Expression of Galectin-3 in Renal Neoplasms: A Diagnostic, Possible Prognostic Marker by ProQuest


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									               Expression of Galectin-3 in Renal Neoplasms
                                   A Diagnostic, Possible Prognostic Marker
                      Jane Y. Dancer, MD; Luan D. Truong, MD; Qihui Zhai, MD; Steven S. Shen, MD, PhD

N Context.—Galectin-3,inanormal distal tubular cells and in
shown to be expressed
                         member of the lectin family, was               Galectin-3, suggesting that it may be used as a potential
                                                                        diagnostic marker. Galectin-3 expression was seen in 55%
renal cell carcinomas (RCC). However, its diagnostic and                of high-grade (Fuhrman nuclear grades 3 and 4) versus
prognostic significance in RCC is as yet undefined.                     21% low-grade (grades 1 and 2) clear cell RCCs (P , .001).
  Objectives.—To describe the expression of Galectin-3                     Conclusions.—This study confirms that Galactin-3 is
among different histologic subtypes of renal neoplasms and              strongly overexpressed in renal cell neoplasms of distal
to determine their diagnostic and prognostic significances.             tubular differentiation, that is, oncocytoma and chromo-
  Design.—The expression of Galectin-3 was evaluated in                 phobe RCCs, suggesting it might be used as a possible
217 renal neoplasms by tissue microarray and immunohis-                 differential diagnostic tool for renal cell neoplasm with
tochemistry with semiquantitative analysis.                             oncocytic or granular cells. Furthermore, we observed a
  Results.—Strong expression of Galectin-3 was observed                 strong association of overexpression of Galectin-3 and high
in 92 of 217 of renal neoplasms (42.4%). Although 22 of                 nuclear grade in clear cell RCC. These results also suggest a
23 oncocytomas (95.7%) and 19 of 21 chromophobe RCCs                    possible pivotal role for Galectin-3 in the differentiation
(90.5%) express Galectin-3, only 4 of 32 papillary RCCs                 and prognosis of clear cell RCC.
(12.5%) and 47 of 137 clear cell RCCs (34.3%) express                      (Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010;134:90–94)

Renal cellcarcinoma is(RCC) accounts for 2% to 3% of all
Renal cell
    adult malignancies, and its incidence rate is increasing.
                        clinicopathologically heterogenous
                                                                          In normal rat kidney, Gal-3 is expressed in distal tubular
                                                                        epithelial cells.8 Galectin-3 expression has also been
                                                                        recently identified in some RCCs by complementary
and was recently subdivided into clear cell, papillary,                 DNA microarray studies in human renal tumors.9 How-
chromophobe, collecting duct, and unclassified types by                 ever, its diagnostic or prognostic significance in RCCs
the World Health Organization.2 Although significant                    remain unclear because of the few studies and relatively
progression has been made in understanding the cytogenetic              small number of cases. Here, we sought to investigate the
and molecular changes of RCC, its pathogenetic mechanism,               value of Gal-3 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker using
particularly for the sporadic tumors, remains unclear.                  immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays of a
  Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a protein member of the lectin family,            relatively large series of well-characterized subtypes of
binds to b-galactosides and is widely expressed in                      renal neoplasms.
epithelial and immune cells. Galectin-3 interacts with                                   MATERIALS AND METHODS
glycoprotein receptors on the cell membrane and controls
several cellular functions.3,4 Galectin-3 expression was                                 Clinicopathologic Parameters
recently shown to correlate with the attenuation of drug-                 The tissue samples were obtained from 217 renal neoplasms
induced apoptosis and anoikis (apoptosis induced by the                 from patients who had undergone curative, initial resections,
loss of cell anchorage) that contribute to cell survival,               without any preoperative therapy, at the Methodist Hospital,
                                                                        Houston, Texas, from 1990 through 2004. For each case, the
aggressiveness, and metastasis in cancer.5–7                            following pathologic features were studied: (1) histologic type,
                                                                        according to the World Health Organization histologic classifi-
   Accepted for publication April 10, 2009.                             cation of kidney tumors2; (2) nuclear grade (Fuhrman 1–4); and
   From Department of Pathology, The Methodist Hospital and Resear
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