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                               Project Title:   Improving water productivity, reducing poverty and enhancing equity in mixed crop-livestock systems in the Indo-Gangetic
                                                Basin


                                 Brief Title:   Water productivity in Crop-Livestock Systems




                 Priority being addressed:      C




                    What is your research       Our research question is what technical and management options exist and can be exploited to improve water productivity, reduce poverty
                                                and increase equity in mixed-crop livestock systems?




                 Your overall project goal      Optimize productive use of water in mixed crop-livestock systems in order to sustain livelihoods, reduce poverty, improve gender equity,
                 (problem) is therefore to:     and protect the environment in the semi-arid areas of the Indo-Gangetic Basin.




                          Project Duration      2 years

                   Target Commence Date         Jul-07

                                Finish Date:    Jun-09


                   Validity Period of your      The proposal is valid for implementation until a starting date of July 2008




                     Opening of Financial       NO




                CPWF Benchmark basin:           Indo-Gangetic River Basin



            Estimated coverage of CPWF
                                   themes:
                  Crop Water Productivity                          50%
                  Improvement (Theme 1)
                       Water and People in                         30%
                    Catchments (Theme 2)
                  Aquatic Ecosystems and                          N.A.
                       Fisheries (Theme 3)
                    Integrated Basin Water                         10%
             Management Systems (Theme
                                        4)
             Global and National Food and                          10%
                 Water System (Theme 5)


                        PROJECT TEAM            1. Madar Samad (Project Leader), Principal Scientist, Policy and Institutions, Gender; and Soil and Agroecosystem Sciences, IWMI, c/o
                                                ICRISAT, Patancheru, Hyderabad, India <m.samad@cgiar.org>
                                                2. Deborah Bossio, Theme Leader and Principal Soil Scientist, IWMI P.O. Box 2075 Colombo, Sri Lanka <d.bossio@cgiar.org>
                                                3. Michael Blummel, Leader Global Operating Project “Mitigation of Feed Scarcity; ILRI, c/o ICRISAT, Patancheru, AP 502 324, India:
                                                Tel +91 40 3071 3653; email: m.blummel@cgiar.org
                                                4. Amitav Dey, Senior Scientist, ICAR, ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, WALMI, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar, India-801505
                                                <amitavdey_icar@yahoo.co.in>
                                                5. D. Narendranath, Rural Management, Rural Poverty and Livelihoods, PRADAN, 3, Community Shopping Centre, Niti Bagh, New Delhi
                                                – 110 049, India <naren@pradan.net>
                                                6. Girish Ghanashyam Sohoni, Executive Director, BAIF, 11 A, Vasant Vihan Housing Society, Karve Road, Kothrud, Pune 411 029, India
                                                <gimate@rediffmail.com>


                                                Notes on changes: Dr Samad is a specialist in rural institutions and policy, with experience in gender and livelihood analysis. He replaces
                                                Dr. Phansalkar who has left IWMI, and increases the capacity of the team for institutions and gender analysis.
                                   3. Michael Blummel, Leader Global Operating Project “Mitigation of Feed Scarcity; ILRI, c/o ICRISAT, Patancheru, AP 502 324, India:
                                   Tel +91 40 3071 3653; email: m.blummel@cgiar.org
                                   4. Amitav Dey, Senior Scientist, ICAR, ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, WALMI, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar, India-801505
(attach CVs in the TECHNICAL       <amitavdey_icar@yahoo.co.in>
  response screen using the file   5. D. Narendranath, Rural Management, Rural Poverty and Livelihoods, PRADAN, 3, Community Shopping Centre, Niti Bagh, New Delhi
    name: "<Project Title> CV" )   – 110 049, India <naren@pradan.net>
                                   6. Girish Ghanashyam Sohoni, Executive Director, BAIF, 11 A, Vasant Vihan Housing Society, Karve Road, Kothrud, Pune 411 029, India
                                   <gimate@rediffmail.com>


                                   Notes on changes: Dr Samad is a specialist in rural institutions and policy, with experience in gender and livelihood analysis. He replaces
                                   Dr. Phansalkar who has left IWMI, and increases the capacity of the team for institutions and gender analysis.
                                PROJECT SUMMARY


                                Poverty is high in smallholder mixed crop-livestock systems in the semi-arid areas of the IG Basin, and throughout the developing world. In
                                these areas, water scarcity is a principle constraint, and available water is used ineffectively, partly because livestock are poorly managed
                                and continue to be ignored in water policy decisions and development programs. The project will focus on biophysical optimization,
                                resource governance, and gender equity. It will apply a water productivity framework to diagnosis entry points for intervention. It will
                                develop technically feasible, institutionally sustainable options, that take into account demands on women’s time and labor, and promote
                                these among policymakers, managers, and farmers via workshops, targeted publications, and manuals. International public goods outputs
                                will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications, and via on-line and other media.

                                This project builds upon the on-going CPWF research project ‘Nile Basin Livestock Water Productivity,’ which is the first of its kind,
                                assessing basin level impact of livestock on water resources. It provides a practical framework for understanding the total water needs of
                                livestock. We will adapt and modify this framework for mixed crop-livestock systems within the Indian context; apply this framework at
                                action research sites to identify the most promising entry points to improve water productivity; assess the impact of potential interventions
                                on gender and poverty; and develop actionable policy recommendations. We will integrate knowledge gained from the project in Africa to
                                inform interventions designed for India, thus enabling the final outputs to have increased value as global public goods.

                                To select representative systems and contextualize the results in the basin, the project builds upon a ILRI-CIMMYT scoping study ‘Crop-
                                livestock interactions in the Trans-Gangetic Plains’ that assessed crop-livestock interactions from a livelihoods perspective, and mapped
                                spatial and seasonal diversity of crop-livestock interactions. Study sites will focus on four zones in the IGB as defined in basin priority
                                setting (upper catchments, mid Gangetic plains, lower Gangetic plains, and the western IGB.) Through NGO partners, study sites will be
                                chosen to include on-going development projects that can benefit directly from project insights and recommendations. Thus the project is
                                designed to have potential for immediate impact through improvement of these existing programs, as well as wider potential impact through
                                intervention at the policy level.

                                The chain of impact is envisioned to follow three pathways. First development programs can be designed to better address intermediate
                                problems such as scarcity of feeds and fodder, and inadequate management of livestock through improved understanding of livestock water
                                needs within mixed systems, and policy support for integration of crop-livestock water needs. This can in turn result in increased land and
                                water productivity and reduced poverty. Second, identification of specific entry points for optimized water use and improved governance
                                structures for water within mixed systems can address intermediate problems such as competition for land and water resources. In addition
                                we directly address a problem related to linking interventions to poverty alleviation, that is the need to understand linkages between
                                women’s access to resources and poverty alleviation at the household level.

                                ________________________________________________________________________

                                TEXT SECTION: 6000 word count starts                                  5979                          words in total
                                ________________________________________________________________________
                                PROJECT OVERVIEW (attach bibliography at Annex B)

Background and justification:   Farming systems of most smallscale and marginal farmers, including the landless, in the Indo-Gangetic basin (IGB) is a multi-enterprise
                                livelihood system that combines agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture provides the households with subsistence food needs and
                                seasonal income. Livestock play a critical role in providing draught power, supplementing household nutrition, income security, cooking
                                fuel, and an important source of fertilizer for crops. Adequate supplies of water are essential to maintain or improve productivity for both the
                                crop and livestock enterprises. Yet, until recently, there has been little systematic research to assess the interrelationships between crop
                                production and livestock farming, especially in the context of the growing competition for water and land resources in the region.

                                The profound neglect of the water-land nexus in these systems and associated social, economic and policy issues, have been highlighted in
                                recent broad analyses of crop-livestock systems in South Asia. (Paris, 2002; Parthasarathy Rao et al., 2005; Parthasarathy Rao and Hall,
                                2003; Thomas et al., 2002).

                                In semi-arid regions of the IGB, the productivity of both the crop and livestock enterprises is very low, partly because water-crop-livestock
                                linkages are ignored. The lack of integration of the multiple needs for water (particularly for growing crops and feeding and watering
                                livestock) often results in inefficient water use and low productivity of crop and livestock (van Koppen et al., 2005). It is essential that
                                policy and institutional instruments enable poor farmers to make effective and productive use of agricultural and livestock water if they are
                                to overcome poverty. The fact that water management and governance systems in much of the arid and semi-arid IGB are largely informal
                                often leads to significant constraints in planning, decision-making and regulating of water use and allocation. In a study spanning fourteen
                                Indian states, Phansalkar (2006) found that poor farm households did not have assured access to water for supporting their livestock
                                production, negatively affecting household income and nutrition. Furthermore and poor livestock management significantly contribute to
                                land degradation (Hurni, 1990).

                                Traditionally, water needs of livestock have been underestimated. Only drinking water requirements of animals have been considered
                                (National Commission on Integrated Water Resources Development, 1999). Recently water needed to produce livestock feed have received
                                attention. (Singh 2004, Chapagain and Hoekstra 2003, Delgado et al 2003, Zender and Reller 2002). It is estimated that one Tropical
                                Livestock Unit requires 5 kg of dry matter per day. Depending on the type of feed, approximately 1.5m3 of water per day is needed to
                                produce this dry matter (SIWI et al., 2005). ILRI and IWMI developed an analytical and conceptual framework to help understand how
                                efficiently or productively livestock use water (Annex B, Figure 1). This framework will provide the integrating principle allowing
                                comparisons of the use of food-feed crops in the research areas for this study.

                                This project aims to integrate livestock food and water needs into broader agriculture and water interventions in ways that are poverty- and
                                gender-focused, and can minimize land degradation. The problems of poor integration of livestock and crop water needs will be assessed
                                both at the farm and institutional levels to provide a detailed insight into changes required at various tiers of local governance.

                                This study will focus on the semi-arid parts of the Indo-Gangetic basin to the South and West of the Ganges, including the States of Bihar,
                                Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and possibly Haryana. Research sites will be those generally dependent on rain fed
                                farming with supplemenatry groundwater irrigation. Livestock here have been observed to depend substantially on biomass on common
                                lands with crop residues and crop-by products (Phansalkar, 2006). In recent years, the availablity and quality of commons is continiously
                                declining.
                               This project aims to integrate livestock food and water needs into broader agriculture and water interventions in ways that are poverty- and
                               gender-focused, and can minimize land degradation. The problems of poor integration of livestock and crop water needs will be assessed
                               both at the farm and institutional levels to provide a detailed insight into changes required at various tiers of local governance.

                               This study will focus on the semi-arid parts of the Indo-Gangetic basin to the South and West of the Ganges, including the States of Bihar,
                               Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and possibly Haryana. Research sites will be those generally dependent on rain fed
                               farming with supplemenatry groundwater irrigation. Livestock here have been observed to depend substantially on biomass on common
                               lands with crop residues and crop-by products (Phansalkar, 2006). In recent years, the availablity and quality of commons is continiously
                               declining.

                               The ILRI Scoping Study that assessed and mapped crop-livestock interactions reveals that mixed crop-livestock systems (CLS) dominate the
                               rain fed zones of the Indo-Gangetic basin. A brief overview of this information is synthesized in Annex B, Table 1. This study will expand
                               on both the areas and the information base of the ILRI scoping study to provide a more detailed and representative picture of the basin. The
                               key outcome of this study will be the development of a water-productivity framework for mixed crop-livestock systems in the different
                               representative regions of the Basin. Following the livelihoods approach, the study will assess inter- and intra-household water-livestock-crop
                               livelihood strategies and outcomes, as well as policy and institutional strategies that enable productive and environmentally sustainable
                               livelihoods.

                               This study will address identified gaps in information including:

                               • The impacts of irrigation development and other agricultural intensification efforts on livestock-environment interactions
                               • The inter-relations of environmental and social (poverty and gender) impacts of low productivity, unsustainable mixed crop-livestock
                               systems
                               • Local informal governance arrangements for water, grazing land, and feed production, synergies and conflict resolution for integration in
                               overall livelihood strategies
                               • The interface of the informal with formal governance structures at intermediate levels, support requirements from governmental and non-
                               governmental support structures
                               • The feasibility of scaling up development interventions at the local level

                               Additionally, the study identifies the challenges in dissemination of research results to real farm situations, uptake of technologies by
                               relevant agencies, and the potential for research to effectively promote policy change, given differing local governance cultures and politics.




Project Goal (your vision of   Improved livelihood security, reduced inequity and improved environmental security through optimized productivity of water within crop-
                the future):   livestock systems in semi-arid areas of the IGB.




 Project Objectives (attach    General objective: to improve capacity and provide knowledge of water resource needs and governance in mixed crop-livestock systems in
 objective tree at Annex C)    arid to semi-arid regions of the IGB.

                               The first objective of the project is to ‘Improve the understanding of total water needs of crops and livestock in CLS’. This will be done by
                               developing tools and principles in the form of a water productivity framework for understanding water needs in CLS and developing
                               credible estimates of water needs under various CLS systems. These tools will be in the hands of NARES and NGO boundary partners who
                               collaborate in their development. The second objective is to ‘Identify institutional and governance arrangements that support integration of
                               crop and livestock water needs for enhanced livelihoods in CLS’. This will improve the understanding of how to equitably integrate crop
                               and livestock water needs in water governance structures. Again the research will be undertaken with NARES and NGO boundary partners
                               to imbed this knowledge at that level. Taken together, Objective 1 and 2, make it possible for improved management to be adopted, and
                               water planning and governance to be strengthened for beneficial impact on the poor. These objectives address the profound lack of
                               understanding of both the true extent of livestock water needs, and how local institutions and governance affect water use in these mixed
                               systems.

                               Following this emphasis on setting the necessary platform and understanding with regards to the potential to improve productivity in CLS
                               through increased water productivity, the project’s third objective is to show how, by ‘Identifing specific entry points and methods for
                               integrating livestock and crop production to optimize water productivity.’ Objective 4 ensures that all management options will be evaluated
                               for gender, livelihood and poverty impacts. Outputs under these objectives will identify gaps, and engage communities, including in
                               particular small holder farmers, women and the landless, in solution identification. These practical recommendation-oriented objectives will
                               be achieved through applied research in collaboration with NARES and NGO partners. Through this work they will have both increased
                               capacity and practical knowledge to implement positive change.

                               Objective 5, ‘Increase capacity and develop policy, technology and governance recommendations for improving water productivity in CLS’
                               is a broader objective aimed at bringing improved appreciation of livestock and their water needs to policy and develoment levels;
                               integrating poverty and gender issues at local, insititutional and policy levels; and demonstrating positive outcomes of interventions. This
                               will be achieved through integration and synthesis of technological and governance outputs and research findings, and translation of
                               research for dissemination pathways.

                               Immediate outcomes include increased understanding and capacity amongst project partners and participants at various institutional levels.
                               It is hoped that this will result in intermediate outcomes such as: adoption of improved management by development agencies, both
                               governmental and non governmental; inclusion of gender and poverty dimension in water resource planning; and adoption of strategic policy
                               options. In the long term influencing planning, policies, and knowledge of improved management options will result in increased
                               productivity of livestock, water and land; more equitable access to water resources; and mitigation of land degradation.
                   options. In the long term influencing planning, policies, and knowledge of improved management options will result in increased
                   productivity of livestock, water and land; more equitable access to water resources; and mitigation of land degradation.




Project Outputs.   The project will produce a variety of outputs including participatory analyses; knowledge and information sharing at the farm level
                   (including demonstrated positive piloting of interventions at the household and community levels); capacity building at relevant institutional
                   levels; policy and institutional reforms at local and national levels and international public goods (IPGs). IPGs will primarily focus on tools
                   and analysis related to analyzing options to optimize water productivity in CLS and governance required to support improvements that will
                   be of relevance in other regions, and landscapes.

                   Objective 1. Improve the understanding of total water needs of crops and livestock in CLS

                   Output 1.1: Water Productivity (WP) framework adapted for crop-livestock systems, that can be applied at farm, system or landscape scale
                   for any chosen region of study.
                   Output 1.2 Credible estimates of livestock water needs under various mixed crop-livestock farming systems that can be used for local and
                   regional, planning purposes, and global analysis.

                   Output 1.1 is a tool of special relevance to researchers and academia, since it will provide the conceptual framework for evaluating,
                   communicating and understanding water productivity in CLS. The framework will be applied in this project while undertaking the WP gap
                   analysis (Objective 3). This output will be an international public good disseminated in the form of research reports, and journal articles,
                   and will be presented in scientific fora.

                   Outout 1.2 will be particularly useful for policy planners, water resource use planners, and the international agricultural water community
                   since this will be among the first attempts to formally and credibly estimate water needs for livestock production in a mixed crop-livestock
                   system. The outputs will indicate the share of water for drinking/domestic use and agriculture in the current mode of production and
                   productivity.

                   Objective 2. Identify institutional and governance arrangements that support integration of crop and livestock water needs for enhanced
                   livelihoods in CLS

                   Output 2.1 Map of actors and institutions and their relationships within the context of mixed enterprise livelihood and water use and access
                   arrangements

                   Output 2.2 Identified improvements in institutional arrangements and support by governmental and non-governmental organizations

                   The above outputs will include case study reports and inventory of institutional profiles for study sites. Outputs 2.1 and 2.2 will inlcude also
                   synthesis of study site information into a framework for understanding institutional requirement that enable effective governance of water
                   resources. Analysis will identify who can influence water resource development decisions and will permit better targeting of dissemination
                   messages in output 5. Intermediate products will include maps of actors and institutions, their linkages and effectiveness. Outputs will target
                   in particular development planners and implementation agents.

                   Objective 3. Identify specific entry points and methods for integrating livestock and crop production to optimize water productivity

                   Output 3.1: WP gap analysis for study areas that will identify entry points for improved WP
                   Output 3.2: Methodologies for engaging communities, and in particular small farmer and landless households (separately for women and
                   men) in problem identification and designing community action.

                   Activities under output 3.1 will result in concrete actionable recommendations for interventions in crop-livestock systems that can improve
                   WP, and result in increased livestock products. Outputs will be targeted at development planners, experts and donors, national and local
                   agricultural agencies and local, national, and regional decision makers.

                   Activities for output 3.2 will supplement 3.1, by working with communities and incorporating the view from grass roots in the process. Thus
                   the output helps to combine community wisdom, in particular - specific experiences and perspectives with scientific recommendations and
                   adds value to Objective 3. Case study examples will be presented in formats for extension and village audiences and more generic articles
                   will be produced, and a simplified version of the WP framwork will be developed into a ‘game’ through which NGO practitioners in
                   particular can use to communicate with farmers.

                   Objective 4. Evaluate gender, livelihood and poverty impacts of technology and management options for CLS

                   Output 4.1 Technology and management options for crop-livestock systems that promote both efficiency and equity across and within
                   households, i.e. technical options that promote livelihood security for the poorest and promote gender equitable interventions and outcomes

                   Improving the gender and poverty impacts of any proposed interventions to optimize productive use of water is essential for development
                   planners, policy makers and investors who aim to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor. Outputs will take several forms including –
                   discussion, practical dissemination, and uptake of study outcomes at local levels and articles for local popular press and global standard
                   journals.

                   Objective 5. Increase capacity and develop policy, technology and governance recommendations for improving water productivity in CLS

                   Output 5.1 Training and capacity building
                   Output 5.2 Integration and synthesis of technological , governance, and research findings
                   Output 5.3 Translation of research for dissemination pathways

                   Outputs 5.1-5.2 will result from the process of participatory action research and synthesis of knowledge derived from other objectives. The
                   end users are policy makers at the intermediate, state, and international levels, and outputs will include dissemination workshops at local
                   levels and policy briefs aimed at wider audiences.
                               Output 5.3 Translation of research for dissemination pathways

                               Outputs 5.1-5.2 will result from the process of participatory action research and synthesis of knowledge derived from other objectives. The
                               end users are policy makers at the intermediate, state, and international levels, and outputs will include dissemination workshops at local
                               levels and policy briefs aimed at wider audiences.




Gantt Chart (attach Chart at   Refer to Annex D Gantt chart
                   Annex D)




  Activities and methodology   Project activities will use a variety of approaches, biophysical and social, and focus on applied on-farm and community based research,
                               supported by synthesis activities. The study will also include institutional and policy profiling of relevant agencies in CLS. The
                               methodologies build on assessment and model development activities already undertaken by IWMI and ILRI and on tools tested and piloted
                               elsewhere. Activities will primarily be undertaken as a set of interlinking MSc projects, with direct involvement of local partners to design
                               and implement the studies, and senior researchers to guide the work and synthesize results.

                               An inception meeting will be held to finalize research sites; develop and coordinate partners’ work plans; identify pathways for research
                               uptake and finalize partner subcontracts. Key issues in this process will include plans to ensure appropriate community participation,
                               dissemination and policy support throughout the project cycle. Two other workshops are planned, one after completion of data collection in
                               relation to Outputs 1 and 2, to share and get critical input from various stakeholders as we move into further field work aimed at generation
                               of concrete recommendations. Workshops and some milestones are reflected in the Gantt Chart (Annex D) as outputs I to VI.

                               A framework of potential research sites is outlined in Table 1 (Annex B). Research locations will be finalized through an initial inception
                               workshop in the form of a ‘Partners’ Meet’ where relevant project stakeholders will assess the appropriateness of locations and identify
                               relevant research/information gaps. The areas identified will exemplify biophysical, farming system and institutional environments found in
                               specific regions of the IGB (Table 1). In general, project activities will be undertaken at sites where INRM work is underway as a part of
                               development and investment programs, thus allowing immediate uptake and adding value to existing programs. The research locations will
                               represent a variety of soil and water conservation measures, in combination with various livestock feeding and management interventions.
                               Based on the study findings, recommendations and pilot interventions may include for example, hillside terracing, check dams combined
                               with fodder production in association with area closures, or improved animal feeding systems and improved markets.

                               Objective 1. Improve the understanding of total water needs of crops and livestock in CLS (ILRI, IWMI, ICAR)

                               Activity 1.1 Adapt livestock WP framework for practical use in water-scarce mixed crop-livestock systems.

                               In this activity the WP framework (Peden et al. 2006) will be adapted for specific crop-livestock systems and used to identify an appropriate
                               mix of key INRM interventions that will increase overall agricultural water productivity and mitigate wasteful depletion of water resources
                               and associated degradation of land and soil resources.

                               Activity 1.2 Credible estimates of livestock water needs under various mixed crop-livestock farming systems that can be used for local and
                               regional, planning purposes, and global analysis prepared.

                               The livestock WP framework will be modeled for a set of traditional and improved systems using key variables that differentiate various
                               crop-livestock farming systems. Estimates of WP for these key variables will be made by reference to literature and other livestock and
                               water studies being undertaken by IWMI and ILRI in Africa. These variables may include:
                               • Amount of water (evapo-transpiration) for forage and food/feed crops
                               • Amount of water used for improved systems determined by crop and management (tillage, planting density, mulching)
                               • Amount and quality of feed given to the livestock
                               • Amount and value of animal products and services produced

                               Objective 2. Identify institutional and governance arrangements that support integration of crop and livestock water needs for enhanced
                               livelihoods in CLS (IWMI, ILRI)

                               Detailed studies of how land and mainly water resources are currently governed will be done. This will involve research of existing socio-
                               economic contexts and the match between the formal and informal governance of the resources. Special attention will be paid to village
                               water bodies which are used as multiple-use resources in the region. The studies will use a combination of appropriate social science
                               research tools: participatory approaches, focused group discussions, case study approach and survey techniques.

                               While the primary institution active in decision making in the water-livestock nexus in crop-livestock systems is the household, collective
                               community-level arrangements for water management, grazing, and feed production, that are embedded in local authority structures, are
                               equally important (Jeths 2006, Ebato and van Koppen 2005). Outside actors and programs from government and non-governmental agencies
                               such as water users associations; water committees; district, zonal and regional water and irrigation bureaus, also impact on decision making
                               at household and community level. These activities will examine the various actors and institutions that impact water use and livestock
                               keeping decision-making at the household and community level. They will examine the interface between informal and formal
                               arrangements, and among formal structures, and identify governance arrangements that can sustainably enhance livelihoods.

                               Activity 2.1 Identify and map actors and institutions and their relationships

                               In order to identify the main actors and institutions in water use and access decisions, at the various levels, key informant interviews, focus
                               groups discussions, field observations, water resource and grazing land mapping, and structured and semi-structured surveys among small
                               samples will be conducted at the study sites. A Venn diagram of the various institutions, as perceived by women and men, and various
                               categories of resource users will be developed in order to depict, in a visual manner, the linkages and interactions between them.

                               Activity 2.2 Identify improvements in institutional arrangements and support by governmental and non-governmental organizations
arrangements, and among formal structures, and identify governance arrangements that can sustainably enhance livelihoods.

Activity 2.1 Identify and map actors and institutions and their relationships

In order to identify the main actors and institutions in water use and access decisions, at the various levels, key informant interviews, focus
groups discussions, field observations, water resource and grazing land mapping, and structured and semi-structured surveys among small
samples will be conducted at the study sites. A Venn diagram of the various institutions, as perceived by women and men, and various
categories of resource users will be developed in order to depict, in a visual manner, the linkages and interactions between them.

Activity 2.2 Identify improvements in institutional arrangements and support by governmental and non-governmental organizations

Results from recently completed works (e.g., Neubert, 2000; Saleth, et al., 2003; Saleth and Dinar, 2004, Shah 2005; and Van Koppen et al.
2005) yield the necessary analytical and empirical frameworks for evaluating institutions using a mix of observed data as well as
perceptional information derived from an appropriately selected sample of stakeholders, representing informal community-based
arrangements and formal institutions at intermediate and national level. The key feature of the methodology is that it considers stakeholders
as the ‘agents of institutional change’ and their ‘subjective model of the world’ (North, 1990) as an indispensable source of information for
institutional evaluation.

Objective 3. Identify specific entry points and methods for integrating livestock and crop production to optimize water productivity (all
partners)

This objective will be achieved through action research activities undertaken at farm and landscape scale. Tools developed in Output 1 will
be applied in a participatory manner and in the process significant awareness will be built amongst project partners, farmers, and local
authorities, with regards to options for enhancing water productivity through improved livestock management, and impacts on livestock
products. The activities will be undertaken as a two way communication between researchers and stakeholders, and result in capacity
building amongst NARS researchers and other stakeholders for analyzing systems and opportunities, and amongst researchers for better
understanding of crop-livestock systems, and how to communicate research findings.

Activity 3.1. ‘WP gap analysis’ for study areas that will to identify entry points for improved WP

Livestock systems vary across the IGB Basin with major differences found in the types of animals kept, their uses, their productivity, the
sourcing of their feed and drinking water and their impact on the environment. Development projects through local NGOs have also
introduced a variety of innovative practices aimed at increasing livestock productivity and/or reducing land degradation. This activity will
describe in detail the current animal management practices, and provide a semi-quantitative analysis of water productivity under various
management regimes using the WP framework from Output 1. These will serve as a benchmark for comparing anticipated improvements in
WP arising from better use of crop residues and forages, and potential to increase marketable products.

Specific management systems and interventions to be studied will include:
• Feed source strategies
• Livestock management systems (grazing and tethering)
• Land use and water conserving management strategies (soil, crop residue, and manure management)
• Livestock productivity enhancing strategies

Activity 3.2: Methodologies for engaging communities for problem identification and community action

This work will be interactive in nature: suggestions will be made to communities for locally viable options that make for higher water
productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system, after researchers take into account individual and community experiences and perceptions
of water-crop-livestock inter-relations. This includes taking into account potential constraints and/or opportunities related to the suggested
recommendations, especially the impacts from a poverty and gender perspective. Activity 3.1 will thereby be supported by these activities
undertaken at farm and landscape scale. A simplified framework ‘game’ will be developed and used in focus group activities to improve
communication.

Objective 4. Evaluate gender, livelihood and poverty impacts of technology and management options for CLS (IWMI, all partners)

Activity 4.1 Define technology and management options for crop-livestock systems that optimize gender, livelihood, and poverty impacts

Livelihoods analysis carried out by adopting the Gender Sensitive Livelihood Framework (GSLF) developed by Van Hoeve and van Koppen
(2005) will enable an assessment of the potential impacts of suggested technologies on livelihood security and gender equity. This analytical
tool was developed to assess the impacts of livestock water productivity and livelihood assets within a sustainable livelihood framework.
Qualitative data collection methods including participatory tools such as ranking, mapping and time line will be used to assess the changes
in poverty level from the actor’s perception (Wright and Nelson, 1995). Participant observation will be carried out to triangulate the water
use data. Intra-household resource allocation analysis in a selected number of benchmark households will give in-depth insight. The analysis
of data will be both quantitative and qualitative. Stakeholders at different levels will be engaged to identify demand-led strategies and policy
options for promoting gender sensitive technology development, including ways to: reduce the drudgery of water fetching and animal
upkeep, improve human and animal health and productivity, increase food and income security.

Objective 5. Increase capacity and develop policy, technology and governance recommendations for improving water productivity in CLS
(IWMI, all partners)

Activities will produce recommendations that are concrete, actionable, and relevant to policy and decision makers, based on Outputs 1-4. It
is envisioned for example that a clear integrated policy/technology statement on how to balance water use, conservation agriculture, and
animal keeping will be one contribution under output 5. Capacity for continued learning and uptake of recommendations is integral to
project research approach and design. Through these integration and synthesis activities in particular, options will be identified to create
benefits through improved governance of resources by harmonizing livestock, crop and water sector policies and institutions.

Activity 5.1 Training and capacity building

This project is designed to yield significant capacity building in three ways. First national research capacity will be strengthened through
training of students and young scientists. Second, applied and action research activities particularly under outputs 2, 3 and 4 will be
conducted in a participatory manner with significant exchange between researchers, NARS partners, local agents, and farmers. This will
strengthen the capacity of partners to apply new tools and methodologies to problem solving and enhance the capacity of crop-livestock
farmers to innovate and respond to changing water availability. Thirdly, involvement of NARS scientists in development, validation and
                         is envisioned for example that a clear integrated policy/technology statement on how to balance water use, conservation agriculture, and
                         animal keeping will be one contribution under output 5. Capacity for continued learning and uptake of recommendations is integral to
                         project research approach and design. Through these integration and synthesis activities in particular, options will be identified to create
                         benefits through improved governance of resources by harmonizing livestock, crop and water sector policies and institutions.

                         Activity 5.1 Training and capacity building

                         This project is designed to yield significant capacity building in three ways. First national research capacity will be strengthened through
                         training of students and young scientists. Second, applied and action research activities particularly under outputs 2, 3 and 4 will be
                         conducted in a participatory manner with significant exchange between researchers, NARS partners, local agents, and farmers. This will
                         strengthen the capacity of partners to apply new tools and methodologies to problem solving and enhance the capacity of crop-livestock
                         farmers to innovate and respond to changing water availability. Thirdly, involvement of NARS scientists in development, validation and
                         quantification of tools will improve their knowledge base and strengthen national research capacity.

                         Activity 5.2 Integration and synthesis of technological and governance outputs and research findings.

                         Integration and synthesis of outputs within multidisciplinary projects involving several partners cannot be assumed. In this project
                         integration will be purposeful. Integration will occur on three levels: across disciplines integrating the social and biophysical outputs, across
                         scales, such that local interventions are tied to landscape level impact, and across regions to draw out generic lessons. Particular themes will
                         be explored that cut across project activities and provide the basis for synthesis, this might include for example, topics such as conservation
                         agriculture and environmental impacts. Considerable effort will go into integration and synthesis with other studies taking place in Africa
                         and Asia, so as to derive more generic messages that are relevant outside of the IGB.

                         Activity 5.3 Translation of research for dissemination pathways

                         The project will use two sets of communication strategies – one for improving communication with farmers on technology and governance
                         opportunities, and the second for improving the quality of policy analysis in government livestock and water management units, as described
                         in more detail in the dissemination strategy.




Assumptions and risks    There are three assumptions in the project design. The first is that effective linkages can be established across the water, livestock and
                         agriculture sectors. Second, is that poor water management in mixed enterprise systems results partly from the lack of appropriate
                         mechanisms and structures for effectively and sustainably managing land and water - an outcome of under-governance or ineffective
                         informal governance. The impact of socio-political inequities on governance and management are outlined here – but their impacts may have
                         been under-estimated. If so, the research objectives will need to be re-defined and re-phrased. Finally, there is an explicit assumption that
                         complementarities exist between efficiency and equity.

                         Anticipating the above possibilities, the project will identify areas and regions where stakeholder participation is significantly high and
                         holds the promise of enabling change. Dissemination will be aimed at four groups of possible stake holders: farmer groups, official and
                         elected representatives in local self governance institutions such as Janpad Panchayats and District Panchayats, Farm extension machinery
                         and State level officials involved in managing water resources, livestock and land resources. The assumption regarding complinentarities
                         between efficiency and equity will be tested during the activity 4 above. Project implementation will assess and fine tune based on
                         evaluation of these risks. In addition, Past experience suggests that influence at higher levels can be large if an enthusiastic person at a
                         senior position can be interested in the results and the process. An attempt will be made to identify such individuals in the relevant State
                         apparatus and create a buy in by engaging with them from the start. The contribution of the NGO is expected to be positive in this regard.




                         PROJECT LEADER AND PARTNERS (Refer to Annex E: Table of project members)

 Key qualifications of   The project insitutions are uiquely well placed to undertake this work.
proposed institutions:
                         IWMI, a future harvest center on the CGIAR system, has extensive expertise in research issues of water management for sustainable
                         development of agriculture, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation.

                         ILRI, a CGIAR center devoted to livestock research, has recently done a scoping study that assessed crop-livestock interactions and mapped
                         spatial and seasonal diversity of crop-livestock interactions in the Indo-Gangetic basin, which is particularly relevant to the proposed study.

                         ILRI and IWMI together have been leading international work on livestock and water currently in two large projects the on-going CPWF
                         research project ‘Nile Basin Livestock Water Productivity,’ which is the first of its kind, assessing basin level impact of livestock on water
                         resources, and a new BMZ project in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.

                         ICAR is the leading scientific organisation for agricultural and livestock research in India.

                         BIAF and PRADAD, Indian NGO’s are reputed organizations with presence in several states and are active at national levels. PRADAN
                         has its presence in the proposed project sites in IGB, but also has a significant presence in Subarnrekha, Brahmani-Baitarani and Narmada
                         basins. BAIF has presence in virtually all the important basins in the country save perhaps the Brahmputra-Meghana and Cauvery basins.
                         Both the NGOs have a strong grass-roots presence and interact with the communities through the development of Community Based
                         Organizations or Self-help Groups. Additionally, both NGOs have established working relations and high credibility amongst official
resources, and a new BMZ project in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.

ICAR is the leading scientific organisation for agricultural and livestock research in India.

BIAF and PRADAD, Indian NGO’s are reputed organizations with presence in several states and are active at national levels. PRADAN
has its presence in the proposed project sites in IGB, but also has a significant presence in Subarnrekha, Brahmani-Baitarani and Narmada
basins. BAIF has presence in virtually all the important basins in the country save perhaps the Brahmputra-Meghana and Cauvery basins.
Both the NGOs have a strong grass-roots presence and interact with the communities through the development of Community Based
Organizations or Self-help Groups. Additionally, both NGOs have established working relations and high credibility amongst official
agencies at local and national levels. Both NGOs, and especially BAIF is largely supported by national financial instruments. These NGOs
are committed to a consistent process of transferring appropriate and modern technology to the producers through a process of technology
modification and local adaptation and have significant achievement to their credit in the field of livestock (as well as other rural livelihoods
issues.)
                                    IMPACT: INTERMEDIATE AND END USERS OF YOUR RESEARCH

    Project stakeholders and        The ultimate beneficiaries of the project are poor rural households in the identified regions in the IGB. The managers of water resources and
ultimate beneficiaries (attach      agencies engaged in governance of land resources as well as agencies involved in livestock promotion are potential users of the research.
           table at Annex F)
                                    Scaling out, and in part scaling up, is expected to happen through the agency of the participating NGOs, PRADAN and BAIF. Both NGOs
                                    are reputed organizations with presence in several states and are active at national levels, as described in the key qualifications section. Once
                                    the concept of WP gap analysis and the implications of the analysis for improvement of water productivity in mixed crop-livestock system is
                                    established and demonstrated to the NGO through the process of their own participation, the internalization of these learning by the agencies
                                    and their transference to village level through their CBO can be confidently expected. To aid the process, an effort will be made to involve
                                    the NGO in the process of developing dissemination materials in vernacular for the set of clients with whom they work.




 Text statement on achieving        Working with the NGO partners is an essential method through which paricipation will be achieved. In addition, as mentioned in activities
              participation:        and methods, it is proposed that MSc students be engaged for carrying out a bulk of the field research under the supervision of researchers in
                                    the participating agencies. These persons are usually in their twenties and the project benefits from their dynamism and they benefit from
                                    capacity building. Very often, these persons develop durable bonds with participating NGO and agencies and an informal network comes up
                                    and this network carries on the work of both scaling out and scaling up. While the project itself can not support the network after the project
                                    life, efforts will be made to ensure that these networks do in fact come up and are supported by agencies interested in more efficient and
                                    productive pro-poor mixed crop-livestock production systems.

            Text statement on       The project will use two sets of communication strategies – one for improving communication with farmers on technology and governance
       dissemination strategy:      opportunities, and the second for improving the quality of policy analysis in government livestock and water management units. The
                                    communication program with farmers will occur througout the project cycle and will test the efficacy of alternative avenues for new
                                    technologies. First, information on proposed alternatives will be disseminated through field days, pamphlets or posters, group extension
                                    advice and/or radio programs. Second, a series of dialogues will be held with mixed crop farmers to diagnose constraints to adoption of
                                    proposed technologies. These dialogues will measure both the products of these discussions and the criteria farmers use to prioritize
                                    decisions. The value of separate dialogues with men and women farmers will also be tested. The communication program with policy
                                    makers will similarly encompass dissemination of project information - of lessons learnt, as well as discussions on the implications for
                                    policy reform. Information will be disseminated through project reports and policy briefs and discussions pursued through regional and
                                    national conferences. The latter will also bring together public and private stakeholders to discuss project findings and analyse logical next
                                    steps.

                                    Scaling up is expected to happen through demonstration of the positive consequences of the application of WP analysis and its
                                    dissemination to agricultural extension machinery and agencies involved in the management of water and land resources. Several efforts in
                                    this regard, including a ‘partners meet’ are part of Objective 5. However, caveats should to be mentioned about the speed and certainty of
                                    scaling up. The extension machinery as well as regulatory authorities in the State apparatus are structurally not ideally designed to reorient
                                    their performance for higher productivity or resource use efficiency. In order to have impact at that level the project will identify potential
                                    ‘champions’ in the relevant State apparatus and create a buy in by engaging with them from the start.




Describe the ‘initial situation’    Significant numbers of landless and small farmer households in semi-arid regions of the IGB, the key intended beneficiaries of this project,
     of the target group(s) of      currently experience differing degrees of water insecurity, and universally poor productivity of their CLS. This is due to a variety of factors,
beneficiaries of the project at     including but not limited to: intensification of CLS; lack of planning that accounts for multiple componenets in CLS; lack of access to
the moment when the project         supporting infrastructure and services and/or inequitable access to key resource base systems and resource governance.
           should be starting:
                                    The dependence of the poorest households on mixed CLS is high. There is a relatively inequitable allocation of land and water among such
                                    groups and a high dependence on common resources. In practice this translates to a deteriorating environment which consistently demands
                                    high labor inputs and gives low returns – resulting in a persisting poverty for some. The bulk of the difficult work especially arranging
                                    drinking water and fodder for livestock is often allocated to women, yet women have the least ability to influence productivity decisions at
                                    the household, community and especially agency levels. High demands on female labor is coupled with low livelihood and income security.




Description of the situation in     Farmers in study sites, NGO’s that work nationally, NARES researchers, and national policy makers will have greater understanding of
     the future once you have       social, political and technical factors relating to water use and productivity of CLS. This information translated to WP frameworks and
       remedied the problems        piloted at the local level through NGOs will have demonstrated interventions which can reduce poverty and improve gender equity in mixed
       identified in the ‘initial   enterprise livelihoods for small farmer households and the landless poor in select study sites. Pilot interventions will have demonstrated the
  situation’ that your project      potential to reduce environmental degradation and increase local capacity.
                   will address.
                                    These locally acceptable and viable recommendations will have been widely shared with relevant local and state level agencies – and hence
                                    will be in a form appropriate to informing policy change. Finally, the study will have clearly outlined requirements for changes in
                                    institutional instruments and technical capacity - to enable scaling up.

   Monitoring and evaluation        As the lead institution, IWMI will be responsible for monitoring progress and ensuring timely completion of intermediate and final outputs
                        plan        and acheivement of milestones. While this can be difficult in multi-institution projects, IWMI is confident that the project plan can be
                                    completed on schedule and at a high level of quality. The project partners have previous experience working with each other, and extensive
                                    experience working on the ground in the study areas. IWMI has a quality management system that assists through reminders and reporting
                                    requriements. MoU’s will be written such that payment is only made on proof of satisfactory progress.

                                    In addition, the project will employ ‘Process Monitoring’, a participatory monitoring tool developed by IDRC and widely promoted by
                                    IWMI. It yields rich data, insights and lessons which can be used to enhance impact and minimize negative outcomes; scale up and
                                    institutionalize change; and to understand how research can better influence policy. Process monitoring tools pay attention to assessing both
                                    the biophysical as well as social and institutional changes. This includes assessing not only project outcomes, but also how changes happen
                         and acheivement of milestones. While this can be difficult in multi-institution projects, IWMI is confident that the project plan can be
                         completed on schedule and at a high level of quality. The project partners have previous experience working with each other, and extensive
                         experience working on the ground in the study areas. IWMI has a quality management system that assists through reminders and reporting
                         requriements. MoU’s will be written such that payment is only made on proof of satisfactory progress.

                         In addition, the project will employ ‘Process Monitoring’, a participatory monitoring tool developed by IDRC and widely promoted by
                         IWMI. It yields rich data, insights and lessons which can be used to enhance impact and minimize negative outcomes; scale up and
                         institutionalize change; and to understand how research can better influence policy. Process monitoring tools pay attention to assessing both
                         the biophysical as well as social and institutional changes. This includes assessing not only project outcomes, but also how changes happen
                         and/or are influenced. At the community level, this can include measuring participation, innovation and eventual sustainability; institutional
                         levels - multi-institutional collaboration, participatory research, integrated teamwork; and finally innovative actions and policies, as an
                         outcome of participation.



Any other comments to    <insert your response in this field>
 explain your project?




                         END OF TEXT SECTION: maximum 6000 words in total. Please note that any words beyond 6000 will be deleted and not sent to
                         the evaluation panels.
                              ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT: (attach table at Annex G)

                              <insert your response in this field>




 Annex A: Team member
                 c.v.’s.      Please attach in the online TECHNICAL RESPONSE screen (using the naming convention: "<Insert Project Name> <Insert CV Name> CV")


  Annex B: Bibliography       Please attach in the online TECHNICAL RESPONSE screen (using the naming convention: "<Insert Project Name> Bibliography")


 Annex C: Objective tree      Please attach in the online TECHNICAL RESPONSE screen (using the naming convention: "<Insert Project Name> Objective Tree")


   Annex D: Gantt Chart       Please attach in the online TECHNICAL RESPONSE screen (using the naming convention: "<Insert Project Name> Gantt Chart")


Annex E: Table of project                                                                                                                Brief description of research responsibilities with
                                                         Area of expertise           Relevant output and activities listed in the Gantt
          team members        Names of team members                                                                                       respect to the outputs and activities listed in the
                                                      important to this project.                          chart
                                                                                                                                                            Gantt chart.
                  (Leader)    Dr. Madar Samad, IWMI Policy and institutional       Primarily responsible for overall project delivery, Evolving work plan, coordinating field research
                                                    analysis, livelihood and       and specifically 2.1, 2.2, 4.1 and Report Synthesis necessary for institutional analysis as well as
                                                    gender studies                 and Outcome                                         resource governance mapping, interfacing with
                                                                                                                                       community for validating suggestions from WP
                                                                                                                                       gap analysis, evolving dissemination materials and
                                                                                                                                       conduct of workshops for dissemination.

  (Principal Investigators)   Dr. Deborah Bossio,     Soil science and Agro-       Primarily 5.2 and inputs to project management         Inputs to integration and synthesis.
                              IWMI                    ecosystems; Livestock-       and report synthesis
                                                      water interactions




                              Dr. Michael Blummel,    Livestock production and Primarily 1.1,1.2, 3.1,.3.2 inputs to project              Developing WP framework and WP gap analysis
                              ILRI                    nutrition                management and synthesis (5)                               for IGB




                              Amitav Dey, ICAR        Animal nutrition/ Soil and Specific inputs to ouputs 2, 3, 4 and 5; and inputs      Preparing bench mark documents on current
                                                      Agricultural Engineering to report synthesis                                        feeding breeding and management practices of
                                                                                                                                          livestock in IGB, scientific validation of
                                                                                                                                          recommendations from gap analysis, preparing
                                                                                                                                          dissemination materials


                              D. Narendranath         Rural management             2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 4.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 pertaining   Resource governance mapping, identifying ways
                              PRADAN                                               to the study sites in areas in which they work         of blending community wisdom with scientific
                                                                                                                                          recommendations, dissemination materials for
                                                                                                                                          farmers, workshops with farmer groups



                              Girish Sohoni, BAIF     Management of                2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 4.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 pertaining   Resource governance mapping, identifying ways
                                                      development                  to the study sites in areas in which they work         of blending community wisdom with scientific
                                                      programmes                                                                          recommendations, dissemination materials for
                                                                                                                                          farmers, workshops with farmer groups
Annex F: Table of project     Stakeholder (Give full       Type of group or         Address / geographic          Approximate number                            Role
stakeholders and ultimate        name of group or            organization                location                      involved
                                   organization)
             beneficiaries
                             Rural households in the   PS: Individual households Dispersed in the region      15-20 million            Ultimate beneficiaries and Scaling-out stakeholders:
                             chosen area of IGB                                                                                        Adoption of more water- productive mixed crop-
                                                                                                                                       livestock production practices



                             Community based           PS: Formal, informal      In the villages where the 1500                        Ultimate beneficiaries and Scaling-out stakeholders:
                             organizations of          community based groups    participating NGO operate                             To act as nodes for dissemination of information and
                             beneficiary households                                                                                    assistance in trying out the new methods



                             Cooperatives of dairy     PS: Registered Co-        Various, but usually         15-Dec                   Scaling-up Stakeholder: In providing a platform for
                             producers                 operative organizations   district head quarters and                            extension and in possibly carrying out demonstrations
                                                                                 Federal office in state                               (post-project)
                                                                                 capital

                             Panchayat bodies          Local self governance     In each group of 3-5         2000                     Scaling-up Stakeholder: In assisting regulation of local
                                                       institutes                villages                                              water sources in a manner that is necessary and helpful
                                                                                                                                       to livestock systems



                             Participating NGO         NGO                       As given at the partners     2                        Research partner and scaling-out and -up stakeholder:
                                                                                 list                                                  Post project ownership of the outcomes




Annex G: Environmental
      impact assessment

  Environmental Impacts      Type A: The project aims to improve the environmental situation in study areas by reducing the negative impact of inappropriate
                             management of livestock. In semi-arid area where land degradation is commonplace, improved management can increase productivity as
                             well as improve environmental health.
Table of Environmental   TYPE A: The Project and the technology that could result from it would have no negative environmental impacts
                Impact

				
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Description: Productivity Increase Group document sample