Microsoft PowerPoint - The effects of Yoga by jlhd32

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									                                                Outline
                              About Yoga
 The effects of Yoga          Stress symptom
 --reduction of stress        Introduction
                              Discussion
    Reporter : Zing-I Wu      Conclusion
     Adviser : Li-Chuan Lin   Future research




       About Yoga                       Traditional Yoga
From : India                  Hatha Yoga (身,哈達瑜伽。)
Yoga                          Raja Yoga (心,勝王瑜伽。)
 連結 . 合一                      Jnana Yoga (知,智慧瑜伽。)
「內在真我的統一」                     Bhakti Yoga (情,虔信瑜伽。)
也是一個身心修練的通泛名詞                 Karma Yoga (意,行動瑜伽。)
            Modern Yoga                             Stress symptom
Bikram Yoga ( Hot Yoga )
                                          Headache
Restoration Yoga ( Relaxation Yoga )
                                          Back pain
Iyengar Yoga                              sleep disturbances
以姿勢的精準、著重練習順序、使用輔助                        anxiety symptom
器材等等為特色,也是目前公開介紹呼吸
                                          depression symptom
鍛鍊法最多的瑜珈上師
Ashtanga 瑜伽
雙人瑜珈 . 孕婦瑜珈 . 親子瑜珈 . 塑繩瑜珈 .
塑球瑜珈




             Introduction                              Introduction
Yoga practices                            Hatha Yoga
 Gentle stretching;                        Asana ( postures )
 Exercises for breath control              Pranayama ( breathing exercise)
 Meditation as a mind-body intervention    Dhyana ( meditation )
 (Ernst E. 2001)
     Eight Steps(八支行法)               Posture of Yoga
(一)YAMA ( 持戒 )                SURYA NAMASKARA A ( 拜日式A )
(二) NIYAMA ( 精進 )
(三) ASANA ( 調身 )
(四) PRANAYAMA ( 調息 )
(五) PRATYHARA ( 攝心 )
(六) DHARANA ( 凝神 )
(七) DHYANA ( 禪定 )
(八) SAMADHI ( 三昧地 )




           Posture of Yoga           Posture of Yoga
                                 VRKSASANA     UTTHITA HASTA
 VIRABHADRASANA ( 勇士式 )            ( 樹式 )    PADANGUSTHASANA
                                                 ( 拎腳趾式 )
       A                  B
         Posture of Yoga                     Posture of Yoga
   SALABHASANA       DHANURASANA           URDHVA       BAKASANA
      ( 蝗蟲式 )           ( 弓式 )         DHANURASANA        ( 鶴式 )
                                         ( 上彎弓式 )




         Posture of Yoga                     Posture of Yoga
PARIPURNA NAVASANA SALAMBA SIRSASANA
                                        BALASANA         SAVASANA
       ( 船式 )           ( 頭立式 )
                                         ( 嬰兒式 )          ( 攤屍式 )
          The effects of Yoga                                The effects of Yoga
 Vigorous postures and participants may have        Nitric oxide may also be involved in the
 experienced enhanced feelings of mastery, as       pathophysiology of stress, anxiety and
 they were challenged to learn difficult postures   depression ( Esch T et. al 2002 ; Jayasinghe SR, 2004 )
 (asanas).                                          Vigorous postures with repeated functional
                                                    peripheral vessel occlusion and subsequent
 Concentrated practice might induce beneficial
                                                    hyperemia , also modulate blood flow and
 effects on self-control and foster self-efficacy
                                                    alter endothelial function
(Andreas Michalsen et. al , 2005 )                  Nitric oxide is constantly produced and released
                                                    throughout the endothelium.




          The effects of Yoga                                The effects of Yoga
  Yoga may also induce the relaxation response,     The effects of 15 min of daily stretching exercise
  for which a decrease in cortisol levels and       Significant increase of heart rate variability
  sympathetic nervous system responsivity           Marked decrease of heart rate
( Hoffman JW et. al 1982 ; Esch T et. al , 2003 )   The increase in flexibility was correlated to
                                                    improvement of cardiac autonomic function
                                                          (Mueck-Weymann M etc. al , 2004)
         The effects of Yoga
Modulation of autonomic nervous tone
consequent reduction in sympathetic tone,
Activation of antagonistic neuromuscular
                                                         The study about the effects of
systems                                                         Yoga for Anxiety
Increase the relaxation response in the
neuromuscular system
Stimulation of the limbic system primarily by
meditation (Riley, 2004)




The effects of Yoga for anxiety                           The effects of Yoga for anxiety
Vahia et al (1973 , n = 39)                               Sahasi et al (1989 , n = 91)
Psychoneurosis or psychosomatic disorder.                 Anxiety neurosis
Yoga treatment: five steps anasa-dhyana(n = 21)           Yoga treatment: yoga pranayama (n = 38) (30).
Control: anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs (n = 18).
                                                          Control: diazepam (n = 53) (18).
Trial duration: 6 weeks
                                                          Trial duration: 3 months
Measurement : TAS (pre -post) evaluations , HDRS and
BSASI                                                     Measurement : IPAT at pre and post , SSI
Yoga group significantly greater pre-post reduction in    Mean changes significant for yoga group (p<0.05)
scores than for control group (p<0.05)
The effects of Yoga for anxiety                            The effects of Yoga for anxiety
Sharma et al ( 1991 , n = 71)                              Broota and Sanghvi (1994 , n = 30)
                                                           Examination anxiety
Anxiety neurosis.                                          Yoga treatment : Broota relaxation technique (n = 10)
Yoga treatment : Yoga pranayama(n = 41) (33).              Control 1 : Jacobson’s progressive relaxation technique (n = 10)
                                                           Control 2 : talking only (n = 10)
Control: placebo capsule, once a day (n = 30) (24).        Trial duration: 3 days
Trial duration: 12 weeks                                   Measurement : ACL at pre and post , self evaluation ladder
                                                           scale (anxiety measure)
Measurements : HAS , SUD, various physiological            Significant difference between the three groups on the pre-post
measures and PSLES                                         changes (p<0.01)
Significant greater improvement in yoga group              Mean of the pre-post changes for Broota group significantly
                                                           greater than Jacobson group (p<0.05) and talking control group
(p<0.05).                                                  ( p<0.01)




The effects of Yoga for anxiety                            The effects of Yoga for anxiety
Shannahoff-Khalsa e.t. al (1999 , n = 22)                  Malathi and Damodaran (1999 , n = 50)
OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder)                        Examination anxiety
Yoga treatment : kundalini yoga meditation (n = 12) (7).   Yoga treatment : yoga various asanas (n = 25)
Control : relaxation response and mindfulness              Control : work such as reading and writing (n = 25).
meditation (n = 10) (7).                                   Trial duration : 3 months
                                                           Measurement : STAI at pre and post practice
Trial duration : 3 months
                                                           Significant pre-post reduction for yoga group
Measurement : Y-BOCS at pre and post , SCL-90-R            (p<0.01)
(OC and GSI), POMS, PSS, and PIL
Significant reduction in mean for yoga group (p <0.05)
                                                         The effects of Yoga for depression
                                                         Khumar et al. ( 1993 , n=50 )
                                                         Severe depression
The study about the effects of                           Yoga : Yoga ( rhythmic breathing , relaxation) ( n=25)
                                                         Control : No intervention (n=25)
     Yoga for depression                                 Measurement : ZungDSRS and PIS, all pre-treatment,
                                                         Zung scale only after 15 and 30 days
                                                         Significant differences in pre–post depression scores
                                                         for yoga group.
                                                         Significant differences between treatment and control
                                                         group at mid and post treatment ( p =0.01)




 The effects of Yoga for depression
 Woolery et al. ( 2004 , n=28 )
 Mild depression
 Yoga group : Iyengar Yoga (n=13)                       The study about the effects of
 Control : no active intervention (n= 15)
 Duration : 5 weeks                                           Yoga for emotion
 Measurement : BDI STAI (pre and post) ,
 POMS (pre and post 1st, 5th and last class)
 Significant reduction in BDI and STAI for yoga group
 Significant changes in POMS pre to post class
The effects of Yoga for emotion
                                                                         Perceived stress        Cortisol concentration
Andreas Michalsen et. al ( 2005 , n=24)
Emotional distress
Yoga : Iyengar Yoga ( n=16 )
Control : no intervention ( n=8 )
Duration : 3 months
                                         CES-
Measurement : STAI , CPSS , POMS , CES-D , cortisoln ( Yoga )
Significant improvements :
perceived stress (P<0.02) , STAI(P<0.02 ) , well-being (P<0.01),
vigor (P<0.02) , fatigue (P<0.02) and depression (P<0.05)
Physical well-being also increased (P<0.01)
Salivary cortisol decreased significantly after participation in a
yoga class (P<0.05)




                    Discussion                                                       Conclusion
Inclusion criteria :                                                 Hatha Yoga for stress reduction is effective
Anxiety , depression , emotional distress                            Reduction of headache , back pain , anxiety ,
Methods :                                                            sleep disturbances , depression , decreased of
Hatha Yoga                                                           cortisol
Measurement:                                                         A certified Yoga teacher
STAI etc. scale for mind ; Cortisol for physical                     Duration : 3 months
Results :                                                            Frequency : 2-3 times/week or everyday
Hatha Yoga for reduction of stress is effective                      Not suitable : pregnancy , seniors , menstruating
                                                                     women (need to modify )
             Future research
Other effects about Yoga:
 Drug addiction (Shaffer HJ et. al , 1997 )
 Hypertension ( Murugesan R et. al , 2000 )             Thanks for your
 Irritable bowel syndrome ( Taneja Iet. al , 2004 )
 Multiple sclerosis ( Oken BS et. al , 2004)
                                                          attention!
 Insulin Resistance Syndrome ,
 Cardiovascular Disease ( Kim E. Innes et. al , 2005)

								
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