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									   Big Era Three

Farming and the Emergence
   of Complex Societies
   10,000 – 1,000 BCE.


                            1
  Join us for
the world tour!




                  2
I know what
   you‘re
  thinking!

STOP!

              3
           Farming and
         complex societies?
                              Where did they
                               come from?




  I thought
we were still
hunting and
 gathering!

                                               4
                             Farming and                   …and changes
                               complex                      have always
                           societies are the               been—and still
                               result of                    are—part of
                             CHANGE…                       human history.

      Let‘s look for
       a minute at                                                    You DO
      the changes                                                    remember
         that took                                                     Big Era
       place in Big                                                  Two, don‘t
        Era Two.                                                        you?

                                                                                  Big Eras 3-9
Big Era 1

                                               Big Era 2

            200k yrs ago                                                    10k years ago   Today




                                                                                                    5
            Big Era Two is the
                                      Big Era Two was
             era that covers
                                           fraught
             the period from
                                        with change.
               200,000 to
            10,000 years ago.

                                                Shall we do
                                                     a
                                                   quick
                                                 review?




                                                              Big Eras 3-9
Big Era 1

                                 Big Era 2

            200k yrs ago                                10k years ago   Today




                                                                                6
                                           You will
                                        probably recall
                                           that life
                                        200,000 years
                                          ago looked
                                        something like
                                             this.




 Homo erectus doing lunch




                                                     Big Eras 3-9
Big Era 1   Human Origins

                            Big Era 2

            200k yrs ago                        10k years ago   Today




                                                                        7
      10,000 years ago at
       the close of Big Era
      Two, life looked more
             like this:




                                          Homo sapiens at home




                                                     Big Eras 3-9
Big Era 1   Human Origins

                              Big Era 2

            200k yrs ago                        10k years ago   Today




                                                                        8
                                                          Notice any
                                                          changes?



Homo erectus – 200,000 years ago



     Would you say                                          Homo sapiens – 10,000 years ago

     there were:

     (a) No changes?

               (b) Some changes?

                                   (c) Lots of changes?



                                                                                              9
   If you said
   there were
   ―(c) Lots of
                    If, on the other
 changes,‖ you
                   hand, you chose
were obviously
                         ―(a) No
      paying
                   changes‖ or ―(b)
attention during
                   Some changes,‖
  Big Era Two.
                    you must have
                      been out with
                      the flu during
                      Big Era Two.
                     (Hope you are
                    feeling better!).




                                        10
                                              Hints
                             Do you recall
     So, we will go with     any of them?
         ―(c) Lots of
      changes‖ in Big
      Era Two, right?                            So, it’s
                                                antelope
                                                burgers
                                             tonight, right?




                                              Boomerang



                                                Americas

                           Before moving
                            on, jot them
                               down.
 Are these
going to be
  on the
   test?

                                                               11
                                Check your answers below:


                        Changes that occurred by the end of Big Era 2
                                  (Beginning of Big Era 3)



                                1.   Homo sapiens appear.
                                2.   Language develops.
                                3.   Habitats expand.
                                4.   Technology multiplies.
                                5.   Wall painting and
      End of Big Era Two
                                     sculpture are created.
        (Beginning of
          Big Era 3)
                                                                                Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                                               Big Era 3

     10,000 years ago                                                   1,000 years ago   Today




                                                                                               12
                         Keeping those changes
                             in mind, let‘s look
                         at life all the way at the
                        end of Big Era Three, that
                          is, about 1,000 BCE.




                                                              Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                              Big Era 3

     10,000 years ago                                 1,000 years ago   Today




                                                                             13
                                            Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                        Big Era 3

     10,000 years ago               1,000 years ago   Today




                                                           14
                Notice any
               Differences?




Quite a few,
  Huh?



                              15
                   So, how did we
                   get from…

                   HERE   to   HERE?



Jot down some
 notes on what
events you think
  might have
  taken place
between 10,000
and 1,000 BCE.




                                       16
 One of the major changes is
 reflected in this frieze on a
 wall in Mesopotamia (today
 Iraq) :



               which reflects the
            DOMESTICATION of…



                                                animals   and plants
                                                                    Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                                    Big Era 3


     10,000 years ago                                       1,000 years ago   Today




                                                                                   17
 Domestication of plants and animals
 was a monumental change.
                                                 Have you ‗herd‘
   It resulted in the new way of               about pastoralism?
         living we know as
              FARMING
        (AGRICULTURE)…

    …which included both
        PASTORALISM
 (herding sheep, goats, cattle,
     horses, and camels),

                        and…
                                                               Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                                   Big Era 3


     10,000 years ago                                  1,000 years ago   Today




                                                                              18
        Crop-growing
 (cultivating domesticated
           plants),

                 and…




                                                 Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                             Big Era 3


     10,000 years ago                    1,000 years ago   Today




                                                                19
        the development of…

              FARMING
            COMMUNITIES




                                                  Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                              Big Era 3


     10,000 years ago                     1,000 years ago   Today




                                                                 20
                                  Eastern North America
                                                                               China

                                                                     Fertile Crescent

                                                      Nile valley
                                             West
                 Mesoamerica                 Africa                                     New Guinea
                                                                    Ethiopia

                          Andes     Amazonia




                   Between about 12,000 and 1,000 BCE, farming
                 appeared INDEPENDENTLY in a number of places,
                possibly in all of the places marked in red on the map.
                                                                                                       Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                                                                Big Era 3


     10,000 years ago                                                                          1,000 years ago   Today




                                                                                                                      21
Prior to farming,
population size in any
one area was limited
by the availability of wild
game, grain, berries,
seeds, and nuts.
                                POPULATION
Farming and the large,        INTENSIFICATION
relatively dependable
crops it provides                      That means
allowed for…                      population increases
                                    in certain areas.
                                   Population in those
                                   areas became both
                                   larger and denser.



                                                         22
  At the same time,
   farmers in some
places were, in spite
of population growth,
    able to produce
   SURPLUS food.




                         What does
                          SURPLUS
                            FOOD
                        PRODUCTION
                         mean for a
                           society?


                                      23
SURPLUS FOOD
PRODUCTION…

…means that not
everyone has to grow
food or tend animals.
They can take on other
tasks. They can
specialize in some non-
farming task.




                          24
This is called…

Job Specialization.
Men and women may
 become:

•   Weavers
•   Stone Masons
•   Potters
•   Priests
•   Scribes
•   Traders
•   Army officers



                      25
  So, let‘s have a
quick review of that
 last sequence of
      events.




                       26
                        Domestication of Plants and Animals


                                     Farming

        Population
                                   Surplus Food       Specialization
      Intensification


                                 Complex Society,
                                  also known as
                                  CIVILIZATION
                                                                      Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                                          Big Era 3

     10,000 years ago                                         1,000 years ago   Today



                                                                                     27
Civilizations have a number
 of elements in common.

                              You might want
                              to make a note
                              of these as we
                                 go along.


                                   Hint, hint!




                                                 28
                       Civilization
                                     Can you
                                      define
       Did you catch                   it?
        that term?                             Remember it.
                                               Write it down.




Answer: A civilization is a complex society.


                                                                29
           Elements of civilization include:

           1) Cities
                                        Mohenjo Daro

                                                         It’s the
                                                            law




                       2) Central governments
                           And Law codes



                                                   Hammurabi’s
                                                    Law Code
Pharaohs
                                                                    30
Elements of Civilization include:
1) Cities
2) Central governments
  and law codes                                          3) Writing and
                                                         record keeping
              Can you identify
                  the society
                represented
            by each of these two
              writing samples?




                         4) Highly organized religions




                                                                      31
Elements of Civilization include:
1) Cities

2) Central Governments
   and law codes

3) Writing and
                         5) Specialized Jobs
   record keeping

4) Highly organized
   religion




                                                        Full-time monk

                                    6) Social Classes

                                   Assyrian slaves
                                      In Egypt




                                                                         32
Elements of Civilization include:
1) Cities

2) Central governments
   and law codes
                             7) Complex
3) Writing and
   record keeping
                                Technologies
4) Highly organized
   religion
                                               Chariot
5) Specialized jobs


6) Social classes




                         Bronze Sword




                                                         33
                  So, have you
                  been paying
                     attention
                 or doing a bit of
                 day dreaming?
 Can you list
 some of the                          Let‘s
elements of a                        check!
 civilization?


                                         Clue:
                                     There were 7!


                                                     34
                  Check your answers below:


                   Good job if your list includes:



            1.   Cities
            2.   Central governments and law codes
            3.   Writing and record-keeping
            4.   Specialized jobs
            5.   Social classes
            6.   Complex technologies
            7.   Highly organized religions




Good job,
 huh?

                                                     35
       By 3,000 BCE, societies in Southwest Asia and Egypt
         were developing elements of complex societies.




        Are we
      supposed
     to be taking
    notes on this?



                                                                       Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                                 Big Era 3


     10,000 years ago                        3,000 years ago   1,000 years ago   Today


                                                                                      36
By the end of Big
Era Three, about
1000 BCE, there
were several well-
   established
 civilizations in
  Afroeurasia.



                      There were
                     also two new
                      ones in the
                      Americas.


                                       At least two civilizations in
                                     Afroeurasia, the Minoan in the
                                      Mediterranean region and the
                                    Harappan in the Indus River valley
                                      had already come and gone.
                                                                         37
                          Now, looking back
                         over Big Era Three,
                        let’s review the major
                               changes.




                                                         Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                             Big Era 3


     10,000 years ago                            1,000 years ago   Today


                                                                        38
                        Domestication of Plants and Animals


                                     Farming

        Population
                                   Surplus Food       Specialization
      Intensification


                                 Complex Society,
                                  also known as
                                  CIVILIZATION
                                                                      Big Eras 4-9
Big Era 2

                                          Big Era 3

     10,000 years ago                                         1,000 years ago   Today



                                                                                     39
                        That translates into:


                            Farmers
                             Herders
                              Cities
                      Central governments
                             Armies
                      Monumental buildings
                        Written language
                       Social hierarchies
                     Complex belief systems

In 10,000 BCE none of these existed in the world. By 1,000 BCE they all did.




                                                                               40
                       Not only has life changed
                             culturally and
                       technologically, but also                                             Letters and
                        the rate of change has                                               envelopes
                             accelerated.                                          Writing

                                                                    Irrigation                           Pyramids
                                                                                         Wheel
                                                                            Copper
                                                  Temple building
                                                                            smelting Walled cities
  .                                     Dogs, sheep. goats, horses, wheat, rice,      Plow farming         Alphabet
                                        chiles, potatoes—all domesticated
                                                                                                     Chariots
                                              Pottery                     360-degree circle
                                               Sailing technology
                                                                                                    Law Codes
                                                   Regular trade routes                                          Big
                                                                                                                 Eras
                                                                     Bow & arrow                                 4-9
Big Era 1   Language                  Art                                       Calendars
                                                   Big Era 2                                               BE3

                                                                                             10k years ago
            200k yrs ago
                                                                                                     1k years ago
                                                                                                            Today




                                                                                                                    41
                  You may have noticed
                    that the difference
                   between the rate of
                  change in Big Era Two
                  and in Big Era Three is
                        enormous.


 What factors                                Make a few
  do you think                                notes and
 might account                               discuss this
    for this                                question with
increasing rate                             your teacher
  of change?                                  and fellow
                                              students.




                                                            42
  As you move on to
  Big Era Four (1,200
    BCE to 500 AD),            Do the factors you
 keep your eye on the           have identified as
 rate of change. Does          affecting the rate of
  it keep increasing?           change in Big Era
     Level off? Slow             Two and Big Era
         down?                  Three still apply?




Come to think of it, things
 changed REALLY fast In
the 20th century. I wonder
what the rate of change is
going to be like in the 21st
         century?

                                                       43
Well, that‘s all for
Big Era Three, but
  don‘t go away.




                         Hang on to
                       your notes and
                         stay tuned
                            for…




                                        44
Big Era Four!
 Coming SOON
 to a classroom
    near you.




                  45

								
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