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									Change Management
          Lecture 2
 Images of Managing Change
          Images of Managing
• Controlling…
   Top-down view of management
   Fayol‟s theory of management: planning,
    organizing, commanding, coordinating and
• Shaping…
   Participative style of management
   Improving the capabilities of people within the
   Images of Change Outcomes
• Intended Change:
   Change is a result of planned action
• Partially Intended Change:
   Change may need to be re-modified
    after it is initially implemented
• Unintended Change:
   Forces beyond the control of the change
     Images of Change Managers

                                       Images of Managing

                                 Controlling . . . Shaping . . .
                                 (activities)      (capabilities)

            Intended             DIRECTOR          COACH
Images of
 Change     Partially Intended   NAVIGATOR         INTERPRETER
            Unintended           CARETAKER         NURTURER
     Images of Change Managers
Director                    Coach
• Based on an image of      • Relies upon building in
   management as control      the right set of values,
   and of change outcomes     skills and “drills” that are
                              deemed to be the best
   as being achievable.       ones that organizational
• Supported by the n-step     members will be able to
   models and contingency     draw on in order to
   theory.                    achieve desired
                              organizational outcomes.
                            • Related to organizational
                              development approaches.
      Images of Change Managers
Navigator                          Interpreter
• Control is still seen to be at   • The manager creates
  the heart of management             meaning for other
  action, although a variety of       organizational members,
  factors external to                 helping them to make sense
  managers mean that while            of various organizational
  they may achieve some               events and actions.
  intended change outcomes,        • Supported by the sense-
  others will occur over which        making theory of
  they have little control.           organizational change and
• Supported by the                    concept of „enactment‟
  contextualist and
  processual theories of
     Images of Change Managers
Caretaker                     Nurturer
• The change manager‟s        • Even small changes may
                                have a large impact on
  ability to control is         organizations and
  severely impeded by a         managers are not able to
  variety of internal and       control the outcome of
  external forces beyond        these changes. However,
  the scope of the              they may nurture their
  manager. The caretaker        organizations, facilitating
                                organizational qualities
  is seen as shepherding        that enable positive self-
  their organizations along     organizing to occur.
  as best they can.           • Related to chaos and
• Supported by life-cycle,      Confucian/Taoist theories.
  population-ecology and
  institutional theories.
• To what extent are you more comfortable with one or
  other of the six images?
    Why is this the case?
• What are the strengths and limitations of the images
  that you have identified as most relevant to you?
• What skills do you think are associated with each
    Are there areas of personal skill development that are needed
     for you to feel more comfortable in using other images?
• Have you ever been in an organization that was
  dominated by particular images?
    What barriers to alternative images existed in this
     organization? What strategies could overcome these
      Key Uses of Multiple Images
• Surfacing our assumptions about change
   Images simplify & illuminate but also obscure
• Assessing dominant images of change
   To what degree are some images seen as natural
    and not open to negotiation in certain organizations
• Using multiple images in change
     Image-in-use might depend on the type of change
     Image-in-use might depend on the context
     Image-in-use might depend on the phase of change
     Multiple change images can also co-exist
       • Skilled change managers are able to swap images or
         even manage multiple images simultaneously
• Typical questions about change:
     Was it managed well?
     What went right?
     What went wrong?
     Did we get the outcome we were after?
• Do these questions assume a certain image of
• How does each image assess success?
   Which images have “non-traditional” success
   “Judgments of success are conditional on who is
    doing the assessment and when the judgments are
    made” Is this true?
            Group Exercise
• Take your group‟s stories from last
   Which images of change did you come
   How did these images affect the way the
    various actors approached change?
   Do the images used vary by the type, context,
    or phase of change?
   What broad conclusions can you form?
            Green Mountain Case
• Questions:
   Which of the six change images were held by:
      • Gunter?
      • The hospitality literature?
      • The consultant?
    How did these assumptions influence prescriptions
     for dealing with “the turnover problem”
    What does it mean to say the problem was „dis-
    Choose another change image and apply it to “the
     turnover problem” What new insights arise?
    Does considering different images of change help
     us (I hesitate to add „solve the problem‟)?

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