resources Program,

Lawhead, James & Baker, MeeCee. Introduction to Veterinary Science. First
     Edition. Thompson Delmar Learning, Inc. Clifton Park, NY.

Materials and Equipment:
      EQUIPMENT

               One small pharmacy bottle (small pill bottle) for each student.
               One pill-counting tray for each four students
               One plastic knife for each student (for counting pills)
               Nine large plastic bottles with caps.

      MATERIALS

             Candy: M&M’s, Skittles, or Reece’s Pieces of the following colors: Black,
              white, orange, green, red, brown, and yellow.
             Bulk containers of candy sorted by color and labeled as follows:
                      o Rimadal – 50 mg
                      o Prednisone – 30 mg
                      o Tetracycline – 100 mg
                    Course: 02.42400                     Veterinary Science                              Unit 5, Lesson 9a
                                                            May 2007                                                                                1
                                Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum

                   o Amoxicillin – 25 mg
                   o Atropine – 250 mg
                   o Baytril – 50 mg

       Index cards containing prescriptions by the veterinarian – one per student
       Example bottle labels for students to follow – one per student
       Blank bottle labels – printed on 2X4 stick-on labels (students complete
        label, peel off the sheet, and stick on the bottle)

   SAFETY

       While the medication is candy, students should not eat it due to the fact
        that it has come in contact with containers and equipment which might
        contain unhealthy residues.
       Wash your hands thoroughly with soap before and after completing this
        exercise.


TEACHING PROCEDURE

Introduction and Mental Set

Preparation

      Prior to this lab students should have learned and demonstrated competency
      in the basic mathematical operation of calculating dosages using
      dimensional analysis.

      Prior to this lab students should have demonstrated the ability to correctly
      complete a prescription label.

      Prior to class, set out bulk containers, pill counting trays, plastic knives, and
      prescription bottles in the “dispensary” lab station.

Mental Set

Imagine you took your sick dog to the veterinarian and he gave you a bottle of pills
to give the dog at home. When you got home you discovered the bottle contained
no label. You have no idea how many pills to give the dog each day nor how long
to give the medication. What would you do? Would you continue to take your
animals to that clinic?




             Course: 02.42400          Veterinary Science                  Unit 5, Lesson 9a
                                          May 2007                                             2
                               Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum

Imagine you are a veterinary technician and are filling a prescription for a client.
Why is it important to get it right?

   1. The medication is expensive and the client doesn’t want to buy any more
      than necessary.
   2. What happens if you give the client too much medication?
   3. What happens if you underfill the prescription and don’t give the client
      enough medication?
   4. What happens if you don’t label the bottle properly?
   5. What happens if the medication is a controlled substance and inspectors find
      a discrepancy between the number of pills in the bulk container and the
      prescriptions?

Veterinary clinics do not have access to pharmacies like human doctors. Clinic
staff must carefully and accurately fill prescriptions and properly label bottles so that
clients are giving the proper medication to their animals according to instructions of
the veterinarian.

Discussion (Review)

   Dispensing medication requires knowledge of math and the laws that govern
   how a medication is packaged and labeled. Just as in human medicine, it is
   critical that medication is given in the right amount and that the directions for the
   client are clear and correct.

   1. Correctly read and interpret a veterinarian’s prescription

        Review veterinarian abbreviations:

                 OD – once per day
                 BID – two times per day
                 TID – three times per day
                 QID – four times per day

        Review dosage concentrations

               Medications in pill form are typically labeled in bulk containers
                according to the concentration of active ingredient in milligrams per
                table.
               Ex: Amoxicillin 25 mg: Each amoxicillin tablet contains 25 mg of
                active ingredient

        Review reading a prescription


            Course: 02.42400          Veterinary Science                  Unit 5, Lesson 9a
                                         May 2007                                             3
                                Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum

                Prescription reads: 100 mg Baytril – BID – 7 days
                Interpretation: give animal 100 mg of Baytril twice per day for
                 seven days.

   2. Correctly calculate dosage and amount of medication to dispense
      using dimensional analysis:

                                 100 mg Baytril – BID – 7 days

           100 mg X 1 tablet = 2 tabs X 2 times/day X 7 days = 28 tablets
                    50 mg

   3. Correctly fill the prescription

       Locate the correct bulk container (make sure it is the right one)
       Pour out a quantity of pills into the pill tray
       Using a spatula or plastic knife, count the correct number of pills into the
        dispenser.
       Pour leftover pills back into the bulk container and recap.
       Pour pills to dispense into the prescription bottle and cap.

   4. Correctly label the bottle

      Every medication label is required by law to include:

      1. Name of veterinarian, address, phone, clinic name
      2. Patient’s name and species. (ex. Fido – Canine) Owner’s name also
         should be included.
      3. Name of medication, concentration, and number of units dispensed
      4. Directions for use, including route of administration (ex. orally)
      5. Dosing interval (ex. TID for 5 days)
      6. Date
      7. Warning statement: For Veterinary Use Only
      8. Additional special instructions should be included when necessary (ex. do
         not give to pregnant dogs)

Activity

       Demonstrate for students how to properly use the pill counting tray to
        count tablets and pour into prescription bottles.
       Give each student an index card on which is written the prescription they
        are to fill.
       Students are to calculate the dosage and number of tablets to dispense
        before going to the “dispensary”.

             Course: 02.42400          Veterinary Science                  Unit 5, Lesson 9a
                                          May 2007                                             4
                                Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum

        When dosage has been calculated students go to the “dispensary” and:

                  Select the correct bulk container
                  Count the pills and place in the prescription bottles
                  Write out the label correctly, peel, and stick on the bottle.
                  Turn the card and bottle in for a grade.

SUMMARY

Evaluation

 Prescription Card (total of 100 points)

   o 50 points for correct answer (calculated number of tablets)
   o 25 points for correct procedure (use of dimensional analysis)
   o 25 points for showing work

 Prescription bottle (total of 100 points)

   o 35 points for correct color (denotes correct medication)
   o 35 points for correct count (empty each bottle and count all tablets)
   o 30 points for correct label (deduct 5 points for each major part missing or
     incorrect using discussion item number 4 above).




             Course: 02.42400          Veterinary Science                  Unit 5, Lesson 9a
                                          May 2007                                             5

				
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