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Leonidas - Deflecting PHO Device

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Leonidas - Deflecting PHO Device Powered By Docstoc
					Space for Security
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Leonidas

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Consortium II Ioannidis, Ioannis-Alexandros Juillet, Vincent Link, Daniel Konrad Tosta Lopez, Mari Angeles Wanke, Nina

Table of contents
1. Introduction 2. Business Model 3. Technical Issues
3.1. Method and Technique 3.2. Energy Matters 3.3. Other Theories

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4. The Leonidas Consortium 5. Legal Issues
5.1. Compliance with the Outer Space Treaty 5.2. Responsibility and Liability for Damages Caused by Leonidas 5.3. The Consortium’s form 5.4. Insurance and Intellectual Property

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6. Political Issues 7. Financial Issues List of references

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1. Introduction
Mankind, in its responsive intrinsically characteristic way, has always developed through men thinking and work assets to maintain its subsistence and domain, preserving our species with the hope to persist without limits. Since ancient times, men, to protect from cold climate, covered the entrance of their caves with animal leathers, built monumental structures for their survival and superiority and expanded their territory throughout the continents in search of more resources to avoid an economic collapse. These are only three among thousands of other examples. Nowadays, challenges seem much bigger than in past periods. Yet, men’s creative and initiative driving force turns the unimaginable, beyond limits and barriers, into the next accomplished step. Mankind has learned to react to natural disasters, such as floods, hurricanes, volcanoes, earthquakes etc. By using the technology available, men reached the understanding that space assets and their benefits can help tremendously in predicting and managing crises and major losses. In the same way, due to research and scientific activities, men have become conscious of the fact that besides mankind’s behavior towards nature, Earth is subject to even more adverse impacts. However, while scientists, astronomy professionals and communities discuss the possibility of an asteroid impact on Earth, yet, with no effective results, the proper supply of measures is still distant and not well defined. Though history has proved it, men have often underestimated the power of events, which resulted in massive life losses. Several times, scientists have already pointed out key risk moments where Earth may be hit by outer space bodies.1 Although they have also calculated orbits, they are still unable to accumulate the effects of an astronomical “down street” asteroid crossing. Dinosaurs’ extinction was due to a monstrous asteroid impact. Another fact that is just as well known, is, that Earth has, not only once or twice, but several times, been hit by major outer space objects. The reason for this can be drawn from the nature of universe. The scientific community recognizes that they still have a lot more research to do, especially concerning the tracking of potential hazardous objects. Additionally, scientists are aware of the fact that any action that is taken must be taken years before the upcoming collision. That is why mankind is not free of danger. Men are not secure, which can be defined, according to ESA’s website as “providing freedom of danger to population, resources and territories”. Furthermore, according to Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director General, “there is no security without space and no space without security”2. The Leonidas project offers ESA the opportunity to give these words the highest possible strength by using space for the security of mankind.

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For a complete list of Near Earth Objects go to: http://newton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-in/neodys/neoibo?objects_list:0;main http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEM906VZJND_index_0.html

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2. Business Model
The Leonidas3 project is about a device, which will be installed on a satellite, capable of using very high energy laser beams in order to detect, in first phase, and to deflect, in second phase, near-Earth objects that present a threat to humankind. According to calculations, the device’s weight (including the satellite) will be about 5 tons. Leonidas will have to be space-based in order to have a greater range of function. For launching Leonidas into outer space, the Kourou Launching Center in French Guyana is suited best. The proposed launcher that should be used in order for Leonidas to reach its orbit in outer space is Ariane 5.

3. Technical Issues
Space lasers that zap away rogue asteroids may sound like the advertisement of a 1980s video game, known widely as Arkanoid, yet, they could be the solution to combat asteroids threatening Earth. 3.1. Method and Technique According to experts, laser beams will open a centimeter-sized spot on the asteroid, ejecting tiny bits of material that would put the space near-Earth object (NEO) off its course and, of course, steer it away from Earth. "This is something that is doable", says Richard Fork, who heads the Laser Science and Engineering Group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, US. During the past decades, laser science has improved dramatically. Nowadays, there is scientific evidence that in the near future men will be able to produce lasers powerful enough to detect asteroids as far as 1 AU4 away. Obviously, the range is extremely big. Especially, if one takes into consideration that today, the Arecibo observatory in Puerto Rico and other well known observatories can only detect asteroids at a distance of about 0.1 AU. For the time being, there are no such laser beams capable either of detecting an asteroid or deflecting a NEO, yet, scientists believe that they have developed a laser, which they characterize as the "grandfather of the laser that will push the asteroids"5. According to Dr. Folk, the project, which is founded by the US Army, has the primary goal of "amplifying femtosecond6 pulses to high peak power at high average power for remote sensing”. This, again in accordance with Dr. Folk, will be the first huge step in regard to the detection and subsequently the deflection of asteroids.

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Leonidas was a 5th century B.C. Spartan military king. He became widely known because he bravely led a very small force of Greeks, mostly his famous 300 Spartan, but also 700 Thespians and Thebans, against the much larger Persian army of Xerxes, at the pass of Thermopylae, in 480 B.C. during the Persian Wars. According to historian Herodotus, Leonidas had been warned by the Delphic oracle that either Sparta would be destroyed or their king would lose his life. Leonidas chose the second alternative. Source: About.com 4 AU stands for Astronomical Unit. One AU equals 149 598 000 kilometers. 5 Article published in Physorg.com under the title Scientists Working to Deflect Asteroids Threatening Earth http://www.physorg.com/news91283514.html%22 6 A femtosecond is one millionth of a nanosecond or 10-15 of a second and is a measurement sometimes used in laser technology. Internet source: Whatis?com - http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci212105,00.html#

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3.2. Energy Matters The energy needed in order for this kind of laser to be used in outer space can be absorbed by the sun in the form of solar energy. According to the USA’s Defense Department, the Pentagon’s National Security Space Office7, it is very feasible that in the near future a study on the issue of using satellites to collect solar energy to be employed on Earth will be conducted. Therefore, solar energy could definitely be used as a source of energy in space. As a matter of fact, sunlight is eight times more intense in the geostationary orbit than it is on Earth’s surface.8 3.3 Other Theories As mentioned above, asteroid threats to Earth have been subject to great discussion over the past years. Besides using laser beams, two other theories have been developed. According to the first one, a spacecraft could be placed beside an asteroid so that the craft`s gravity would tug the asteroid off its course.9 Yet, such a thing is not an appropriate solution as it is extremely difficult to produce a spacecraft which is capable of changing an asteroid’s course. It would have to be an enormous spacecraft which would also require a lot of fuel. According to the second theory, nuclear weapons could be used in order to destruct an asteroid threatening Earth. However, this theory can`t be adopted for two reasons. Firstly, nuclear missiles would break the asteroid into smaller - but still very dangerous for Earth and mankind - pieces that could penetrate Earth’s atmosphere. Secondly, NASA 10 would sacrifice, in the name of world’s safety, all the efforts that have been made so far in regard to the avoidance of any kind of nuclear weapons into outer space 11 . By persuading the global community to agree to using nuclear weapons for the good of mankind when such a scenario takes place, NASA could speed up the nuclear proliferation procedure.12 However, according to NASA’s report to Congress in March 2007 13 , non-nuclear kinetic impactors are the most mature approach and could be used in some deflection/mitigation scenarios, especially in case of a NEO threatening Earth.

By Jeremie Singer, published by the NBC, under the title ‘‘Pentagon may study space-based solar power’’ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18056610/ 8 Published on the internet site America.gov under the title ‘‘Space Solar Energy Has Future, U.S. Researchers Say’’ http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2007/August/20070820153255saikceinawz0.864773.html 9 Published in New Scientist, under the title ‘‘Could lasers zap away dangerous asteroids?’’ http://space.newscientist.com/article/dn11413-could-lasers-zap-away-dangerous-asteroids.html 10 NASA was in the first place the one that brought up the subject of using nuclear missiles in the case of an asteroid threatening Earth. 11 Article IV of the UN Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of Sates in the Exploration and the Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. 12 Article published by the USA TODAY, under the title ‘‘Bad Idea: Blowing Up Asteroids with Nuclear Missiles’’ http://www.universetoday.com/2008/07/27/bad-idea-blowing-up-asteroids-with-nuclear-missiles/ 13 Nearth-Earth Subject Survey and Definition Analysis of Alternatives, NASA`s report to Congress, March 2007

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4. The Leonidas Consortium

The European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company (EADS N.V.) is a large European aerospace corporation. The company develops and markets civil and military aircraft as well as missiles, space rockets, satellites, and related systems. EADS N.V. will be responsible for developing all the required equipment and devices.

Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) is a spin-off company of the University of Surrey which builds and operates small satellites. In 2006 SSTL won the Times Higher Education Supplement Award for outstanding contribution to innovation and technology. SSTL will contribute key parts to the device. NLR is the Netherlands’ National Aerospace Laboratory. As an independent non-profit organization, it is the Netherlands’ central institute for aerospace research and provides high-quality technical support to the aerospace sector. NLR’s know-how is essential in the completion of the project.

LMS is an engineering innovation partner for companies in the automotive, aerospace and other advanced manufacturing industries. It delivers a unique combination of virtual simulation software, testing systems, and engineering services. LMS has the vision, the expertise, and the solutions portfolio to empower automotive and aerospace manufacturers to implement high-performance development processes. LMS will be responsible for the device’s testing.

The “Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt” (DLR) is not only Germany’s space agency but also the national research center for aviation and space flight. DLR’s extensive research and development projects are included in national and international cooperative programs and for this reason its know-how is certainly useful for this project.

The “Agenzia Spaziale Italiana” (ASI) was founded in 1988 to promote, coordinate, and conduct space activities in Italy. Operating under the Ministry of the Universities and Scientific and Technological Research, the agency does not only cooperate with numerous international and Italian entities that are active in space technology, but also with the Italian President of the Council of Ministers. ASI will also contribute its know-how to the project. The “Centre national d’études spatiales” (CNES) is the French government space agency. It usually operates from the Centre Spatial Guyanais. Until 2001, CNES was responsible for the training of French astronauts (now this is done by ESA). 6

Alongside its European partners, the agency also offers expertise in satellite deployment and it is also taking part in the Galileo navigation program. Taking these two facts into consideration, CNES’ technological experience is crucial. Marsh France is the world's leading risk and insurance services firm. It provides global risk management, risk consulting, insurance broking, financial solutions, and insurance program management services for businesses, public entities, associations, professional services organizations and private clients in over 100 countries. Marsh France is the perfect partner for this ambitious project by providing fundamental risk management for outer space activities.

5. Legal Issues
5.1. Compliance with the Outer Space Treaty The Leonidas system will be developed in perfect compliance with the United Nation Outer Space Treaty, in particular article IV, which prohibits placing any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kind of weapons of mass destruction in orbit around Earth. Leonidas will not use nuclear energy and will be designed to dig only centimeter-sized holes into asteroids, deflecting it from its course by a kinetic energy impact (as explained above). Furthermore, the same article of the same treaty forbids "the testing of any type of weapons (...) on celestial bodies". According to the 1964 International Institute of Space Law (IISL) Report, “a natural body is a body whose trajectory cannot be modified”. However, this restriction does not apply to Leonidas, as it will only be designed to fire on objects whose trajectory can be modified. The Leonidas System also complies with the Principle of Peaceful Uses stated in the Outer Space Treaty because it has been designed to prevent natural disasters and not to harm, injure or cause any damage in any way. 5.2. Responsibility and Liability for Damages Caused by Leonidas Concerning the damage that may result out of the Leonidas system’s use, according to article I of the UN Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (CILD) the launching state will be France as it launches and procures the launching of the device. Launching states will also be Germany and Italy for procuring the launching. So as there will be two or more states jointly launching the space object, the CILD Article IV will be applicable. The three launching states will be jointly and severally liable for any damage caused. According to both CILD and the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space, France, because of its decisive participation in the project, will be the registering state and, as such, will register the Leonidas system according to article II, paragraph 1 and article IV of the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched in Outer Space. France will be liable for any damage, yet, according to article VI of the CILD, will have the right to present a claim for indemnification to the other parties in the joint launching. According to the same article, an agreement may be concluded to determine the apportioning of the financial obligation among them. 7

Regarding article II of the CILD, launching states will be absolutely liable to pay compensation for any damage caused by the space object to an aircraft in flight or on Earth’s surface. Considering article III of the CILD, in the event of damage being caused elsewhere than on Earth’s surface or to one of the launching states’ space objects or to persons or property on board of such a space object owned by another launching state, the latter shall be liable only if the damage is due to its fault or the fault of persons for whom it is responsible. Article IV of the same treaty modifies the same rules as above in some special cases and will also be applicable if necessary. Article VI of the CILD displays an exoneration of the launching state’s absolute responsibility in case it is proved that the damage has resulted either wholly or partially from gross negligence or from an act or omission done with the intent to cause damage on the part of a claimant state or natural or juridical persons it represents. The second part of the same article is also applicable. According to article 1 of the CILD, the same rules as mentioned above will be applicable to any damage caused by the Leonidas launcher. Neither the responsibility nor liability of any state will be engaged in case of a failure of the Leonidas system, according to article 4.4 of the UN Charter of Environment which only requires endeavors and no results. 5.3. The Consortium’s form The consortium will take the form of a “Groupement d’interet Economique” (G.I.E), submitted to French law. This particular status, which benefits of high flexibility, perfectly fits the Leonidas project as it combines the know-how of each entity and simplifies the legal links and relations between them, keeping each of them independent. Members of a G.I.E are unlimitedly liable for any debt resulting from the activity. 5.4. Insurance and Intellectual Property ESA usually does not insure its scientific and civilian launches. Yet, in case of an insurer being required in regards to the Leonidas project, Marsh France, because of its high experience in the space field, is proposed. It also provides the required third-party insurances. As it is an entirely European project, Leonidas will receive a European patent in order to promote it. The copyright has been registered and the trademarks have been deposited.

6. Political Issues
Space and its applications hold a strong potential for security purposes. The overall awareness regarding space security has increased throughout the recent years and Europe has shown its willingness to unleash this potential for security purposes. On 9th July 2004, the Near-Earth 8

Object Mission Advisory Panel recommended that “ESA places a high priority on developing a mission to actually move an asteroid”.14 As the United States of America15, Russia16 and China17 are already working on projects to deflect near-Earth objects, the European Community together with ESA, has to realize Leonidas as soon as possible to assure that there will be no excessive charges or fees set up by foreign states that may successfully conduce a similar program. In the USSPACECOM Vision for 2020 Control of Space (CoS), for example, it is mentioned and also stated that “Control of Space is the ability to ensure un-interrupted access to space for US forces and our allies, freedom of operations within the space medium and an ability to deny others the use of space”. This shows that the US can be a potential political threat to other countries and international organizations in the near future.18 The same is true for the US’ National Space Policy and Joint Doctrine on Space Operations which “requires the commander to plan for the protection of our space assets, as well as denying the use of space to our adversaries”.19 The aim of the European Space Policy is not only to develop a stronger Europe in space, better equipped and better coordinated to face the future needs of its citizens and enforcing its position at a global level but also to widen its strategic scope to address new challenges, such as said asteroid danger to Earth. Therefore, Europe has to take further measures in order not to be relegated but to establish a leadership position. Regarding to Dr. Erwin Duhamel, “Europe, in the context of an increasing reliance on space assets for both civilian and military goals, needs to acquire independently a first capability to monitor space”.20 By strictly adhering to the Principle of Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Europe could serve as an example for other space powers, especially emerging ones. In Europe’s institutional set up for space and security, a key role will be played by the co-existence of efforts on national and European level. Europe is home to a large, high technology-based aerospace industry that supplies a significant part of the world’s commercial requirements for satellite manufacture, launch and services. Therefore, we believe that Europe will be able to realize such an ambitious project on its own, although we are dealing with a global danger. As the European Space Agency (ESA) aims at making space applications a benefit to Europe’s citizens, which includes security activities (ESA has re-interpreted its mandate accordingly21), ESA will act as a joining link between the European countries. It is the ideal body under whose patronage mankind can unite and put aside political quarrels when being faced with such a global danger. During the fourth meeting of the Space Council held in May 2007, the Council of the EU and the Council of the ESA recognized that the military usage of GALILEO or GMES must be consistent with the principle that GALILEO and GMES are civil systems under civil control and
The conclusion was based on the panel’s consideration of six near-Earth object mission studies submitted to the Agency in February 2003. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/07/040714091340.htm. 15 “Near-Earth Objects Observation (NEOO) Program”, NASA/USA. 16 “Prospects of the Russian Federation in International Cooperation on the Asteroid/Comet Impact Hazard Problem” and “Possible Approaches to Implementation of the ‘Citadel-1 International Planetary Defense System Project” Russian Federation 17 A foreseen budget of USD 2 Billions, from China’s National Space Administration. Please visit: www.cnsa.gov.cn/n615709/cindex.html; 18 According to the Non-Appropriation Principle on Outer Space Treaty. 19 LCDR Matthel Dd. Ovios, USN; Rules of Engagement for Space: Where Do you Start? – Joint Military Operations Department. 20 Space for security! Erwin Duhamel, December 10th 2007 21 ESA Convention article II; article III.3; article V.1.a.ii.
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consequently, that any change to this principle would require examination in the framework of Title V/TEU and in particular articles 17 and 23 thereof, as well as in the framework of the ESA Convention"22. This will also be true for the Leonidas project. Leonidas will be a civil system under civil control and only be used in cases of dangers to Earth. Security policy can be carried out in a proactive or a reactive manner. In our case being reactive will not be sufficient. This project has to be realized as soon as possible when it is taken into consideration that mankind will probably have to response rapidly when an asteroid takes course on Earth. By “accomplishing their best endeavors to plan the availability of space facilities” 23 , by “recognizing that unnecessary loss of life and property could be avoided”24 and by “facilitating capacity-building and institutional strengthening through the provision of technical advisory services”25, ESA and the European Community will gain politically. Throughout the recent years it has been observed that European countries are willing and able to work together towards one goal when necessary. Especially France, Germany and Italy as three major “space law nations” have proven to have kept all postwar aggression behind them. With their support ESA will be able to face the challenge of such a huge project.

7. Financial Issues

25% 10% 10% 10% 45%

The estimated cost of the Leonidas project is 200 million €. The finances will not only be used for research & development but also for the building and testing of the device. EADS has agreed to contribute 45% of the total budget and SSTL, NLR and LMS will contribute an amount equal to 10% each. Therefore, a total percentage of 25% will be attributed to ESA for launching and liability issues. Regarding 3rd party insurance, MARSH France will receive 8% of the total budget.

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Resolution on the European Space Policy http://esamultimedia.esa.int/docs/BR/ESA_BR_269_22-05-07.pdf UN Charter on Cooperation to Achieve the Coordinated Use of Space Facilities in the Event of Natural or Technological Disasters, article 4.4. 24 UN Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (SPIDER), preamble §5º. 25 UN GA Report on activities carried out in 2007 in the framework of the UN-SPIDER, 11th January 2008.

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List of references
Websites http://www.esa.int Access on: 2 September 2008 http://www.epo.org Access on: 2 September 2008 http://www.un.org Access on: 2 September 2008 http://www.atomicarchive.com/docs/missile/starwars.shtml Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www. cnes.fr/web/455-cnes-en.php Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www.asi.it/ Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www. marsh.fr/ Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www. nlr.nl/ Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www. lmsintl.com/ Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www. sstl.co.uk/ Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www.dlr.de/en/ Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www.eads.com Access on: 3 September 2008 http://www.b612foundation.org/ Access on: 4 September 2008 http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Missile/Starwars.shtml Access on: 4 September 2008 http://www.orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/measure/surfaceexam.html Access on: 4 September 2008 http://www.space.com/spacewatch/space_junk.html Access on: 5 September 2008 http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/n615709/cindex.html Access on: 6 September 2008 http://www.primidi.com/2006/12/23.html Access on: 6 September 2008 Books Convention for the establishment of a European Space Agency & ESA Council Rules of Procedure, March 2003. UN, United Nations Charter on Environment. UN, United Nations Treaties and Principles on Outer Space, New York 2008. DUHAMEL, Erwin; Space for Security – ESA. 10th December 2007. UN GA Resolution (A/61/406) – UN Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response. UN GA Report on activities carried out in 2007 in the framework of the UN-SPIDER, 11th January 2008. NASA, Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives; March 2007. UN GA Information on research in the field of Near-Earth objects carried out by Member States, international organizations and other entities; 28th March 2006. International Charter on Cooperation to Achieve the Coordinated Use of Space Facilities in the Event of Natural or Technological Disasters Rev. 3; 25th April 2000. LCDR Matthel Dd. Ovios, USN; Rules of Engagement for Space: Where Do you Start? – Joint Military Operations Department. Cover pictures http://johnstodderinexile.files.wordpress.com/2006/06/laser-beam.jpg Access on: 8 September 2008 http://msnbcmedia2.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/060628/060628_asteroid_hmed.wide c.jpg Access on: 8 September 2008 11


				
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