First is its reliance on LaRue's (and Churgin's) symbolic language of letters and numbers. Churgin presents detailed timeline analyses as tables for each work's movements, but also continues to employ LaRue's symbols within the descriptive prose, often without including measure numbers for the passage, making for some awkward reading and confusion.
546 Notes, March 2010 position within which being a central con- interpretation” (p. 279). The upshot is that cern of Wolff ’s essay on individuality in the composer him- or herself is granted the Bach’s music (Christoph Wolff, Bach: Essays possibility of a metaphorical action that on His Life and Music [Cambridge, MA: may transcend the musical work. Harvard University Press, 1991], 146–65). The closing essays in this volume take up Eric Chafe’s analytical essay on the tonal issues of interpretation and pedagogy, of- designs, the theme of hypocrisy, and the ten challenging time-honored tenets in mass parodies of Cantatas 136 and 179 dis- both musicology and performance. First, plays the rich detail and rewarding conclu- Christopher Hogwood proposes that we sions we admire in Wolff’s own analytical jettison the “ ‘style-free’ early grounding” studies. And Thomas Christensen’s linking (p. 369) performers today generally receive of Bach’s compositional practice to the im- in favor of a period-speciﬁc pedagogy. For provisations of Conrad Paumann relies on the performer of eighteenth-century music, Wolff ’s own work on the manuscripts of this would mean adopting the teaching the Nuremberg organist’s Fundamentum or- strategies used by instrumental tutors of the ganisndi (Christoph Wolff, “Conrad Pau- time. Largely ignoring the “landscape manns Fundamentum organisandi und seine view,” the performer would thus focus verschiedenen Fassungen,” Archiv für more on local details and smaller units— Musikwissenschaft 25 : 196–222). phrase inﬂection, articulation, graded Neal Zaslaw, on the other hand, re- tempo changes, and the like. Robert Levin sponds to Wolff’s Mozart scholarship. then challenges one of the fundamental Indeed, he engages in direct dialogue with goals of historical musicology—that a pri- Wolff ’s work on the cadenzas of Mozart’s mary objective of the scholar is to “establish piano concertos. Whereas Wolff has a text that reﬂects the composer’s ultimate, claimed that Mozart “jealously guard[ed] ﬁnal version, the so-called Fassung letzter his personal performance materials” Hand ” (p. 403). Through an examination (Christoph Wolff, “Cadenzas and Styles of of Mozart’s drafts, sketches, and auto- Improvisation in Mozart’s Piano Con- graphs of the piano concertos as well as cer- certos,” Perspectives on Mozart Performance, tain habits of Mozart’s compositional ed. R. Larry Todd and Peter Williams process, Levin demonstrates that, at least in [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, the case of these works, there is no ﬁnal or 1991], 230), Zaslaw suggests that Mozart deﬁnitive text. As the sources reveal, taught his cadenzas to talented students, Mozart’s piano concertos were continu- gave them away, or perhaps even sold them ously altered by the composer in perfor- along with the concertos themselves. mance, leading Levin to argue persuasively Zaslaw’s case also argues for an important that “the opportunities provided by this aesthetic point—that cadenzas are sup- rich set of alternative readings deserve to posed to be exciting, surprising, witty, and be known and performed” (p. 406). even risky. “If the same cadenzas are used These last contributions provide a ﬁtting over and over, [this] important aesthetic conclusion for this honorary collection of feature is devalued” (p. 249). essays so diverse in topic, methodology, Among the other contributions, two in scope, and disciplinary grounding. Not particular stand out. Elaine Sisman demon- only are their ideas applicable to the entire strates compellingly how each work in a century of Bach and Mozart, however multi-work opus may have an individual as whole or divided it may be, but they also well as a
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