"Yoga," the word is from the Indian Sanskrit "yug" or "yuj" from its meaning as "consistent" "combined with" or "harmony." Yoga is a by enhancing awareness, help people realize their full potential in the philosophy and movement under the guidance system. The use of yoga postures is an old and easy to learn methods to improve people's physical, mental, emotional and spiritual capacities, is to the body, mind and spirit form a harmonious unity of the movement.
Outline About Yoga The effects of Yoga Stress symptom --reduction of stress Introduction Discussion Reporter : Zing-I Wu Conclusion Adviser : Li-Chuan Lin Future research About Yoga Traditional Yoga From : India Hatha Yoga (身，哈達瑜伽。) Yoga Raja Yoga (心，勝王瑜伽。) 連結 . 合一 Jnana Yoga (知，智慧瑜伽。) 「內在真我的統一」 Bhakti Yoga (情，虔信瑜伽。) 也是一個身心修練的通泛名詞 Karma Yoga (意，行動瑜伽。) Modern Yoga Stress symptom Bikram Yoga ( Hot Yoga ) Headache Restoration Yoga ( Relaxation Yoga ) Back pain Iyengar Yoga sleep disturbances 以姿勢的精準、著重練習順序、使用輔助 anxiety symptom 器材等等為特色，也是目前公開介紹呼吸 depression symptom 鍛鍊法最多的瑜珈上師 Ashtanga 瑜伽 雙人瑜珈 . 孕婦瑜珈 . 親子瑜珈 . 塑繩瑜珈 . 塑球瑜珈 Introduction Introduction Yoga practices Hatha Yoga Gentle stretching; Asana ( postures ) Exercises for breath control Pranayama ( breathing exercise) Meditation as a mind-body intervention Dhyana ( meditation ) (Ernst E. 2001) Eight Steps(八支行法) Posture of Yoga (一)YAMA ( 持戒 ) SURYA NAMASKARA A ( 拜日式A ) (二) NIYAMA ( 精進 ) (三) ASANA ( 調身 ) (四) PRANAYAMA ( 調息 ) (五) PRATYHARA ( 攝心 ) (六) DHARANA ( 凝神 ) (七) DHYANA ( 禪定 ) (八) SAMADHI ( 三昧地 ) Posture of Yoga Posture of Yoga VRKSASANA UTTHITA HASTA VIRABHADRASANA ( 勇士式 ) ( 樹式 ) PADANGUSTHASANA ( 拎腳趾式 ) A B Posture of Yoga Posture of Yoga SALABHASANA DHANURASANA URDHVA BAKASANA ( 蝗蟲式 ) ( 弓式 ) DHANURASANA ( 鶴式 ) ( 上彎弓式 ) Posture of Yoga Posture of Yoga PARIPURNA NAVASANA SALAMBA SIRSASANA BALASANA SAVASANA ( 船式 ) ( 頭立式 ) ( 嬰兒式 ) ( 攤屍式 ) The effects of Yoga The effects of Yoga Vigorous postures and participants may have Nitric oxide may also be involved in the experienced enhanced feelings of mastery, as pathophysiology of stress, anxiety and they were challenged to learn difficult postures depression ( Esch T et. al 2002 ; Jayasinghe SR, 2004 ) (asanas). Vigorous postures with repeated functional peripheral vessel occlusion and subsequent Concentrated practice might induce beneficial hyperemia , also modulate blood flow and effects on self-control and foster self-efficacy alter endothelial function (Andreas Michalsen et. al , 2005 ) Nitric oxide is constantly produced and released throughout the endothelium. The effects of Yoga The effects of Yoga Yoga may also induce the relaxation response, The effects of 15 min of daily stretching exercise for which a decrease in cortisol levels and Significant increase of heart rate variability sympathetic nervous system responsivity Marked decrease of heart rate ( Hoffman JW et. al 1982 ; Esch T et. al , 2003 ) The increase in flexibility was correlated to improvement of cardiac autonomic function (Mueck-Weymann M etc. al , 2004) The effects of Yoga Modulation of autonomic nervous tone consequent reduction in sympathetic tone, Activation of antagonistic neuromuscular The study about the effects of systems Yoga for Anxiety Increase the relaxation response in the neuromuscular system Stimulation of the limbic system primarily by meditation (Riley, 2004) The effects of Yoga for anxiety The effects of Yoga for anxiety Vahia et al (1973 , n = 39) Sahasi et al (1989 , n = 91) Psychoneurosis or psychosomatic disorder. Anxiety neurosis Yoga treatment: five steps anasa-dhyana(n = 21) Yoga treatment: yoga pranayama (n = 38) (30). Control: anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs (n = 18). Control: diazepam (n = 53) (18). Trial duration: 6 weeks Trial duration: 3 months Measurement : TAS (pre -post) evaluations , HDRS and BSASI Measurement : IPAT at pre and post , SSI Yoga group significantly greater pre-post reduction in Mean changes significant for yoga group (p<0.05) scores than for control group (p<0.05) The effects of Yoga for anxiety The effects of Yoga for anxiety Sharma et al ( 1991 , n = 71) Broota and Sanghvi (1994 , n = 30) Examination anxiety Anxiety neurosis. Yoga treatment : Broota relaxation technique (n = 10) Yoga treatment : Yoga pranayama(n = 41) (33). Control 1 : Jacobson’s progressive relaxation technique (n = 10) Control 2 : talking only (n = 10) Control: placebo capsule, once a day (n = 30) (24). Trial duration: 3 days Trial duration: 12 weeks Measurement : ACL at pre and post , self evaluation ladder scale (anxiety measure) Measurements : HAS , SUD, various physiological Significant difference between the three groups on the pre-post measures and PSLES changes (p<0.01) Significant greater improvement in yoga group Mean of the pre-post changes for Broota group significantly greater than Jacobson group (p<0.05) and talking control group (p<0.05). ( p<0.01) The effects of Yoga for anxiety The effects of Yoga for anxiety Shannahoff-Khalsa e.t. al (1999 , n = 22) Malathi and Damodaran (1999 , n = 50) OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder) Examination anxiety Yoga treatment : kundalini yoga meditation (n = 12) (7). Yoga treatment : yoga various asanas (n = 25) Control : relaxation response and mindfulness Control : work such as reading and writing (n = 25). meditation (n = 10) (7). Trial duration : 3 months Measurement : STAI at pre and post practice Trial duration : 3 months Significant pre-post reduction for yoga group Measurement : Y-BOCS at pre and post , SCL-90-R (p<0.01) (OC and GSI), POMS, PSS, and PIL Significant reduction in mean for yoga group (p <0.05) The effects of Yoga for depression Khumar et al. ( 1993 , n=50 ) Severe depression The study about the effects of Yoga : Yoga ( rhythmic breathing , relaxation) ( n=25) Control : No intervention (n=25) Yoga for depression Measurement : ZungDSRS and PIS, all pre-treatment, Zung scale only after 15 and 30 days Significant differences in pre–post depression scores for yoga group. Significant differences between treatment and control group at mid and post treatment ( p =0.01) The effects of Yoga for depression Woolery et al. ( 2004 , n=28 ) Mild depression Yoga group : Iyengar Yoga (n=13) The study about the effects of Control : no active intervention (n= 15) Duration : 5 weeks Yoga for emotion Measurement : BDI STAI (pre and post) , POMS (pre and post 1st, 5th and last class) Significant reduction in BDI and STAI for yoga group Significant changes in POMS pre to post class The effects of Yoga for emotion Perceived stress Cortisol concentration Andreas Michalsen et. al ( 2005 , n=24) Emotional distress Yoga : Iyengar Yoga ( n=16 ) Control : no intervention ( n=8 ) Duration : 3 months CES- Measurement : STAI , CPSS , POMS , CES-D , cortisoln ( Yoga ) Significant improvements : perceived stress (P<0.02) , STAI(P<0.02 ) , well-being (P<0.01), vigor (P<0.02) , fatigue (P<0.02) and depression (P<0.05) Physical well-being also increased (P<0.01) Salivary cortisol decreased significantly after participation in a yoga class (P<0.05) Discussion Conclusion Inclusion criteria : Hatha Yoga for stress reduction is effective Anxiety , depression , emotional distress Reduction of headache , back pain , anxiety , Methods : sleep disturbances , depression , decreased of Hatha Yoga cortisol Measurement: A certified Yoga teacher STAI etc. scale for mind ; Cortisol for physical Duration : 3 months Results : Frequency : 2-3 times/week or everyday Hatha Yoga for reduction of stress is effective Not suitable : pregnancy , seniors , menstruating women (need to modify ) Future research Other effects about Yoga: Drug addiction (Shaffer HJ et. al , 1997 ) Hypertension ( Murugesan R et. al , 2000 ) Thanks for your Irritable bowel syndrome ( Taneja Iet. al , 2004 ) Multiple sclerosis ( Oken BS et. al , 2004) attention! Insulin Resistance Syndrome , Cardiovascular Disease ( Kim E. Innes et. al , 2005)
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