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                                                                                            Slovenian Economic Mirror, January 2010              33
                                                                                                                     Selected Topics

Environmental taxes and implicit tax rate                       taxes relative to GDP does not by itself reflect the
                                                                implementation of environmental objectives, as it may
on energy consumption (2007)                                    be increasing due to greater use of natural resources and
                                                                energy, which implies unfavourable structural changes
The renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy (2006)
                                                                in the economy. Revenues may decline due to more
emphasises the impact of market-based instruments in
                                                                efficient use of energy and natural resources, or as a result
achieving prices; it also factors in damage to human health
                                                                of environmentally-oriented fiscal policy introducing
and environment. Environmentally-related taxes are one of
                                                                tax relief for more environmentally friendly products.
the most important market-based environmental policy
                                                                Similarly, the share of revenue from environmental
instruments and comprise taxes on energy consumption,
                                                                taxes relative to GDP may also drop as a consequence
transportation, pollution and the use of natural resources.
                                                                of lower registration fees on motor vehicles on account
Taxes on energy consumption constitute the largest
                                                                of higher tolls that are not regarded as tax revenue, or
share (approx. three quarters) of all general government
                                                                due to new environmental policy instruments, such as
revenues from environmental taxes.
                                                                emission trading, which substitutes the tax on energy of
                                                                entities participating in emission-trading schemes. An
In 2007, inflows from these taxes accounted for 2.5% of GDP
                                                                indicator eliminating the shortfalls of the indicator of the
in the EU as a whole and 3.0% of GDP in Slovenia. In the EU-
                                                                share of revenue from environmental taxes is the implicit
15, this share was rising particularly in the early 1990s; in
                                                                environmental tax rate.
the new Member States, the increase occurred later and
was related to the process of joining the EU. In 2007, the
                                                                Among the implicit environmental tax rates, the implicit tax
greatest share of environmental taxes relative to GDP
                                                                rate on energy is an internationally comparable indicator,39
was recorded by Denmark (5.9%), which had by far the
                                                                according to which Slovenia is ranked close to the EU
greatest proportion of taxes on transport and pollution
                                                                average.40 In 2007, taxation per unit of energy in Slovenia
and use of natural resources. The latter two accounted for
                                                                was higher than in all new EU countries, except Malta; in
almost two thirds of all environmental taxes in Denmark,
                                                                the EU-15, taxes on energy were lower than in Slovenia in
while in the EU average, the share of taxes on 
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