Racial/Ethnic Disparities Among Children with Diagnoses of Perinatal HIV Infection - 34 States, 2004-2007 by ProQuest


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                                                                          Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Weekly / Vol. 59 / No. 4                                                                                            February 5, 2010

                                                                               Racial/Ethnic Disparities Among
     National Black HIV/AIDS
                                                                                 Children with Diagnoses of
 Awareness Day — February 7, 2010
                                                                                  Perinatal HIV Infection —
     February 7 is National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness                                34 States, 2004–2007
 Day. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
 disproportionately affects blacks living in the United States.                Early in the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/
 In 2006, blacks made up 12% of the population aged >13                    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the
 years but accounted for 46% of the number of persons                      United States, racial/ethnic disparities were observed in the diag-
 estimated to be living with HIV (1). Both the estimated                   noses of AIDS among adults and children (1). Since the early
 HIV prevalence and incidence rates for black men and                      1990s, the annual number of diagnoses of perinatally acquired
 women were higher than those for any other racial/ethnic                  AIDS and HIV infection has declined by approximately 90%
 population (1,2). Among black males, male-to-male sexual                  in the United States as a result of routine HIV screening of
 contact accounted for 63% of new infections; among black                  pregnant women and the availability of effective interventions
 females, high-risk heterosexual contact accounted for 83%                 to prevent transmission (2,3). To characterize the most recent
 of new infections (3).                                                    trends in diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection by race/ethnicity,
     To address these racial disparities in the prevalence and             CDC analyzed national HIV surveillance data for the period
 incidence of HIV infection, CDC conducts research and                     2004–2007 from 34 states. This report summarizes the results
 supports programs for HIV prevention among blacks in the                  of those analyses, which indicated that, during 2004–2007,
 United States. These efforts include increasing HIV testing               85% of diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection were in blacks or
 opportunities nationwide, particularly in areas with the high-            African Americans (69%) or Hispanics or Latinos (16%). The
 est number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)                   average annual rate of diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection
 cases among blacks (4).                                                   during 2004–2007 was 12.3 per 100,000 among blacks, 2.1 per
     Information regarding National Black HIV/AIDS                         100,000 among Hispanics, and 0.5 per 100,000 among whites.
 Awareness Day is available at http://www.blackaidsday.                    However, from 2004 to 2007, the racial/ethnic disparity nar-
 org/nbhaad.html. Information regarding blacks and HIV/                    rowed, as the annual rate of diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection
 AIDS is available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/                    for black children decreased from 14.8 to 10.2 per 100,000,
 index.htm.                                                                and the rate for Hispanic children decreased from 2.9 to 1.7
                               References                                  per 100,000. To further reduce perinatal HIV transmission
 1. CDC. HIV prevalence estimates—United States, 2006. MMWR                and racial/ethnic disparities, HIV-infected pregnant women,
 2. Hall I, Song R, Rhodes P, et al; HIV Incidence Surveillance
    Group. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA
    2008;300:520–9.                                                          INSIDE
 3. CDC. Subpopulation estimates from the HIV incidence surveillance         102 Jimsonweed Poisoning Associated with a Homemade
    system—United States, 2006. MMWR 2008;57:985–9.
 4. CDC. A heightened national response to the HIV/AIDS crisis among             Stew — Maryland, 2008
    African Americans. Revised June 2007. Available at http://www.cdc.       105 State Preemption of Local Smoke-Free Laws in
    gov/hiv/topics/aa/resources/reports/heightendresponse.htm. Accessed          Government Work Sites, Private Work Sites, and
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