The Islamic Perspective of Values in the Positivist Educational Philosophies by ProQuest


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									International Forum of Teaching and Studies                                         Vol. 6 No. 1 2010

The Islamic Perspective of Values in the Positivist Educational Philosophies
                              Qasim Mohammad Mahmmud Khzali
                               Al Balqa' Applied University, Jordan

[Abstract] The purpose of this study was to infer the educational values in positivist educational
philosophies from one side, and the Islamic perspective related on the other. The researcher followed
the integrative approach and applied the technique of the descriptive approach. The study addressed
the values contained in the positivist educational philosophies via the logical sequence of ideas. Also,
the study used an extrapolate approach to infer the educational values in the Holy Qur'an and Holy
Sunna using content analysis. Results of the study indicated that there is a significant variation among
the positivist educational philosophies because such educational philosophies depend mainly on
human sources or must be perceived by the human brain in advance via experimentation and
verification to be considered valid. As for its consistency with the Islamic perspective, one can see that
such consistency is only in form, mainly in the labels used, while the main contradiction is found in
the sources and objectives of the values. Islam links values with Shari'a (Islamic legislation) as the
main source for improvement, and this is not left to humans to think about and verify by their minds.
There is a necessary need to differentiate between values in the Islamic perspective and dominant
values in the western communities with respect to their sources and objectives, even if we admire

[Keywords] Islamic perspective; positivism; values in education; educational philosophy; cross-
cultural analysis of values; a priori knowledge; comparison of origins of knowledge

Axiology is one of the oldest fields of study. It is tracked back to the ancient Greek philosophy,
especially with the great Greek philosophers such as Socrates and Plato. This field of study was
present in the Medieval Ages, both in the Islamic and Christian arena. Recently, Kant addressed the
relation between values and cognition. In the 19th century, various fields of study investigated values
from different perspectives. In the 20th century, Poll Lappy was one of the early scholars to use the
term Axiology, and the same term was used by Hartman in 1906 (Mohammed, 1999).
     Aesthetics investigate the terms necessary to achieve aesthete. Thus, normative sciences presume
the presence of suitable value for each, but they do not investigate in the nature of value, rather
consider the conditions leading to the accomplishment of them. As for the mere study of value and the
investigation in the meaning of its existence, this field of study is a recent topic, and it has drawn the
attention of many scholars in the recent years (Bakra, 1992, Matter, 1976).
     Values have a strong and direct link with human behaviors. Values guide and drive human
behaviors in all aspects of life .Values fuel the different human activities and the different social,
economical and political arrangements. As such, values can be said to be the link between an
individual and his world. They shape the manner the individual perceives himself and the other
members in the community in which he lives, the way he sees his behavior and his status in his
community (Afifi, 1974).
     Values are, therefore, vital both for the community and the individuals living in it. In his daily
contact with ot
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