Contract Recruiter - PowerPoint by qbc12987

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									How to Be an IC
(Plus! Job-market Tips for Everyone!)




  Howard Fosdick
  (630)-279-4286
  hfosdick@compuserve.com
       (C) 2001 FCI
                                        1
      How did I become an IC ?

Evolved from an FTE
  * IC since 1988
  * 1-person shop by choice

Contract Programming (CP)
  * DBA : Oracle, SQL Server, DB2
  * SA : Unixes, Windows

Consulting
  *   User Group Founder (IDUG, MDUG, CAMP)
  *   Author (books & articles)
  *   Presentor
  *   Management Consulting                   2
       Why am I Giving this Talk ?
          2 Consulting Paradigms

                                           Open Source Consulting
Traditional




  Proprietary               Open
  Secret information        Open negotiation for
    for negotiating power       for trust relationships
  Competitors               Cooperation / Coopetition
  Strength thru secrets     Strength thru working together
  Direct Marketing only      Indirect Marketing
    (“Pay me now!”)            (“Sow seeds, reap the harvest later”)
  Trade Secrets              Sharing knowledge
  Competitors (ICs,          No competitors
    contract firms, FTEs,       (just difficulties like 1706, Headhunters
    customers, everyone!)         and Brokers!)
                                                                   3
  Gimme, gimme !             Give to get
Outline

          1.  Definitions
          2.  How Employees are like contractors
          3.  IC Business Models
          4.  What are Your Goals ?
          5.  Legal Status of your firm
          6.  Rates
          7.  CP Firms, Brokers, Recruiters
          8.  IRS 1706 and AVLs
          9.  Selling Yourself
          10. Contracts, Payroll, Insurance,
                 Finances, Retirement
          11. Getting Gigs / Jobs
          12. Resources


                                             4
     Definitions

FTE = Full Time Employee
PTE = Part Time Employee
W-2 = Employee
1099 = How non-employees get paid
Corp-to-Corp = How corporations get paid
IC = Independent Consultant
CP = Contract Programmer or
       Contract Programming
Consultant        = Advice giver
Mgmt Consultant = Advice giver to management
Pure IC           = IC gets their own gigs
Brokered IC        = IC goes through a Broker to get gigs
Broker (aka Bork) = places Contract Programmers
Recruiter (aka Headhunter) = places FTEs
Contract Firm (aka Body Shop) = Broker, Headhunter,
                                   CP Employer          5
Big 5 Consulting Firm = Actg firm with all FTE CPs
      “We’re All Contractors Now!”
       1980s                                 Today
Employee                           Disposable resource (ie “contractor”)

Implied Deal :                     Implied Deal :
“You don’t screw up,               “You’re here only as long as we
we don’t fire you”                 choose to keep you”

Company-provided                   Self-directed career planning
career planning (ie career path)   (ie career path)

Defined benefit plan               Self-directed retirement (401k)
Defined health plan                Selectable benefits

Company-directed training          Self-directed training


Rule 1: They employ you because it pays them to!
Exercise : Calculate your cost and your benefit
           to your company                                           6
    Who Moved My Cheese ?

“He knew it was safer to be
aware of his real choices than to
isolate himself in his comfort zone.”
                             by Johnson & Blanchard, p. 75




“Companies don’t take care of you,
you take care of you.”


                                                             7
    Be a Realist

Rule 2:

The job market works the way it works

  + Figure it out
  + Work it to your advantage

  --   You can’t change it
  --   Fight it and you suffer
  --   It does not care what you think
  --   It does not work “the way it should”
  --   It does not care what you think the best product is
                                                           8
          Note: if you’re Bill Gates ignore this foil...
Rule 3:    There are many ways to be an IC


           Based on different ...

                           Business
                           Models
                                             Kinds of
   Goals                                     Work


                  Values
                                      Etc.
                                                   9
    There are many ways to be an IC


DBA
Partners     “Expert”
             Partnership get               others
             contracts thru
             vendor
                            Permatemp
                            w/ special
                            Expertise        Small
   Tech
                                             Contractor
   Trainer
                                             Firm

               Solo Contractor
               thru Broker               Pure IC
                                                    10
          Business Model Parameters

Number on
Payroll                 one            a few            many

Breadth of
Expertise      narrow (1 product)      1 topic (eg DBA)      generic

Getting
                on own                  via contract firm or broker
Gigs

Travel          local     regional       national     international

Engagement
Length           weeks        months      yearly     “perma-temp”

Rates
                                                                        11
              piecemeal        typical DBA / SA      expert or “Name”
   Business Model - Example #1
   Technical Niche Specialist
* Tech support in small shop
  for obsolete niche technology

* Makes 2 * FTE salary

+ 10 years there (“perma-temp”)

+ Very customer focused

-- When this client goes away ?
   * Has saved $$
   * She’s very smart,
      will certify on new technology   12
      while on “downtime”
 Business Model - Example #2
 Contract Programming Thru Broker

* Senior developer

* FTE w/ CP firm => IC on 1099 w/ Broker

* Gets gigs via 1 trusted Broker

  +   No effort to get gigs
  +   Choice of gigs
  +   Choice on travel
  +   Flexibility

-- Pays big % to Broker
                                           13
   Business Model - Example #3
   Technical Trainer

* Started as FTE CP in CP firm
   (C++ & Unix => Java & web)

* Then worked thru Brokers, did not like them

* Did Training on the side

* Evolved into specialty training for certification

* Now travels to teach a couple courses / month

+ Flexibility to raise her kids
  while making reasonable $$                   14
    Business Model - Example #4
    Experts Contracting thru Vendor

* Claim “expert” status on 1 software product
   (published articles, speeches, books, UGs)

* Tight with software vendor
  + referrals thru the vendor
   -- dependency
   -- vendor kickbacks

+ High Rates ($100 -> 500/ hour)

+ Short Contracts

+ Travel

* S-Corp (partner-controlled, 6 people)         15
        Why be an IC ?
        What are Your Goals ?

+ “Be my own Boss”        ==> more control over worklife / life
                          ==> be an entrepeneur

                          ==> greater choice of gigs
+ More interesting Work
                          ==> get paid for overtime
+ More Money              ==> be a techie but make mgmt $$

+ It’s your Passion       ==> techie passion
                          ==> entrepeneurial = build a company

+ Alternate Lifestyle     ==> work when you want

                          ==> have people listen to you
+ Ego
                          ==> “make your own rules”
+ _______________         ==> fill in the blank with your goals

Exercise : make your own rank-ordered Goal List
                                                                  16
            Self-awareness is key !
      Ways to Work



Vendor                    Brokered IC
          Contract Firm                  Pure IC
IT Shop




FTE       W-2 (hourly)    1099        Corp-to-Corp
PTE       PTE            Corp-to-Corp
          1099
          W-2 (salaried)


                              For Illinois business booklets
                                                         17
                              and legal forms see www.ilsos.net
       Forms of Business            (aka, the Legal Status of
                                          your business)

These drive everything:
  1.   Taxes
                            Non-corporate
  2. Liability
                                                  LLC
                                                  (Ltd Liability Co.)



           Sole                                 Partnership
           Proprietorship
           + You took no action         -- Common property
           + Simplest tax filing        -- Unlimited group
           -- Unlimited liability          liability
                                                                18
      Forms of Business


1.   Taxes
                            Corporations   + Limits Liability
2.   Liability




          Subchapter C                     Subchapter S

         -- Taxed Twice                + Taxed Once
         + Large Companies             + < 50 Employees

     Corp                                            19
                 Employee
      Rates




* The contractor version of employee’s salary

* There are no “rules”

* Everything is negotiable

* Know typical rates           Knowledge is the key !

* Know client’s target rates



                                                        20
      How To Compute Rates

50 weeks / year * 40 hours / week = 2000 hours / year


So: $40 / hour = $80,000 / year

And: If you make FTE Salary of $80,000,
     your Rate is $40 / hour (ex-benefits)

     Your Rate to Employer is : $40/hour + Benefits


Average IT work-week = 48 hours

If your Salary is $80,000 and you work 48 hours,
you should be paid $96,000 !
                                                        21
    Rates Vary By...          where you work, and what you do


                                          DBA / SA
        PC / LAN
                                          Support
        Support


Training                                  Super Tech
                                          Architects
                                          Specialists     “Name”
                   lower
 Help Desk                                                Experts
                           $$$
                                             Design
  Documentation                              Architects
                                 higher
Small                                                Mgmt
Shops                                                Consultants
                                           Large
   Government                              Shops            22
         How Much You Gotta Make ?

                                                     Assuming 1-person S-Corp
* 2 * FICA ( 2 * 7.5 = 15% )

* Benefits

    *   Retirement (SEP-IRA or 401K)
    *   Health Insurance    (go Group)
    *   Disability Insurance “ “
    *   Other (employee health club, dental, etc.)

* Corp Fees

    *   Tax prep
    *   Insurance (General Liability)
    *   Unemployment Comp
    *   Corp filing fees
    *   Etc.

* Bench Time ?                          Good Rate = 2 * FTE Salary
                                                               23
                                        Marginal  = 1.5 * FTE Salary
     Rates and Salaries ?



                                      computerworld.com
realrates.com
                                            informationweek.com
                     Sources

dice.com                             datamation.com


     itworld.com
                             earthweb.com

                                                                24
            many others...
                                                     (Blue = online & print)
     How Contract Programming
     Firms Work


1       President/
         Founder


                             Billing and
                             Legal Treatment

        Brokers /
3+1     “VP Placements”     W-2’s (salaried)

                            W-2’s (hourly)

                             1099’s
        Contract
60      Programmers
                            Corp-to-Corp       25
        How Brokers Make Money


       The Broker makes the spread
       between what client pays and what you’ll accept.




$100                       What Client pays      $200,000/yr

                  What Broker makes                 $80,000/yr

$60                         What CP gets         $120,000/yr

         Most Brokers key on reducing your rate !              Brokers get
                                                               10 - 60 %
                                                               typical 33%
         Is this Broker worth $80,000 / year ?                   26
                Why You Care About the
                Broker’s Mark-up


               (1) The spread may be too large
                     (you’re making less than you could!)

               (2) Client bases all retention decisions
                      on their cost (not what you’re making)


               Example: Time to reduce contractor costs !

                        Susie SE         = $225/$60
Assuming all are
                        You (brokered)   = $100/$60
equally useful...       Joe “Pure IC”    = $80/$80
                    Who they gonna keep ?
                                                                 27
                    (and why does Susie SE accept a rip off ?)
     How Recruiters Make Money


    Upon placement, the Recruiter makes either :
         (1) Agreed-upon fee
         (2) Percent of new FTEs 1st-year salary
Example:
      New FTE’s 1st-year salary = $90,000/yr
      Recruiter @33% makes = $30,000


    The Employer pays the Recruiter,
    ==> the Recruiter works for their interest !
                                                       Recruiters get
    Recruiter is not your friend nor do you pay him.   $10k - $40k
                                                       per placement
                                                       (20% - 33%)
    Do not disclose your negotiating                       28
    thoughts to the Recruiter !
         Why are many Brokers / Recruiters Unethical ?


    * They do real work, they deserve to get paid     (see A. Zanevsky,
                                                      Contract Professional)

    * But their pay is sometimes outrageous
           as is their behavior !

    Why ?

            *   No startup / entry costs
            *   No capital required
Client      *   No manufacturing costs (pure profit potential)
            *   It’s all convincing (1) Client and (2) CP

            * Each placement really counts !
                  (eg: place 3 FTEs you make $60k this year,
                       place 6 you made $120k ! )
Techie
                                                                       29
            * Superior knowledge yields manipulative power
    Example Sleazy Broker / Recruiter Practices

*   Selling resumes
*   “Enhancing” your resume w/o your knowledge
*   Presenting your resume to a client without your permission
*   Page Flipping
*   Stealing / selling company phonebooks
*   Selling IT staff lists
*   Stripping references
*   Bogus resume cross-references
*   Misrepresenting (lying) to either Client or CP
          (esp. about Rates or the Work to be done)
*   Expenses never reimbursed
*   Non-payment
*   Suing you as a form of intimidation
*   Keeping you “on the line” by sending you        Credit-check your broker:
    to an inappropriate interview                    www.experian.com
*   Abusive contracts                                @ $20 - $30
*   Abusive non-competes
*   “Jennifers” and “Guys”
                                                                    30
         Why Brokers Predominate

* IRS 1706 : a Rider passed w/ 1986 Tax Act by special interests

* Designed to force all IT workers to : Be employees
   * To enhance role of CP Firms
   * Easier for IRS to collect taxes                       Book on 1706:
                                                           www.icca.com $27
* Legally Ambiguous

* Allows IRS to “reclassify” IC as an “employee” !
* Burden of proof & penalties are on the “Employer”

* Practical result -- (1) Many companies will not do
                          business w ICs (1099s and S-Corps)
                      (2) Brokers / CP Firms flourish !!
                      (3) Approved Vendor Lists (AVLs)



Client            IC                              Broker
                                    Client        or CP Firm       31
                                                                        IC
         How to Handle 1706

* Understand the “20 Questions”

    * Have multiple clients
-or- :
    * Stay at each client <= 1 year

* Pay your taxes scrupulously (use Enrolled Agent / CPA)

* Form multi-person IT firm
                                      Umbrella Firm :
                                       * Employer of record
* Use Umbrella Firm                    * Billing, Admin services
                                       * Group-rate benefits



Client         Umbrella          IC     See: www.pacepros.com or
               Firm                     www.contractorsresources.com
                                                            32
     Microsoft “Perma-temp” Lawsuit


* $100 Million cost

* Plus legal costs

* Big impact on IT

* AVLs and Brokers everywhere !!


                                   “yuck, yuck!”


                                            33
      AVLs

* Shields IT shop from potential IRS 1706 Liability

* Liability is the real reason for AVLs

                   AVL
                                   Brokers    ICs

    Client
                                   CP        ICs
                                   Firms

                                   ICs


                   CP Firms
                               Subcontracting = What a mess !
                                                       34
             IT Professionals Lose !


                                                         H1B
                             IRS 1706

 IT Labor is:
                                                UCITA
     *   Young
     *   Non-political
     *   Unorganized
     *   Lobby-less in DC

“Special Interests are the greatest threat to democracy in America”
                                                                      35
                                          -- President Jimmy Carter
       Hiring -- IT Manager’s Viewpoint

Rules :

*   Shortage of qualified people
*   $10k - $50k to hire ONE
*   $10k - $20k to train
*   10:1 effectiveness ratio between candidates

Results :
=> If you find a good person, grab him fast !
=> Whoever you hire must be worth their training cost
X Don’t lose good people
X Hire attitude & related skills (not exact skills match)

                                                        36
           2 Hiring Responses




                                             FACILITATORS

                                      * “Is this person good,
    GATEWAYS                             if yes, how do I hire her?”
                                      * Deal-makers
                                      * Problem-solvers
*   The “Rules” people”
*   “I just work here”
*   Require exact skills match
*   HR
                  IDENTIFY & KEY ON THE FACILITATORS !      37
          One Way to Sell Yourself


 10         Your Calling Card
                                       Rule :
 seconds    = quick “Trump Card”
                                       Specialization sells

                                       Exercise :
2       Summary : “Who I am and
                                       Define your
minutes what I can do for you”         Calling Card

                                       Prioritize, define
                                       your 3-part pitch
30         Resume : “Here’s proof of
minutes    what I can do for you”
                                                      38
       Certification ?
                                                         Joe SA


* Industry trend

* Vary by the Cert :
    * Cost
    * Difficulty
    * Marketability              It’s up to you to determine Cert
                                 value for your area
* Enforces
   -- Vendor-dependency
   -- Specialization (at expense of generalization)
   -- Keeping up-to-date is a chore

* Becoming a requirement for some IC roles (sometimes a Trump Card)


Inexperienced -- use it for instant credibility
Experienced -- another hoop to jump through                           39
                                                               See coriolis.com,
                                                               certification.com
   You Need a Longevity Plan

* Avg contract consultant lasts 6 years *

* By age 40,
   < 22% of IT technicians still do technical work


         Why ?
                 --   Technical change           Involuntary
                 --   Burnout
                 --   Business model change
                 --   Industry change            Voluntary
                 +    Choice
                 +    Career evolution

Change will happen,                                             40
be prepared to handle it!                     * As as per Computerworld
            How Skills Become Obsolete --
            Example
            1981                1991                     2001
                                          Unixes
                         OS/2
 Primary     MVS                    DOS        Windows
                                               (desktop & server)
                         VM
                                                     Linuxes
 2ndary              Unixes         MVS        DOS


                                               MVS
 Obsolete
                                          VM
                                                      DOS
Exercise: map your chart for OSs,      OS/2                     41
DBMSs, Pgming Languages, etc.
          Skills for Optimal Success

Rule 2: Technical skills plus           Business Skills
other skills yield greater success
than technical skills alone             (Taxes, liability,
                                        finding clients,
                                        selling yourself)


 Technical Skills
                                        Personal Skills

                                        (Psychological,
                                        Sociological,
    Corollary: Technical skills are     Leadership)
     only the necessary precondition
    for larger success
                                       New Technical Skills   42
     Contracts
                            You have legally agreed to
* They are serious          what your contract says ;
                            Nothing anybody says matters.

* You better understand them           Or pay a lawyer to understand
                                       them for you.

* Everything is negotiable

* 2-party versus “brokered” or “subcontracted” (3-party)

  “Offensive” provisions are commonplace,
  negotiate out the worst:
                *   Non-compete
                *   Non-disclosure
                *   Unlimited Liability
                *   Location of adjucation
                *   Severability
                *   Software warranty                       See samples on
                                                            realrates.com and
                                                            icca.com     43
          Insurance



         1-person Corp              Larger Corp


 * General Liability (GL)   *   Errors & Omissions (E&O)
    ($300 - $500)           *   Workman’s Comp
                            *   Employee Liability
                            *   Fidelity Bond
                            *   Other Bonds
                            *   Company Auto
See www.ccbsure.com
    www.techinsurance.com
                            *   Etc.
                                 ($ thousands)

                                                     44
         Why Liability Predominates

                       $0 cost to Plantiff to
                       launch lawsuit


               Yes                        No
                             Plantiff
                             wins
 Defendant pays $$ to you,                  $0 cost to Plantiff
 you share with lawyer



                   Defendant pays $$ for legal fees




Contigency Fee System makes the U.S. the Land of Lawsuits
“Law Suit Lotto” : no cost to play, and you just might win !
                                                                  45
         How Do You Pay Yourself ?

 * S-Corp => Corp Accounting,
     plus 4 quarterly tax filings plus year-end

 Alternatives = Do it yourself  PC-software           “I didn’t know!”
                H&R Block       CPA
                Enrolled IRS Agent

all            Your S-      payroll
                                           You
income         Corp


                                       FICA (2 * 7.5%)
         Corp                          Fed WH Tax
         expenses                      State WH Tax

 All Corp accounting must be separate from your personal finances
                                                            46
       Finances & Retirement

* Learn how to invest
   (or pay someone to do it for you)

* Investments determine how well you’ll live after retiring

Vehicles :

   *   SEP-IRA
   *   Supplemental SEP
   *   SAR-SEP
   *   401K
   *   Various IRAs                            “I quit !”
   *   Annuities (Fixed and Variable)
   *   Stocks vs Bonds vs Cash vs Real Estate vs Etc.

                                                        47
    How to Get Gigs / Jobs




Pay Someone           Direct           Indirect
 to find them         Marketing        Marketing

Brokers         * Do what Brokers do   * Do what Brokers
(Recruiters)      (“Be your own bork”)   can’t do
                                       * Clients come to
                                         you due to
                                         your visibility


                 gig me,                           48
                 baby !
How to do Direct Marketing
                    * Where
  ID Companies      * Its business
                    * Its structure

                    *   Software
   ID their         *   Hardware
   Technologies     *   Size
                    *   IT dept. structure

                    * Who
    ID Contacts     * Titles / positions / roles
                    * Phone #s / email addresses


  Create/maintain       * Takes time
  Relationships         * Difficult due to changes 49
                        * The hard part !
          Where to get Direct Marketing Info

Lists :
        * Local business directories
        * Purchase IT magazine mailing lists
        * Other lists
                (eg: conference lists, proceedings,
                 user groups, software vendor lists,
                 hardware vendor lists, lotteries, etc.)
Online :
        * Online discussion groups & boards (automated scanning)
        * Company websites
        * Job websites
        * Popular techie websites
Print :
        * Newspapers (Sunday Tribune)
        * IT trade magazines

Face-to-Face :
       * Conferences, User Group meetings, Trade Assocations,
                                                              50
         industry meetings, networking events, etc.
    Indirect Marketing
    (Marketing through Visibility)


* Move around within a long-term client
* Teach a class
* Write magazine articles
* Be quoted in magazines
* Write for web zines
* Give presentations
* Be a user group leader
* Write a book
* Participate in online discussions
* Develop freeware
* Informal networking
      (FTF at conferences, user groups, etc)
* IC letter to employment ads - printed / online
                                           51
Indirect    -- How to Keep a Long-term Client
Marketing
                  (Transfer around within 1 client)


 * Be best on your team
 * Have a reasonable rate

 *   Work for all managers
 *   Make no enemies
 *   Appearances count
 *   Results count (not “reasons” aka excuses)
 *   Manage your emotions
 *   Sociological & psychological insights key


Long-term survival is a sociological endeavor
                                                      52
              Indirect
              Marketing   -- Teach a Class


-- Pay low
+ Satisfaction high     Institutions




     Vocational                         Research

  * Biz partners, leads, CPs        * Company co-founders

              Experience : -- 0 leads
                            ? Yours ?
                                                     53
Indirect
Marketing   -- Write Magazine Articles


How to Get Published --
     * Call editor with your idea
     * Match the style, length, content
          of what they print
     * Be Accurate; respect their deadlines
     * Editors will rewrite your English
     * Improve with practice

Experience --
    -- Pay poor     -- Declining due to web
    + Satisfying
    + 1 - 20 leads / article
          (depends on magazine)            54
      Indirect
      Marketing   -- Be Quoted in Magazines

How to Get In --

     *   Be “a real IT contact” for a staff writer
     *   Respect their deadlines
     *   Return their calls fast!
     *   Be quotable
     *   Be up on imminent announcements

Experience --
    + Makes you “the expert”
    + Good leads
    -- Disruptive
                                                55
Indirect
Marketing   -- Write for Web Zines

    How to Get Published --

            * Same as print media

    -- Not refereed, lack status
    -- Readership ?
    -- Pay poor         + Satisfying
    => Suggest Print/Zine combo

    Experience --

            -- 0 leads
            ? Your results ?           56
Indirect
Marketing     -- Give Presentations

    A Public Job Interview

            * Users Groups
            * Conferences
            * For-profit organizations

    + Great visibility
    + Establish you as an “expert”

    Experience --

            + Good Leads
            ? Your results ?             57
Indirect
Marketing    -- Be a User Group Leader

    +    High visibility
    +    Instant credibility
    +    Online presence (eg: Sysop / moderator)
    --   Time intensive (unpaid)

    Experience --

            + Good Leads
            + Personal development
                 + Speaking skills
                 + Leadership skills
            ? Your results ?
                                            58
     Indirect
     Marketing        -- Write a Book

          How to Get Published ==> Produce the book !

          + Expertise (“She wrote the book on it!”)
          + Satisfaction   -- Effort Required
          -- Pay           -- Obsolesence


# of                           $$
authors




            1 2 3 4                     # of
            # books written             authors       59
Indirect
Marketing     -- Internet Discussions

A Public Job Interview

      *    Pick right forum (topic, size)
      *    Don’t flame / be professional
      *    What you say could be held against you
      *    You’re not talking to a person,
              you’re talking to the world !

Experience --

      +    Good leads
      +    Friends and learning, too!
      --   Brokers/Recruiters scan them
      --   Spam                             60
           Indirect
           Marketing   -- Develop Freeware


A Product displays your talents
     plus provides the foundation
     for your company !

(If you’re a Web Developer, make your resume
 a “wow” website)

Oracle Examples :
     * Alertview
     * TOAD
     * Statspack Viewer
                                           61
       Resources


ICCA   (Independent Computer Consultants Association)


 The only Association for ICs

 www.icca.org
 www.icca-chicago.org
 They sponsor GO CONSULT on Compuserve
 800-779-8911 for info

 Dues $175 - 275 / year
 Chicago $30 - $45 / meeting
                                                    62

 Annual conference: St. Louis in June
            Resources for ICs

                                 Books

                               * Janet Ruhl
   Websites for Contractors       * Computer Job Survival Guide
                                  * Answers for Computer Contractors
   *   realrates.com              * Computer Consultant’s Workbook
   *   cpuniverse.com             * Computer Consultant’s Guide
   *   icca.com                * Herman Holtz
   *   guru.com                   * How to Succeed as an IC
   *   1099.com                   * The Business Plan Guide for ICs
   *   pacepros.com               * Consultant’s Guide to Getting
   *   nase.org                        Business on the Internet
   *   ilsos.net               * Gerald Weinberg
                                  * Secrets of Consulting
                               * Peter Meyer
Associations
                                  * Getting Started in Computer Consulting
* Independent Computer
    Consultant’s Association (ICCA)      Magazine
* National Assocation for                                           63
    the Self-Employed (NASE)             * Contract Professional
      To Learn More...

               Yes               No
                     FTE ?

Read Ruhl’s                         Read Ruhl’s IC books
Computer Job Survival Guide                -or-
                                    Peter Meyer’s book


                                      Check out ICCA
                                      and PACE




                 Check out websites
                 like realrates.com etc.
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    questions...

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