Change Management Lecture 2 Images of Managing Change Images of Managing • Controlling… Top-down view of management Fayol‟s theory of management: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. • Shaping… Participative style of management Improving the capabilities of people within the organization Images of Change Outcomes • Intended Change: Change is a result of planned action • Partially Intended Change: Change may need to be re-modified after it is initially implemented • Unintended Change: Forces beyond the control of the change manager Images of Change Managers Images of Managing Controlling . . . Shaping . . . (activities) (capabilities) Intended DIRECTOR COACH Images of Change Partially Intended NAVIGATOR INTERPRETER Outcomes Unintended CARETAKER NURTURER Images of Change Managers Director Coach • Based on an image of • Relies upon building in management as control the right set of values, and of change outcomes skills and “drills” that are deemed to be the best as being achievable. ones that organizational • Supported by the n-step members will be able to models and contingency draw on in order to theory. achieve desired organizational outcomes. • Related to organizational development approaches. Images of Change Managers Navigator Interpreter • Control is still seen to be at • The manager creates the heart of management meaning for other action, although a variety of organizational members, factors external to helping them to make sense managers mean that while of various organizational they may achieve some events and actions. intended change outcomes, • Supported by the sense- others will occur over which making theory of they have little control. organizational change and • Supported by the concept of „enactment‟ contextualist and processual theories of change. Images of Change Managers Caretaker Nurturer • The change manager‟s • Even small changes may have a large impact on ability to control is organizations and severely impeded by a managers are not able to variety of internal and control the outcome of external forces beyond these changes. However, the scope of the they may nurture their manager. The caretaker organizations, facilitating organizational qualities is seen as shepherding that enable positive self- their organizations along organizing to occur. as best they can. • Related to chaos and • Supported by life-cycle, Confucian/Taoist theories. population-ecology and institutional theories. Questions • To what extent are you more comfortable with one or other of the six images? Why is this the case? • What are the strengths and limitations of the images that you have identified as most relevant to you? • What skills do you think are associated with each image? Are there areas of personal skill development that are needed for you to feel more comfortable in using other images? • Have you ever been in an organization that was dominated by particular images? What barriers to alternative images existed in this organization? What strategies could overcome these barriers? Key Uses of Multiple Images • Surfacing our assumptions about change Images simplify & illuminate but also obscure • Assessing dominant images of change To what degree are some images seen as natural and not open to negotiation in certain organizations • Using multiple images in change Image-in-use might depend on the type of change Image-in-use might depend on the context Image-in-use might depend on the phase of change Multiple change images can also co-exist • Skilled change managers are able to swap images or even manage multiple images simultaneously Success • Typical questions about change: Was it managed well? What went right? What went wrong? Did we get the outcome we were after? • Do these questions assume a certain image of change? • How does each image assess success? Which images have “non-traditional” success measures? “Judgments of success are conditional on who is doing the assessment and when the judgments are made” Is this true? Group Exercise • Take your group‟s stories from last session Which images of change did you come across? How did these images affect the way the various actors approached change? Do the images used vary by the type, context, or phase of change? What broad conclusions can you form? Green Mountain Case • Questions: Which of the six change images were held by: • Gunter? • The hospitality literature? • The consultant? How did these assumptions influence prescriptions for dealing with “the turnover problem” What does it mean to say the problem was „dis- solved‟? Choose another change image and apply it to “the turnover problem” What new insights arise? Does considering different images of change help us (I hesitate to add „solve the problem‟)?
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