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How to Write Letters of Resignation

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					Letter writing in English

Dr. Fatemeh Hemmati
English Language Department
University of Payame Noor
Features of the course
Features of the course are as follows.
Name: letter writing in English
Number of modules: 2
A compulsory main course for the BA students
  of English Language
Features of the course
Letter writing is usually taken in the fourth
semester of studying English language.

Prerequisites: Grammar and Writing 2,
  Developing Reading Proficiency 3
The assigned book
Letter Writing in English
Dr. Manoochehr Jafari Gohar
Payame Noor University
The aims of the course
Learners of English as a foreign /second
language need to become familiar with the
conventions of writing letters in order to be able
to communicate through written text.
The aims of the course
Letters may be written to members of society
such as friends, colleagues, and relatives or they
may be sent to or received form businessmen
to play an essential role in industry and
commerce.
The aims of the course
 Each of these types of letters have their
 specific layout and format. Therefore, the aim
 of the course is to familiarize the students with
 these conventions.
 Based on these aims, the book has been
 divided into three sections.
The main sections of the book
Major sections of the book:
1. Social correspondence
2. Business correspondence
3. Mechanics of writing
The design of the course
The first section, social correspondence, helps
 students keep in touch with those who are
 important to them.
The design of the course
 Furthermore, it gives them the chance to
 respond to messages they receive. It can also
 be beneficial in writing letters with specific
 purposes.
The design of the course
The second section, business correspondence,
 plays an essential role in industry and
 commerce. A letter sent out of a company is
 considered the representative of the firm,
The design of the course
 and thus its function is not limited to the
 transmission of information. Therefore, being
 familiar with the conventions of this type of
 correspondence can help students in making
 their future career.
The design of the course
 The last part, the mechanics of writing, intends
 to help the writers to make effective use of the
 mechanical devices of the English writing
 system to convey the necessary information as
 clearly as possible.
The main sections of part 1
Part 1, Social correspondence:

1. The layout of the letter
2. Addressing the envelop
3. Social letters on different occasions
The layout
 The Word “Layout” (or form) is used to refer
 to the general arrangement of the different
 parts of a letter.



                                  Chapter 1, the layout
The Importance of the Layout
 The layout is important because a well-
 arranged letter is more effective and appeals
 more favorably to the eye of the reader.



                                  Chapter 1, the layout
The layout
 Heading
 Personalized letterhead
 Inside address
 Salutation
 Body
 Complementary close
 Signature
 Postscript (P.S)          Chapter 1, the layout
Heading
What does it include?
The writer’s address and the date.

Where does it appear?
It is written at the top right hand corner of the
first page of the letter.
                                     Chapter 1, the layout
Heading
Example (sent to another city inside the
 country)

250 commonwealth avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02123
February 14, 1993
                                   Chapter 1, the layout
Heading
Example, (sent abroad)
Payame-Noor University
P.O.Box 19395- 4697
Tehran, Iran
May 9, 2006

                         Chapter 1, the layout
Heading
 In another style of writing a heading, there is a
 comma at the end of each line and a full stop is
 placed at the end of the last line. The day is
 given in ordinal form. Look at the following
 example:

                                    Chapter 1, the layout
Heading
Example:
Payame Noor University,
P.O. Box 19395-4697,
Tehran , Iran.
May 9th, 2005

                          Chapter 1, the layout
Heading, exceptions
When the letter does not have an inside
 address, some writers prefer to place it at the
 top left hand corner.

In very informal letters, the heading may
 include the date only and not the address.

                                     Chapter 1, the layout
Personalized letterhead
 Personalized letterhead consists of peoples‟
 initials or their full names and addresses
 printed at the top of letter papers, look at the
 following examples:

                                      Chapter 1, the layout
Personalized letterhead
========Martha Riddenhaur=========
        4723 West Niles road
       New Haven , CT 06510
Inside address
What does it contain?
 The reader’s name, title (if any), company
 division or department or civic agency, and the
 mailing address of the receiver.

                                   Chapter 1, the layout
Inside address
Where does it appear?
 At the top left hand corner of the letter single
 spaced, flush with the left margin and two
 lines above the salutation.

                                     Chapter 1, the layout
Inside address
Example:
Mr. James T. Farrell
Senior Partner
Barrows, Farrell, & Yarby, Inc
One East Madison
Chicago, IL 60603
                                 Chapter 1, the layout
salutation
What does it mean?
 The salutation is a greeting to the person to
 whom you are writing. (The written equivalent
 of the conversational „hello‟ or „how do you
 do‟)

                                 Chapter 1, the layout
salutation
Where does it appear?
 Two lines down from the inside address (if
 any), or two lines up from the first sentence of
 your letter, flush with the left margin.

                                    Chapter 1, the layout
salutation
Why is it important to know the proper form of
 salutation?
There are two reasons:
salutation
1. It is good etiquette.

2. It can help to ensure that the recipient takes
   the letter more seriously.


                                      Chapter 1, the layout
salutation

How do you decide which form of salutation to
 use?
It depends on two factors:
salutation
1. The degree of formality of your letter

2. whether you know the recipient‟s name or
   not

                                   Chapter 1, the layout
salutation
Example :
Dear John: to a friend
Dear Mr. Smith: to a man
Dear Miss Smith: to an unmarried woman
Dear Mrs. Smith: to a married woman
Dear Ms. Smith: to a woman whose marital
 status is not known              Chapter 1, the layout
salutation
Attention
You can write : “Dear Reza” but NOT dear
 cousin Reza.

You can write : “Dear Mr. smith” but NOT dear
 Mr. John Smith.
                                  Chapter 1, the layout
Body
It begins two lines down from the salutation.

Paragraphs are typed single spaced with
 double space between them.

As a common practice, it is divided into three
 segments : opening, middle and closing.
                                    Chapter 1, the layout
Body, opening

Establishes the purpose of the letter.

Contains either the main point or important
 preliminary information.

                                    Chapter 1, the layout
Body, middle
It presents the purpose of writing as well as
 supporting, explaining and elaborating the
 main point.

It contains the points that need to be made,
 answers you wish to give or questions you
 want to ask.
                                    Chapter 1, the layout
Body, closing
You may repeat the main point(s) of the letter.

Inform the reader what action or response you
 expect.

Bring the letter to an end with a polite wish
 (depending on the degree of formality).
                                     Chapter 1, the layout
Body
Attention
 In many letters, you may not be able to find the
 three sections (opening, middle and closing )
 in separate paragraphs.

                                   Chapter 1, the layout
Complimentary close
In all complimentary closes the first word is
capitalized and they are followed by a comma.

Formal and informal correspondences require
different complimentary closes.

                                Chapter 1, the layout
Complimentary close
Example:
 Very formal :
  Respectfully yours, respectfully,
 Formal :
  Yours Faithfully, very truly yours,
 Informal :
  Best wishes, regards,            Chapter 1, the layout
Complimentary close
Attention
 Do not forget that the way you close a letter
 depends on how you opened it.

                                  Chapter 1, the layout
Signature Block
The signature block contains your name and,
 in formal correspondence your title.

Your letter format determines where the
signature block is placed.

                                  Chapter 1, the layout
Postscript (P.S)
The postscript is typed two lines below the
 signature.

Postscript (P.S) is used when the writer
 decides to add something to the letter which
 has been closed.

                                    Chapter 1, the layout
Addressing the Envelope
The order for informal letters:
 Name ( including any titles )

Street address and suite or apartment number

City and state plus Zip Code

Country (if sent abroad)   Chapter 2, addressing the envelope
Addressing the Envelope

 M.Korson
                                         Stamp
 251 Morningside
 Dr.
 Everest, in 46715


                     Ms. Surleen Ellis
                     14 Roundtree LN
                     Barton, WA 98015
Addressing the envelope
The order for Formal Letters:
Name of individual, company or agency

Title of individual

Department or division
Addressing the envelope
Company, agency or institutions name

Street address plus suite, room, floor number

Post office box number

City, State and Zip Code   Chapter 2, addressing the envelope
Social letters on different
Occasions
Letters of social obligation

Letters of friendship

Letters of personal business

                 Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Social letters on different
Occasions


                    1)   Invitations
                    2)   Replying to
Letters of Social        invitations
Obligation          3)   Congratulations
                    4)   Condolences
                    5)   Thank you notes
Invitations
 Invitations can be formal or informal.
 Certain rules should be followed in writing
 invitations:
 Indicate the kind of occasion, the place, the
 date and the time the guests are expected to
 arrive.

                Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
invitations
Formal invitations are written in the third
 person.

If a reply is required, the abbreviations
 R.S.V.P is written in the lower left hand
 corner.
                   Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Replying to invitations

Give a prompt and definite answer.
If accepting the invitation, imply a “thank you”
 and convey the thought that you were pleased
 by the invitation.
Example:
We are delighted to accept…

                  Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Replying to invitations
If declining, a note of regret should give the
 reason for declining.

Example:
 I am sincerely sorry that John and I cannot join
  your dinner party…
                   Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Congratulations

Write the letter as soon as you hear the good
 news.

Write sincerely and cheerfully.

Mention the occasion and focus on the
 special event.
                   Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Congratulations
 Congratulations are sent on different occasions
 such as marriages, engagements,
 anniversaries, birth days, graduations and so
 on. Therefore, the words that you choose must
 be appropriate for each particular situation.

                   Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Congratulations
Almost all congratulation letters contain a phrase
 or sentence with “congratulations” or
 “congratulate”.
Example:
Congratulations on your birthday!
May an old friend congratulate you…
                   Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Congratulations
 In congratulations on marriages you either
  write to one of the married couple or to both of
  them. In the former case, send best wishes to
  one of them and ask her/him to give your
  congratulations to the other one.
                  Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Congratulations
 In congratulation letters on graduation,
 comment on any special effort or
 achievement the graduate made during his or
 her school or college career.

                  Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Condolences
Write the letter as soon as you hear the news.

The best condolence letter is sincere and brief.
 People dealing with grief or shock are often
 unable to read long letters.

                  Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Condolences
A condolence letter should be written simply
and clearly. First, express your feeling about
the loss.
Example:
We have just heard with profound regret the
sad news.

                 Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Condolences
Then, express your feeling about the deceased.
 Example:
 Everyone who knew Jim loved him.

At the end, offer your help (if you wish) and
 close your letter.
                  Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Thank you letters
 They should be sent promptly and they should
 focus on the thank you message.

 Example:
 My thanks for your generous hospitality…

                Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Letters of Friendship
While writing letters of friendship, imagine
 you are talking to the reader face to face.

Start the letter with an interesting sentence and
 close it with a cheerful and positive note.

                   Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Letters of personal business

              1.   Letters of complaint
              2.   Letters of damage apology
 Letters of   3.   Letters of recommendation
 personal     4.   Letters of application
 Business     5.   Letters of request
              6.   Letters of resignation
              7.   Resume
Letters of complaint
 In letters of complaint you should write about
 the problem very precisely and clearly.
 Mention the date, the reference number, or
 any other information that can help the
 company to detect the problem.

                   Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
A letter of damage apology
In a letter of damage apology, first you should
 apologize for the damage.

Then, move on to explain how you are going
 to compensate for the damage.

At the end, ensure the reader that it won’t
 happen again.
Letters of recommendation
 Letters of recommendation are written when a
 company or a university asks you to provide
 references. These letters are considered
 confidential and they are not always in favor of
 the bearer.

                  Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
A letter of application
 An application letter carries the burden of
 attracting attention, creating interest and
 doing a substantial part of the job of
 convincing your prospective employer to
 accept you.

                 Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Letters of request
 In your initial letter of request (i.e., to a
 university), you give a few facts about
 yourself and the education you have
 received. The more detailed you are, the
 better. Try to tell them what you want.

                     Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Letters of resignation
In a letter of resignation you start with writing
 about the time you have been with your
 employer.

Then, explain the reason for resignation.

At the end, thank them and wish for later
 collaboration.
Resumes (curriculum vitae)
 The Resume is probably the most important
 personal business letter. It includes your name,
 address, telephone number, e-mail address,
 work experience, education and the name
 and address of your references.

                  Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions
Business correspondence

          Part 2

   Business correspondence
Business Correspondence
The layout :
       1. Letterhead
       2. Dateline
       3. Inside address
       4. Reference line
       5. Salutations
       6. Subject line
Business Correspondence
    7. Body
    8. Complimentary close
    9. Company signature
    10. Signers identification
    11. Reference line
    12. Enclosure reminder
    13. “cc” notation
Letterhead
   It consists of the name, the address and
   sometimes the telephone or fax number of
   the company printed at the top of the page.



Business correspondence, chapter 1


                                             1
Letterhead
   Attention:
   If there is not a printed letterhead, the sender‟s
   address is written on the top right hand corner
   of the page.

Business correspondence, chapter 1
Dateline
   Dateline appears a few lines below the
   letterhead on the right side of the page,
   otherwise, it is written below the senders
   address.

Business correspondence, chapter 1



                                                2
Dateline
   The month of the date should not be written in
   figures because they might confuse the reader.
   For example, 12.2.1990 means 12th of
   February 1990 in the UK, but 2nd of December
   in the USA.

Business correspondence, chapter 1
Inside address
It consists of the reader’s name and address
 written below the senders address and on the
 opposite side of the page.

The order of the lines is the same as the social
 letters.
Business correspondence, chapter 1

                                             3
Inside address
 When the name of the receiver is not known,
 either his/her title or the name of the particular
 department of a company can be written.
Reference line

             attention line

 Reference
             personal and confidential
    line

             other reference lines
Attention line
   Attention line is used to alert the person you
   are writing to or to make sure that your letter
   will be opened even if the recipient is absent.



Business correspondence, chapter 1


                                              4
Attention line
   Attention line is typed two lines below the
   inside address and may be centered on the
   page or typed flush with the left. The word
   “Attention” is used with its first letter
   capitalized and followed by a colon.

Business correspondence, chapter 1
Personal and confidential

   Personal and confidential words are used for
   strictly personal matters, and they indicate
   that only the recipient should open the letter.
   They are placed four lines above the inside
   address and they are underlined.
Business correspondence, chapter 1
Other reference lines

The function of other reference lines :
  to mention some document numbers, serial
 numbers …
The place of other reference lines :
  typed four lines below the date, flush with the
 right margin, and on the same line as the first
 line of the inside address. Business correspondence, chapter 1
Business letters, salutation

The same as social letters, but in a more formal
 manner.
Dear sirs: used to address a company in the UK
Gentlemen: used to address a company in the
 USA

                                            5
Business letters, salutation
   Dear Sir or Madam or ladies and gentlemen:
   Used to address a person of whom you neither
   know the name or the gender

 A colon or a comma usually follows a
 salutation.
Business correspondence, chapter 1
Business letters, salutation

   The salutation “to whom it may concern” is
   used when we do not know who should read
   our letter.

Business correspondence, chapter 1
Business letters, subject line

The function of subject line :
 Tells the reader what the letter is about, so that
 he can decide whether it needs immediate
 attention or not.
                                                 6
The place of subject line :
 Below the salutation, underlined or typed in
 capitals.
Business letters, body

The function of the body :
 The same as social letters, carries the actual
 message.

The place of the body :
 Below the salutation or the subject line     7
Business letters, complementary
close
   The kind of complementary close depends on
   the general tone and the degree of formality
   of the letter.


Business correspondence, chapter 1         8
Business letters, Company
signature

 Company signature is used in cases when the
 signer of the letter is writing as the
 spokesperson for the company, and not as an
 individual.


                                         9
Business letters, signer’s
identification
 The signer‟s identification includes the
 signer‟s name and any relevant title.

 It is typed four lines below the complementary
 close to provide enough space for the
 signature.

                                             10
Business letters, reference initials

The function of reference initials:
 shows who prepared the letter (the signer‟s and
 the typist‟s initials)
                                           11
The position of reference initials:
 usually at the bottom or sometimes on the top
 of the letter.
Business letters, enclosure
reminder

The function of the enclosure reminder is to
 help the reader not to discard the enclosed
 items by mistake.

It consists of the word enclosure followed by a
 list of enclosed items.
                                           12
Business letters, ‘cc’ notation
 „cc‟ notation stands for carbon copy and tells
 the reader who has been sent a copy of the
 letter.




                                           13
Formats of Business letters

           1. Full-Blocked
           2. Blocked
  Letter
 Formats   3. Semi-Blocked
           4. Square-Blocked
           5. Simplified
Formats of Business letters
                        Full-Blocked
   Features:

All lines flush with the left margin,

No paragraphs are indented.
Business correspondence, chapter 2
Formats of Business letters
                           Blocked
 Features:
 Date line is flush with the right margin.

Heading or inside address, salutation,
 reference lines and paragraphs are set flush
 with the left margin.
Business correspondence, chapter 2
Formats of Business letters
Complementary close and signature are
 aligned with the date.

The date line may ed at the right margin; the
 attention and subject lines may be centered or
 indented 5 or 10 spaces
Business correspondence, chapter 2
Formats of Business letters
             Semi-Blocked
Features:
Date is flush with the right margin, heading or
  inside address with the left margin.

Paragraphs are indented.

Complementary close and signature line are
 slightly to the right of the page‟s center.
Formats of Business letters
            Square-Blocked
Features:
 The same as full-blocked with two
  differences:
The date is typed on the same line as the start
  of the inside address.
Reference initials and enclosure reminder are
  typed on the same line as the signature.
Formats of Business letters
              Simplified
Features:
 No salutation or complementary close.
 All lines begin flush with the left margin.
 Date is six lines below the letterhead.
 Inside address is four or more lines below the
  date line.
Formats of Business letters
Subject line is typed in all capital letters three
 lines below the inside address and above the
 body.
Writer‟s name and title are typed in capitals.


Business correspondence, chapter 2
Business letters on different
occasions
     Business letters on different occasions:

1.   Letters of inquiry and their replies
2.   Letters of order
3.   Letters of complains and their replies
4.   Letters of credit and their replies
5.   Letters of collection
Business letters, letters of inquiry

            Letters of inquiry
The content of an inquiry letter depends on three
   things:
1. How well you know the supplier.
2. Whether your supplier is in your country or
   abroad.
3. The kind of goods you are inquiring about.
Business letters, letters of inquiry


At the opening of an inquiry letter, tell the
 supplier what kind of firm you are and how
 you have come to his company.
Make it clear what exactly you want them to
 do for you.
Bring the letter to an end with a “thank you”.
Business letters, letters of inquiry

           Reply to inquiry letters
Thank the inquirer, mention the date of his
 letter and mention his name in your salutation!

Tell him if you can help him or not.

Encourage your prospective customer to do
 business with you.
Business letters, letters of inquiry


Let the inquirer know whether you are
 enclosing what he has asked for or if he will
 receive them later.
At the end encourage more inquiries!
Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of inquiry


If a letter of inquiry asks for a product or service
   which is not presented by your company, let
   the inquirer know that and, if possible, refer
   him to another supplier.

Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of order

Include complete, accurate information in your
  order letter because incomplete orders result in
  delayed delivery, and inaccurate facts result in
  receiving wrong goods.

Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of
complaint
          Letters of complaint
Write the letter as soon as you discover the
 mistake.
Do not apologize for your complaint!
Write firmly, but politely.
Avoid unnecessary threats, exaggerated
 statements, and loss of temper.
Business letters, letters of
complaint
      Replies to letters of complaint
Inform the writer that you have received the
 complaint and thank your customer for telling
 you about the problem.

Tell him what you are going to do about the
 complaint.
Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of
complaint
If you accept that a mistake has taken place,
 explain how it has happened, but do not blame
 the staff of your company.

Tell the customer that you will put the matters
 right as soon as possible.
Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of
complaint
In closing, assure the customer that the mistake
 was an exception and apologize for the
 inconveniences.

If you are rejecting the complaint, be firm, but
 polite.
Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of credit
Open your letter of credit by stating the point
 and the type of credit you want.

Convince the supplier to grant you the credit,
 mention your previous dealings (if any), your
 reputation and offer references.

Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of credit
        Replying to credit requests
If you agree with the credit, you might ask for
 more information or set your own conditions
 for granting the credit.

If rejecting, mention the reasons, but be careful
 not to offend the customer.

Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of
collection
          Letters of collection
The main purpose of a collection letter is to
 ask you customers to pay the money they owe
 you.
Ask for payment without offending and,
 consequently, losing the customer.
Business correspondence, chapter 3
Business letters, letters of
collection
The first letter of collection is the mildest and
 most understanding. Because your customer
 might simply have made a mistake. The
 successive letters get stronger in tone.

The second request is sent if the customer does
 not answer the first request or acknowledge it
 but still fails to pay.
Business letters, letters of
collection
The last collection letter reviews the situation
 since the account should have been paid. You
 can explain that you have been patient.

You may threaten to turn the matter over to a
 lawyer or a collection agency.

Business correspondence, chapter 3
Part 3, The mechanics of writing
                    Part three
            The mechanics of writing
1.   Punctuation
2.   Capitalization
3.   Plurals
4.   Abbreviations
5.   numbers
Punctuation

Punctuation marks play an important role in
 the English writing system in clarifying the
 structure and meaning of sentences.

They separate groups of words for meaning
 and emphasis.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation

   Punctuation marks indicate differences in
   pitch, volume, pauses, and intonation of the
   spoken language; and they help making the
   meaning of sentences unambiguous.


part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation

   Remember that in some cases not all writers
   agree on using a fixed pattern of punctuation.
   Consequently, they might punctuate the same
   sentence quite differently.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, ampersand

             Ampersand (&)
Ampersand is a symbol used instead of the
 word “and”.

Use it when a shorter form is preferable, but
 not in regular texts in correspondence.
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, ampersand

Use ampersand in the name of companies but
 not in the names of agencies that are part of the
 government:

Dow Jones & Company, Inc.
Securities and exchange commission

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, apostrophe

            Apostrophe ( ‟ )
The apostrophe is generally used in three
   different ways:
1. In the possessive forms: the boy‟s mother,
   the boss‟s desk, students‟ books, the Cohen‟s
   house

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, apostrophe

2. In the contractions:
I‟d = I would, it‟s = it is

3. In making special plurals:
    The A‟s in the letterhead should be
    capitalized.
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, brackets

              Brackets ( [ ] )
They are used as parentheses that are placed
 within parentheses:
The role of business in American life has often
 been the subject of our fiction ( see, for
 example, the novels of Howells [1873-1920] ).
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, brackets

 They are used to show the additional words
 within a quotation, editorial comments,
 corrections, clarifications, or other material
 inserted into a text:
Punctuation, brackets
  Example:
  This was the first time since it became law that
   the twenty-first amendment [outlining
   procedures for the replacement of a dead
   president] has been invoked.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, colon

                Colon( : )
The colon can be called the mark of introduction.
 It shows the reader that what follows the colon
 is related to what has been used before it.


part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, colon

The colon is used to introduce a clause or
 phrase that explains, illustrates, amplifies, or
 restates what has been said before.

 The paragraph was poorly constructed: it
  lacked both unity and coherence.
Punctuation, colon

A colon is used to introduce a list.

   The conference was attended by
   representatives of five nations: England,
   France, Belgium, Spain and Italy.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, colon

A colon is used before a quotation, after the
 salutation of a formal letter and between a title
 and a subtitle.
Example
Word processing: an introduction

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, colon

A colon is used to separate the elements in a
 page reference.

Journal of the American Medical Association
  48:356


part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, colon

Finally, a colon is used between the hour and
 the minute of a time reference.

   11:20 A.M.


part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

          comma (,)
Comma is used more than any other
 punctuation mark in the English writing
 system.

A comma is used to separate main clauses
 joined by and, but, or …
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

The acoustics in this hall are very good, so every
 note is clear.
The comma is used to set off the adverbial
 clauses and phrases that come before a main
 clause.
Having made that decision, we turned our
 attention to other matters.
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

The comma is used to separate items in a
 series or list.

John has studied marketing, salesmanship, and
  advertising.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

Commas are used to set off an interrupting
 expression in a sentence.

The chairman of the board, not the stockholders,
 made the decision.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

A comma is used to separate the adjectives
 that are listed before a noun, provided that it is
 possible to put an „and‟ between the adjectives.

Our company is going to employ courteous
 knowledgeable, helpful salespeople.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

Commas are used to separate thousands,
 hundreds, hundred thousands, etc.

$8,765,543,321
Street numbers and zip codes, telephone
  numbers, decimals, serial or account numbers
  and weights and measures are exceptions.
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

Commas are used to set of words in direct
 address.
We would like to discuss your account, Mrs.
 Reid.

A comma is used before a direct question.
I wonder, what is going on here?
Punctuation, comma

The comma is used between surnames and the
 academic, honorary, military, or religious
 degrees or titles.

Robert Menard, M.A., Ph.D.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

In informal letters, the comma is used after the
 salutation, and in formal and informal letters
 after the complementary close.
When the coming together of two words or
 expressions may cause ambiguity, the comma
 can help.
Whatever will be, will be.
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

 Situations where a comma SHOULD NOT
  be used:

1. To separate items in a series that are joined
   with conjunctions

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, comma

2. To separate an adverb from the adjective or
   adverb that it modifies
3. To separate adjectives if the first one
   modifies the second one
4. With either…or, neither…nor, and not
   only… but also
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, dash

                  Dash (-)
   The dash can function like a comma, a colon, a
   pair of parentheses, or a pair of brackets.
   Therefore, it is not an obligatory punctuation
   mark.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, dash

The dash is used to show an abrupt change or
 break in the structure of a sentence.

The board of directors seem happy with the
 change, but the shareholders - there is the
 problem.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, dash

    Dashes are also used to show:
1.   Interrupted speech,
2.   Emphasis on part of the sentence,
3.   Defining and enumerating phrases,
4.   Setting off the material introduced by such
     phrases as for example.
Punctuation, exclamation mark

          exclamation point (!)
The main function of the exclamation point is
 that of reinforcing the attitudes and emotions
 expressed in the sentence.

What an extraordinary invention!

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, hyphen

                 hyphen (-)
The hyphen is used to join two or more words
 into a compound:
Do-it-yourself instruction booklet

The hyphen is used with compound numbers
 from 21 to 99 and with fractions:
Thirty-eight        four-fifth
Punctuation, hyphen

The hyphen is used with such prefixes as ex-,
 all-, self-, and pro-.
 Self-help

A hyphen may be used to divide a word at the
 end of a line. This should only be done
 between syllables.
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, hyphen

A hyphen can be used as an equivalent to the
  phrase up to and including when placed
  between numbers and dashes.
  35-40 years
Hyphens indicate a word spelled out letter by
  letter.
-p-r-o-b-a-t-i-o-n
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, parentheses

           parentheses ( )
Parentheses are used to enclose the
 supplementary material that is inserted into the
 main sentence.
Although we liked the applicant (her
 background, training, and experience were
 excellent), we were not ready to hire anyone at
 that point.
Punctuation, parentheses

Phrases and clauses introduced by expressions
 such as namely, that is, e.g., and i.e., are
 placed within parentheses. Although this
 function can be performed by commas, dashes,
 and semicolons.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, parentheses

Definitions or translations, abbreviations used
 after the full forms or spelled forms after
 abbreviations are placed within parentheses.

The hotel was located just a few blocks from San
 Antonio‟s famous Paseo del Rio (river walk).

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, parentheses

 She referred to a ruling by the Federal
 Communications Commission (FCC).
Parentheses are used to set off cross-
 references.
 The diagram (fig. 3) illustrates the action of the
 pump.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, parentheses

Parentheses are used for enumeration within a
 sentence.

You will need the following: (1) your resume,
 (2) letters of reference, and (3) an application
 form.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, period

               period (.)
A period is used at the end of a sentence or a
 sentence fragment that is not a question or an
 exclamation.

A period is used to punctuate some
 abbreviations: e.g.
Punctuation, period

A period is used with a person‟s initials:
 F. Scott Fitzgrald

A period is used after Roman and Arabic
 numerals and also letters when they are used
 without parentheses in outlines and vertical
 enumerations:
Punctuation, period

 I. Objectives
     A. Economy
        1. Low initial cost
         2. Low maintenance cost
A period is placed within quotation marks
  even when it does not punctuate the quoted
  material.
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, period

Three spaced periods which is called ellipsis is
 used within a quotation to indicate omitted
 word or words:


part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, period

President Ross began his address to the directors
  by saying, “the age of the personal computer
  has just begun. This company … , we expect
  to sell thousands of them next year.


part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, period

 Periods should not be used in the following
   situations:
1. After a heading or a title:
   Chapter one: verbs and subjects


part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, period

2. When the numbers or letters of a list have
   been enclosed in parentheses:
The following factors will be considered: (a)
   attendance, (b) punctuality, and (c)
   performance.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, period

3. After even amounts of dollars:
your check for $40 has been received.

4. After a sentence ending in a punctuated
   abbreviation:
  our gust speaker is Mark More. Ph.D.
Punctuation, question mark

             Question Mark (?)
It is used at the end of a direct question.

It is also used at the end of an interrogative
 element that is part of a sentence, but not at
 the end of an indirect question:
Punctuation, question mark

Interrogative element as part of a sentence:
She wondered, will it work?

Indirect question:
She wondered whether it would work.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, question mark

The question mark is sometimes used to show
  that the writer is not sure about a fact:
Susan O‟Hara, advertising vice president (?)of
  the corporation.


part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, quotation marks

        Quotation Marks (“ ”)
Quotation marks enclose direct quotations:
She said: “I am leaving.”

Fragments of directly quoted matter are
 enclosed within quotation marks:
Punctuation, quotation marks

The agreement makes it clear that he “will be
 paid only on condition.”

Words borrowed from others, words used in a
 special way, and very informal words used in
 formal texts are enclosed within quotation
 marks.
part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, quotation marks

Quotation marks are used to enclose
 translation of foreign or borrowed words. They
 are also used to enclose certain titles:
 short stories, essays, articles poems, and
 chapters.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, quotation marks

A quote within a quote is enclosed within
 single quotation marks:

He noted: “we all have at least one friend who
 brags, „I never buy anything of credit.‟ don‟t
 we?”

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, semicolon
             Semicolon ( ; )
A semicolon is used between two independent
 clauses that are not joined with a coordinating
 conjunction:
 He thought very deeply for one or two hours;
 he couldn‟t make up his mind.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, semicolon

A semicolon joins two clauses when the
   second one begins with words or phrases like:
   accordingly, furthermore, as a result, therefore,
   …
It is not easy to deal with the problem; however,
   a decision must be made.

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, virgule or slash mark

          Virgule or slash mark (/)
A virgule presents the word per or to when used
  with units of measure or when used to show
  the terms of a ratio:
40,000 tons/year
A 50/50 split

part 3, chapter 1
Punctuation, virgule or slash mark

Virgule is used to separate alternatives:
His/her
A virgule is used instead of the word and in
  some compound words and to punctuate some
  abbreviations:
In the May/June issue
- A/V
part 3, chapter 2
Capitalization

             Capitalization
 The first word of a sentence or a sentence
 fragment, the first word of a direct quotation,
 the first word of a sentence used within
 another sentence,
Capitalization

   the first word in an outline heading, the first
   word of the salutation and the complementary
   close of a letter are capitalized.


part 3, chapter 2
Capitalization

   The names and initials of persons, abbreviated
   forms of proper nouns and adjectives, names
   of awards, honors and prizes are capitalized.


part 3, chapter 2
Capitalization

   The names of streets, monuments, parks,
   landmarks, well-known buildings and other
   public places, the full names of wars and
   revolutions, words of divisions of earth‟s
   surface and district areas, regions, places or
   districts are capitalized.

part 3, chapter 2
Capitalization

   Words designating the deity, and also personal
   pronouns referring to it, the names of the days
   of the week, months of the year, and holidays
   and holy days are capitalized.


part 3, chapter 2
Capitalization

 The names of languages, nationalities,
 peoples, races, religious groups, and tribes are
 capitalized.
Words in titles of books, long poems,
 magazines, plays, movies and works of arts are
 capitalized (except for words like a, an, and
 …)
Plurals

                  Plurals
You are already familiar with irregular forms
  of plurals in English. Some famous examples
  are:
Foot      feet
Child      children
Life       lives
part 3, chapter 3
Plurals

Punctuated abbreviations of single words are
 made plural by adding s before the period:
 figs.

 Abbreviations that are not punctuated and
 stand for phrases or compound words are made
 plural by taking s.

part 3, chapter 3
Plurals

Punctuated abbreviations that stand for phrases
 or compounds are made plural by adding ‟s
 after the last period:
 Ph.D.‟s

The units of measure have the same form for
 plural and singular:
 24 ml
Plurals

In most compounds that are made up of two
   nouns, the final element should be made
   plural:
tree house tree houses

part 3, chapter 3
Plurals

In the compounds that consist of an er agent
 noun and an adverb, the noun element is
 plural:
 Hanger-on       hangers-on
Nouns that consist of words that are not nouns,
 form their plurals on the last element:
 put-down       put-downs
Plurals

Some compounds are separated by a
 preposition. These form their plurals on the
 first noun:
 mother-in-law mothers-in-law


part 3, chapter 3
Plurals

Letters take an apostrophe and an s to become
 plurals:
 Dot your I‟s and j‟s.

Numbers become plural by taking an s:
 In twos and threes
part 3, chapter 3
Abbreviations

 Some generally agreed patterns governing
  the use of abbreviations are the following:

1. Titles such as Mr., Mrs., Dr., and St. are
   always abbreviated when they are used
   before a noun.
part 3, chapter 4
Abbreviations

2. Abbreviations such as Prof., Gov., Sen., and
   Rep. may be used before a full name.
   However, only if the last name is used, the
   title is spelled out:
    Prof. Fred Farkes
    Governor Barnes
part 3, chapter 4
Abbreviations

3. The titles that are used after names must be
   spelled out, except Esq., Jr., and Sr., and
   academic, professional and religious
   designations:
    F. Farkes, Professor
    Fred Farkes, Ph.D.
part 3, chapter 4
Abbreviations

4. The names of firms are abbreviated only
   when the company prefers it.
5. The designations A.D. and B.C. are always
   abbreviated.
6. The abbreviations A.M. and P.M. are always
   used in the abbreviated form.
part 3, chapter 4
Numbers

A writer‟s major difficulty regarding numbers
 is whether to write out numbers or to express
 them in figures.

In the following cases numbers should be
 spelled out:
part 3, chapter 4
Numbers

1. Numbers that begin a sentence
2. Large round numbers
3. Time expressed as a number alone or with
   the word o‟clock: four in the afternoon

However, with A.M. and P.M. figures are used:
  4:00 P.M.
part 3, chapter 5
Numbers

In the following cases numbers should be
 indicated with figures:

-   Addresses
-   Decimals

part 3, chapter 5
Numbers
When two numbers are used together, the first
 one is indicated in figures and the second one
 is spelled out.

2 five-dollar bills
5 ten-meter pipes

part 3, chapter 5
                                     Flanagan’s Department store

                                 1       12207 sunset strip
                                                                                             Return
                                     Los Angeles, California 91417

                                                                     2   June 7, 2006
     Ketchum collection agency
3    1267 Hollywood Boulevard
     Los Angeles, California 91401

4    ATTENTION: MS. TERRY ROBERTS

5    Gentlemen:

6    Subject: Mr. Gary Daniels, Account # 69 112 003

     …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
     ……………………………………………………………………………………………….
7    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
     …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
     ………………………………..

                                                                      8 Sincerely yours,
                                                                      9 FLANAGAN’S DEPARTMENT STORE
                                                                        Martha Fayman
11   MF/wg
                                                                     10 Credit manager
12   Enclosure
     Cc Mr. Norman Hyman
13

				
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