Lean manufacturing's principles can be applied to the solution of problems in every industry, including aerospace. In one case, at a plant operated by the Spicer Axle Division of Dana Corp, manufacturing engineers set out to use the six-sigma DMAIC (Design, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) methodology -- in conjunction with lean manufacturing -- to meet customer requirements related to the production of tubes used to manufacture axles. To understand the initial-state process, the lean-manufacturing team developed a process-flow diagram with the cross-functional six-sigma team. After mapping the process, the lean team collected data from the Material Review Board (MRB) bench to measure and analyze major types of defects using a Pareto Diagram. This project yielded reduced labor and scrap costs, and allowed the organization to do a better job of making deliveries on time, while a flowing a smaller finished-goods inventory.