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Technical Editing Rude - PowerPoint

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									although, but, however

  All of these words join clauses in
  sentences, but they are different
  parts of speech.
  This presentation explains the impact
  of the word choice on sentence
  pattern and punctuation.
although, but, however
Semantic similarity

 These three words are related
 semantically (in meaning):

 they all signal a contrast in the
 information that follows with the
 information that precedes.



             For use with Technical Editing 3e   2
although, but, however
Structural difference
However, these words differ
structurally: they are different parts
of speech and affect sentence patterns
in different ways.




             For use with Technical Editing 3e   3
Semantic similarity
Structural difference


  An editor needs to know the
  structural difference in order to
  punctuate sentences correctly.




            For use with Technical Editing 3e   4
although, but, however

sentence patterns and
punctuation

    Punctuation errors can result from
     using the words as
     interchangeable.
    Misreading can result from errors.




                   For use with Technical Editing 3e   5
parts of speech

word       part of speech effect on sentence

although   subordinating makes clause
           conjunction   dependent
but        coordinating                 joins like things
           conjunction                  (2 independent
                                        clauses)
however    conjunctive                  modifies an
           adverb                       independent clause


             For use with Technical Editing 3e         6
sentence analysis
Compound sentence, coordinating
conjunction

   I have studied the textbook, but
   I am still confused.

    coordinating conjunction (“but”)
    two independent clauses (“I have
     studied” and “I am”)
    compound sentence: comma separates
     clauses with a coordinating conjunction


                    For use with Technical Editing 3e   7
sentence analysis
Complex sentence, subordinating
conjunction

   Although I have studied the
   textbook, I am still confused.

      two clauses (2 pairs of subject + verb)
      subordinating conjunction (“although”)
      dependent clause
      complex sentence: comma after the
       introductory clause


                    For use with Technical Editing 3e   8
sentence analysis
Complex sentence, subordinating
conjunction

   I have studied the textbook;
   however, I am still confused.

    conjunctive adverb (joins clauses but
     does not affect sentence pattern)
    two independent clauses
    compound sentence, no coordinating
     conjunction-->semicolon


                    For use with Technical Editing 3e   9
sentence analysis
Two simple sentences, “however” as
adverb in one

  I am confused.
  I have, however, studied the
  textbook.

   “however” is an adverb
   two simple sentences
   the adverb is interrupting material
    that requires a pair of commas

                    For use with Technical Editing 3e   10
Review              although, but, however


 Parts of speech affect sentence patterns.
 Although, but, and however are different
  parts of speech.
    although--subordinating conjunction
    but--coordinating conjunction
    however--conjunctive adverb




              For use with Technical Editing 3e   11
Review: sentence types
compound sentence =
 two independent clauses
   join with comma plus coordinating conjunction
   join with a semicolon
complex sentence =
 one independent clause,
 one dependent clause
   join with a comma or nothing (never a
    semicolon)


                For use with Technical Editing 3e   12
Review            although, but, however


 Although makes a clause dependent
  and the sentence complex.
 But joins independent clauses in a
  compound sentence.
 However can join independent
  clauses but does not change their
  independence.


            For use with Technical Editing 3e   13
Editing:   original sentence (punctuation
error)

 When editors analyze sentence
  structure, they punctuate
  correctly; although it is easy to
  confuse different parts of speech.




             For use with Technical Editing 3e   14
Editing:   analysis
                                                 dependent clause
When editors analyze                             (“when” is a
                                                 subordinating
sentence structure,                              conjunction)

they punctuate correctly                         independent
                                                 clause (S+V)

although it is easy to                           dependent clause
                                                 (S+V +
confuse different parts of                       subordinating
speech.                                          conjunction)


             For use with Technical Editing 3e                  15
Option #1 for punctuation

 Delete the semicolon (or replace it with a
 comma): maintain complex sentence

 When editors analyze sentence
 structure, they punctuate
 correctly although it is easy to
 confuse different parts of speech.


               For use with Technical Editing 3e   16
Option #2 for punctuation

 Replace although with however and retain
 the semicolon: create a compound-
 complex sentence (includes 2 independent
 clauses)
 When editors analyze sentence
 structure, they punctuate
 correctly; however, it is easy to
 confuse different parts of speech.


              For use with Technical Editing 3e   17
Choosing an option
In this case, the second option is
 probably better.

The sentence is long and difficult.
 Subordination and lack of punctuation
 increase reading difficulty. Coordination
 creates parallel structure, which aids
 comparison.



              For use with Technical Editing 3e   18
although, but, however
 know parts of speech
 know the ways these words affect
  clauses
 punctuate according to structure




            For use with Technical Editing 3e   19

								
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