172 inform March 2010, Vol. 21 (3)
min−1, giving a total analysis time below 18 major application possibilities of chemical analysis using silver ion–high-performance
min. The method has been applied to the derivatives of castor oil are highlighted. Our liquid chromatography can extend up to 90
quantification of tocopherols and tocot- discussion focuses on application possibili- min. The aim of this study was to reduce this
rienols present in several vegetable oils with ties of castor oil and its derivatives for the time. The time of analysis was reduced from
different botanical origins. synthesis of renewable monomers and poly- ca. 90 min onto 45 to 35 min, respectively,
mers. An overview of recent developments by the addition of 0.05% or 0.1% (v/v)
in this field is provided and selected exam- 2-propanol to the mobile phase [acetonitrile
optimization of pressurized ples are discussed in detail, including the (0.1%, v/v) and diethyl ether (0.5%, v/v) in
liquid extraction of carotenoids preparation and characterization of castor n-hexane]. There was no effect on resolu-
and chlorophylls from Chlorella oil-derived polyurethanes, polyesters and tion of the 17 individual CLA isomers of the
polyamides CLA mixture. Regarding the lowest coeffi-
cient of variation and an adequate baseline
Cha, K.H., et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. the refinement of renewable separation, the use of 0.05% 2-propanol in
58:793–797, 2010. the mobile phase is recommended, without
Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) resources: New important any disadvantages and adverse effects on
was applied to the extraction of carotenoids derivatives of fatty acids and the service life of columns. In conclusion,
and chlorophylls from the green microalga glycerol adding 0.05% or 0.1% 2-propanol to the
Chlorella vulgaris. Four extraction tech- mobile phase shortens the time of analysis
Behr, A., and J.P. Gomes, Eur. J. Lipid Sci.
niques—maceration (MAC), Soxhlet extrac- of CLA isomers, saves solvents, and reduces
Technol. 112:31–50, 2010.
tion (SOX), ultrasound-assisted extraction costs.
During the last years, the industrial sig-
(UAE), and PLE—were compared; and
nificance of renewable resources has highly
both the extraction temperature (50, 105,
and 160°C) and the extraction time (8, 19,
increased. The ever-growing use of fossil Plant sphingolipids: Decoding
resources for energy consumption, polymers,
and 30 min), which are the two main factors
fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals and the the enigma of the Sphinx
for PLE, were optimized with a central com-
therefore steadily increasing prices favor Pata, M.O., et al., New Phytol. 185:611–
posite design to obtain the highest extrac-
the substitution of oil and gas by renewable 630, 2010.
tion efficiency. The extraction solvent (90%
resources. Here, products of catalytic func- Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous class
ethanol/water) could adequately extract the
tionalizations of vegetable fats and oils such of lipids present in a variety of organisms
functional components from C. vulgaris.