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Student Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments: Development of the ClassMaps Survey

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The purpose of this study was to describe the means, variability, internal consistency reliability, and structural validity evidence of the ClassMaps Survey, a measure of student perceptions of classroom learning environments. The Class-Maps Survey is a 55-item student rating scale of eight important classroom characteristics. The survey provides a brief, relevant, and conceptually simple appraisal of students' perceptions of the classroom conditions that contribute to academic engagement. Participants were 345 third- fourth-, and fifth-grade students drawn from a public school in the Midwest and a second in the Northeast. Results demonstrated that 53 of the 55 survey items loaded onto their predicted subscale, subscale alphas were at or above .75, and the survey means were relatively consistent across grade and gender. Results suggest that the ClassMaps Survey is a promising measure that captures students' perspectives of classroom environments so they can be used to plan and implement classwide interventions. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

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									                                                                               School Psychology Review,
                                                                     2010, Volume 39, No. 2, pp. 203–218



        Student Perceptions of Classroom Learning
   Environments: Development of the ClassMaps Survey

   Beth Doll, Robert A. Spies, Courtney M. LeClair, Sarah A. Kurien, and
                               Brett P. Foley
                      University of Nebraska—Lincoln


           Abstract. The purpose of this study was to describe the means, variability, internal
           consistency reliability, and structural validity evidence of the ClassMaps Survey,
           a measure of student perceptions of classroom learning environments. The Class-
           Maps Survey is a 55-item student rating scale of eight important classroom
           characteristics. The survey provides a brief, relevant, and conceptually simple
           appraisal of students’ perceptions of the classroom conditions that contribute to
           academic engagement. Participants were 345 third- fourth-, and fifth-grade stu-
           dents drawn from a public school in the Midwest and a second in the Northeast.
           Results demonstrated that 53 of the 55 survey items loaded onto their predicted
           subscale, subscale alphas were at or above .75, and the survey means were
           relatively consistent across grade and gender. Results suggest that the ClassMaps
           Survey is a promising measure that captures students’ perspectives of classroom
           environments so they can be used to plan and implement classwide interventions.



       In recent years, researchers and educa-        fective characteristics promote students’ ac-
tional policy makers have worked to identify          tive participation in learning (academic en-
the social, psychological, and behavioral char-       gagement), which, in turn, strengthens stu-
acteristics of classrooms that promote stu-           dents’ school achievement.
dents’ school success. Their interest has been               Research on students’ academic engage-
prompted by evidence that students’ active            ment describes the classroom competencies,
engagement in schooling can be attributed, in         over and above cognitive-intellectual ability,
part, to characteristics of the educational con-      that promote students’ success in school. Stu-
text within which they are learning (National         dents who are academically engaged demon-
Research Council and the Institute of Medi-           strate high levels of on-task behavior such as
cine, 2004). Indeed, a careful analysis of            completing assignments, complying with
school learning research conducted by Wang,           teacher requests, working independently,
Haertel, and Walberg (1990) showed that so-           seeking help when appropriate, volunteering
cial and affective characteristics of classrooms      to answer questions, and engaging in assigned
rival traditional instructional and cognitive         tasks during instruction (Greenwood, 1991;
characteristics in their influence on learning. A      Liaupsin, Umbreit, Ferro, Urso, & Upreti,
likely mechanism is that these social and af-         2006). High levels of on-task behavior are


Correspondence regarding this article should be addressed to Beth Doll, Department of Educational
Psychology, University of Nebraska—Lincoln, 114 Teachers College Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588-0345;
E-mail: bdoll2@unl.edu
Copyright 2010 by the National Association of School Psychologists, ISSN 0279-6015

                                                   203
School Psychology Review, 2010, Volume 39, No. 2




sometimes called behavioral engagement, a          classrooms that promote academic engage-
term that acknowledges that measures of on-        ment in students: classroom relatedness, or
task behavior do not necessarily differentiate     the degree to which teachers and classmates
between those students who are passively fol-      foster a socially supportive community; per-
lowing classroom rules and those who are           ceived competence in the classroom, or the
making committed efforts to learn (Fredricks,      degree to which students expect to be success-
Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004; Reschly & Chris-        ful in their learning; and classroom supports
tenson, 2006). Students who are not only dil-      for autonomy, or the degree to which students’
igent but also interested in their classroom       learning is self-directed (Furrer & Skinner,
work are cognitively engaged as well as be-        2003; National Research Council and the
haviorally engaged. Students show even             Institute of Medicine, 2004). This evidence-
higher levels of school success if they are not    based description of eng
								
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