Castor oil as a renewable resource for the chemical industry

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					                                                                                                  172 inform March 2010, Vol. 21 (3)


       min−1, giving a total analysis time below 18      major application possibilities of chemical       analysis using silver ion–high-performance
       min. The method has been applied to the           derivatives of castor oil are highlighted. Our    liquid chromatography can extend up to 90
       quantification of tocopherols and tocot-          discussion focuses on application possibili-      min. The aim of this study was to reduce this
       rienols present in several vegetable oils with    ties of castor oil and its derivatives for the    time. The time of analysis was reduced from
       different botanical origins.                      synthesis of renewable monomers and poly-         ca. 90 min onto 45 to 35 min, respectively,
                                                         mers. An overview of recent developments          by the addition of 0.05% or 0.1% (v/v)
                                                         in this field is provided and selected exam-      2-propanol to the mobile phase [acetonitrile
       optimization of pressurized                       ples are discussed in detail, including the       (0.1%, v/v) and diethyl ether (0.5%, v/v) in
       liquid extraction of carotenoids                  preparation and characterization of castor        n-hexane]. There was no effect on resolu-
       and chlorophylls from Chlorella                   oil-derived polyurethanes, polyesters and         tion of the 17 individual CLA isomers of the
                                                         polyamides                                        CLA mixture. Regarding the lowest coeffi-
       vulgaris
                                                                                                           cient of variation and an adequate baseline
       Cha, K.H., et al., J. Agric. Food Chem.           the refinement of renewable                       separation, the use of 0.05% 2-propanol in
       58:793–797, 2010.                                                                                   the mobile phase is recommended, without
            Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)          resources: New important                          any disadvantages and adverse effects on
       was applied to the extraction of carotenoids      derivatives of fatty acids and                    the service life of columns. In conclusion,
       and chlorophylls from the green microalga         glycerol                                          adding 0.05% or 0.1% 2-propanol to the
       Chlorella vulgaris. Four extraction tech-                                                           mobile phase shortens the time of analysis
                                                         Behr, A., and J.P. Gomes, Eur. J. Lipid Sci.
       niques—maceration (MAC), Soxhlet extrac-                                                            of CLA isomers, saves solvents, and reduces
                                                         Technol. 112:31–50, 2010.
       tion (SOX), ultrasound-assisted extraction                                                          costs.
                                                              During the last years, the industrial sig-
       (UAE), and PLE—were compared; and
                                                         nificance of renewable resources has highly
       both the extraction temperature (50, 105,
       and 160°C) and the extraction time (8, 19,
                                                         increased. The ever-growing use of fossil         Plant sphingolipids: Decoding
                                                         resources for energy consumption, polymers,
       and 30 min), which are the two main factors
                                                         fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals and the        the enigma of the Sphinx
       for PLE, were optimized with a central com-
                                                         therefore steadily increasing prices favor        Pata, M.O., et al., New Phytol. 185:611–
       posite design to obtain the highest extrac-
                                                         the substitution of oil and gas by renewable      630, 2010.
       tion efficiency. The extraction solvent (90%
                                                         resources. Here, products of catalytic func-            Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous class
       ethanol/water) could adequately extract the
                                                         tionalizations of vegetable fats and oils such    of lipids present in a variety of organisms
       functional components from C. vulgaris.
				
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