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					                                                                                Bovine enzootic haematuria in São Miguel Island (Azores):
                                                                                analysis by county and correlation with land and herd traits
                                                                                                                                                                                           Leitão1, M., Pinto1, C., N. & Silva2, L.
   1 Divisão de Sanidade Animal e Higiene Pública Veterinária, Serviço de Desenvolvimento Agrário de São Miguel, 9504-541 Ponta Delgada, Portugal; 2 Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores,
                                                   9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal (leitão.maa@clix.pt, carlos.a.pinto@azores.gov.pt, lsilva@notes.uac.pt)


                         Dairy cow in direct contact with bracken fern                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Corvo
                                                                                                                                                                 Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                 Graciosa


                                                                                                                                                                 Bracken Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn is very common in the Azores Islands, specially                                                                                                                                       Terceira
                                                                                                                                                                 in marginal habitats, but also in pastures.                                                                                                                                                    São Jorge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Flores                                Faial
                                                                                                                                                                 Its presence has been associated with the common occurrence of Bovine Enzootic                                                                                                          Pico
                                                                                                                                                                 Haematuria in São Miguel Island (Pinto et al. 2004), and in other Islands of the
                                                                                                                                                                 Archipelago.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            São Miguel                         Santa Maria
                                                                                                                                                                 The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH) in the
                                                                                                                                                                 counties of São Miguel Island (SMI) from the epidemiologic point of view. It was tested
                                                                                                                                                                 the hypothesis of correlation between several descriptors of the land and dairy herd
                                                                                                                                                                 structures and the occurrence of urinary bladder tumours (UBT).

                     Results                                                                                                                                     A characterization regarding the occurrence of UBT in cattle in SMI, using incidence                                       P. aquilinum has a wide distribution in São Miguel
                                                                                                                                                                 and prevalence indicators and to mapping in GIS.                                                                           Island.
                      16000                                                                                                          20
    Number of cows




                                                                                                                                           Cows with UBT (%)




                      14000                 Number of
                                            cows
                                                                                                                                     18
                                                                                                                                     16
                                                                                                                                                                 To assess the economic impact of BEH.
                      12000
                                            Incidence                                                                                14
                      10000                                                                                                          12
                       8000
                       6000
                                                                                                                                     10
                                                                                                                                     8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Results
                                                                                                                                     6
                       4000
                                                                                                                                     4
                       2000                                                                                                          2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Average annual prevalence (%) m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20
                             0                                                                                                       0                                                                                                                                                                                                      Average annual
                                 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                                                              Methods                                                                                                                                                          18

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     16     prevalence of UBT in
                                                                       Year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     14     dairy cows breed at 54
                                                                                                                                                                    Data Sources:
           Annual incidence of UBT in dairy cows slaughtered at MSM.
                                                                                                                                                                    Meat Inspection Service of São Miguel abattoir, SIARA, SNIRB, SIBOV and POSEIMA data base systems from Serviço
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            counties in São Miguel.
                                                                                                                                                                    de Desenvolvimento Agrário de São Miguel Island and General Agriculture Census 1999 (INE).                                                                        8
                     Annual ocurrence of UBT in herds from São Miguel                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 6
                                                                                                                                                                    These data bases were used to obtain the following data: Distribution of UBT cases by counties; Used agricultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4
                             Ano
                             Year         Vacas Cows
                                          Dairy leiteiras         Herds
                                                                Explora ções              Explora ções com TB
                                                                                             Herds with UBT             TB no MSM
                                                                                                                        UBT at MSM                                  land surface (ha) – total, rented or owned by the farmer, and land area per farm (ha/farm); Number of land units per
                                                (n º)               (n º)                            and (%)
                                                                                               (n º) e (%)                  (n º)                                                                                                                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                                                                                    farm; Temporary pastures and forage crops (ha); Permanent pastures (ha). Cattle farms, animals, dairy farms, dairy
                             1995             47922                2093                        190 (9,1)                    232                                     cows numbers per county.                                                                                                                                          0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            São Miguel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Fenais da Ajuda




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lomba da Fazenda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Água de Pau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             São Roque (Rosto do cão)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sete Cidades
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Salga




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ribeira Seca




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fenais da Luz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Lomba da Maia




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Cabouco




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Água de Alto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Matriz (Ribeira Grande)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Furnas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               São Brás




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Remédios
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Nª Sª dos Remédios
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ribeira das Taínhas


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Covoada



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ribeirinha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Santa Cruz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Achada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Achadinha




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Candelária
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fajã de Cima




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ribeira Chã
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Santa Bárbara




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Santa Bárbara




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Rabo de Peixe




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  São Vicente Ferreira
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             São Pedro




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fajã de Baixo




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ginetes


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Capelas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Maia




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Relva




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Santana




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ñordeste
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Água Retorta




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Pico da Pedra




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Faial da Terra




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Conceição
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Nordestinho




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nª Sª do Rosário
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Calhetas




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Mosteiros



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Feteiras
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bretanha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ponta Garça




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Povoação
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Matriz (Ponta Delgada)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Santo António
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Livramento (Rosto do Cão)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Porto Formoso




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arrifes
                             1996             49790                2102                        155 (7,4)                    182
                                                                                                                                                                    Occurrence of UBT in dairy cattle in São Miguel Island
                             1997             50108                2101                        130 (6,2)                    160

                             1998             52119                2132                       326 (15,3)                    418                                     - Evaluation of the annual incidence of UBT from bovine carcasses rejected at the São Miguel abattoir (MSM), from                                                                             Countie s
                             1999             53037                2089                       439 (21,0)                    628                                     1994 to 2002;
                                                                                                                                                                    - Evaluation of the annual prevalence of UBT in dairy farms, from 1994 to 2002;
                             2000             53476                2026                       573 (28,3)                   1028
                                                                                                                                                                    -UBT prevalence data mapping, using ArcView 3.2 (ESRI, 1992).
                             2001             51892                1950                       796 (40,8)                   1423




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Average annual prevalence (%) bb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     100
                             2002             52325                1917                       899(46,9)
                                                                                              899 (46,9)                   1879
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      90     Average annual prevalence of
                             2003             49260                1870                       1028 (55,0)
                                                                                              1028(55,0)                   2224                                     Correlation between several descriptors of land and dairy farm structure and the occurrence
                                                                                                                                                                    of UBT in SMI Counties, from 1994 to 2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80     UBT in dairy farms at 54
                             2004             49587                1810                       1086(60,0)
                                                                                              1086 (60,0)                  2101                                                                                                                                                                                                       70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             counties in São Miguel.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      60

                                                                                                                                                                    Evaluation of the economic impact of BEH                                                                                                                          50

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40
                                                                                                                                                                    Funds spent from 2000 until October 2005, considering:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      30

                                                                                                                                                                    - The insurance regulations to compensate the farmers; and the data regarding carcass rejection caused by UBT;                                                    20

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10
                                                                                                                                                                    - The compensatory funds expended from 1998 to 2004, supported by the Azorean Regional Government, attributed
                                                                                                                                                                    to farmers affected by UBT.                                                                                                                                        0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     São Miguel




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      São Roque
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fenais da Ajuda




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Lomba da Fazenda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lomba de São
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Água de Páu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sete Cidades
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Salga




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ribeira Seca




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fenais da Luz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lomba da Maia




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cabouco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Água de Alto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Furnas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        São Brás




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Remédios
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Nª Sª dos Remédios




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ribeira das Taínhas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Achada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ribeirinha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Achadinha




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Santa Cruz




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Candelária

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Covoada




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ribeira Chã
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Santa Bárbara


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Santa Bárbara




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Rabo de Peixe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           São Vicente Ferreira




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Conceição (RG)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fajã de Baixo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ginetes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Arrifes


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Capelas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Maia




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Relva


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Santana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Nordeste
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Água Retorta




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pico da Pedra




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Faial da Terra



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Matriz (RG)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Nordestinho




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Nª Sª do Rosário
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Feteiras
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Calhetas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mosteiros




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bretanha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ponta Garça
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Povoação




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Livramento



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Santo António
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fajã de Cima
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Porto Formoso
                                                                                                                                                                    Statistical Analysis

                                                                                                                                                                    Frequency distributions of cows and farms affected by UBT per county; Evaluation of the correlation between the                                                                              Counties
                                                                                                                                                                    average percentage of tumour occurrence in animals and in farms; Correlation between the total number of farms
                                                                                                                                                                    affected by UBT, the mean annual number of farms affected by UBT, the total number of affected cows, the average
Frequency distribution of dairy cows affected by UBT in 54 counties                                                                                                 annual number of affected cows, and the different descriptors of farm structure and land use, with SPSS 11.
from São Miguel.                                                                                                                                                    (Statistical Analysis for Social Sciences).




                                                                                                                                                                 Discussion and Conclusions
                                                                                                                                                                 The incidence and prevalence of UBT in cows and in farms steadily increased during the analyzed
                                                                                                                                                                 period.

                                                                                                                                                                 The percentage of cows affected by UBT ranged from 2,5 to 17,5% in the counties, with more
                                                                                                                                                                 frequent values between 5 and 10%. However, the percentage of herds affected by UBT ranged
                                                                                                                                                                 from 15 to 95% in the analyzed counties.
Frequency distribution of dairy farms affected by UBT in 54 counties
from São Miguel.                                                                                                                                                 There was a progressive gradient from the counties with less cases to those with more cases.

   Correlations between UBT occurrence and several descriptors                                                                                                   The maps regarding the prevalence of UBT in dairy cows and in farms in SMI showed a similar
   regarding land and farm structure. Based on data from 54                                                                                                      pattern.
   counties from São Miguel Island. r, Pearson correlation; p,
   probability. Significant correlations are shown in bold.                                                                                                      Stronger correlations with UBT occurrence were found when the land was rented than when the
                                                                                                                                                                 land was owned by the farmer.                                                                                                Map of São Miguel counties showing the mean annual
  Descriptors of farm and land structure                                          Total
                                                                                       Occurrence of urinary bladder tumors
                                                                                              Average        Total      Average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              prevalence of UBT (percentage intervals) in dairy farms.
                                                                                number of    number of number of number of                                       Permanent pastures also showed higher correlations with UBT occurrence than temporary
                                                                                  farms      farms/year    bovines bovines/year
  Used agricultural land surface (ha)                                       r      0,73         0,73         0,65         0,65                                   pastures and forage crops.
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00
  Used agricultural land surface - owned by the farmer (ha)                 r     0,56            0,56          0,51              0,51

  Used agricultural land surface - rented (ha)
                                                                            p
                                                                            r
                                                                                   0,00
                                                                                  0,79
                                                                                                   0,00
                                                                                                  0,79
                                                                                                                0,00
                                                                                                                0,67
                                                                                                                                    0,00
                                                                                                                                  0,67                           The number of cattle and the number of farms per county are correlated with prevalence of UBT.
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00
  Used agricultural land surface by farm (ha)                               r     0,28            0,28          0,22              0,22

  Number of land units per farm
                                                                            p
                                                                            r
                                                                                   0,04
                                                                                  0,00
                                                                                                   0,04
                                                                                                  0,00
                                                                                                                0,11
                                                                                                                -0,16
                                                                                                                                    0,11
                                                                                                                                -0,16
                                                                                                                                                                 No correlations were found between animal density and the number of land units on one hand,
  Temporary pastures and forage crops
                                                                            p
                                                                            r
                                                                                   1,00
                                                                                  0,50
                                                                                                   1,00
                                                                                                  0,50
                                                                                                                0,25
                                                                                                                0,48
                                                                                                                                    0,25
                                                                                                                                  0,48
                                                                                                                                                                 and the occurrence of UBT on the other.
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00
  Permanent pastures (ha)                                                   r     0,74            0,74          0,65              0,65
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00                         The counties ranking according to the incidence and prevalence of UBT, might help to direct
  Number of farms                                                           r     0,86            0,86          0,74              0,74
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00                         control actions to the more affected counties, in order to reduce the heavy financial burden
  Number of bovines                                                         r     0,79            0,79          0,74              0,74
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00                         associated to the relatively high occurrence o UBT in SMI.
  Number of dairy farms                                                     r     0,83            0,83          0,68              0,68
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00
  Number of dairy cows                                                      r     0,81            0,81          0,73              0,73
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00
  Average number of bovines                                                 r     0,95            0,95          0,85              0,85
                                                                            p      0,00            0,00         0,00                0,00
  Average number of farms                                                   r
                                                                            p
                                                                                  0,93
                                                                                   0,00
                                                                                                  0,93
                                                                                                   0,00
                                                                                                                0,77
                                                                                                                0,00
                                                                                                                                  0,77
                                                                                                                                    0,00
                                                                                                                                                               References
  Number of bovines/ha)                                                     r
                                                                            p
                                                                                  0,20
                                                                                   0,14
                                                                                                  0,20
                                                                                                   0,14
                                                                                                                0,19
                                                                                                                0,16
                                                                                                                                  0,19
                                                                                                                                    0,16
                                                                                                                                                               Pinto, C.A.; Januário, T.; Geraldes, M.; Machado, J.; Lauren, D.R.; Smith, B.L. and Robinson
                                                                Financial compensation for the slaughtering of                                                 R.C. (2004). Bovine Enzootic Haematuria on São Miguel Island - Azores. In: T. Acamovic,
                                                                tumor bearing cattle
                     Cattle insurance compensations (€)         Portarias (Regional support)                            Value (€)
                                                                                                                                                               C.S Stewart, and T.W. Pennycott (eds.). Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins. CAB
                     1,55 €/ Kg (bovine carcass)
                                                                Portaria nº 29/98                                        200000                                International, Wallingford.
                     Year                           Value (€)   Portaria nº 69/99                                        120000
                     2000                            98569,2    Portaria nº 82/99                                        220000
                     2001
                     2002
                                                    118832,3
                                                    283758,5
                                                                Portaria nº 19/00
                                                                Portaria nº 64/00
                                                                                                                         360000
                                                                                                                         500000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Map of São Miguel counties showing the mean annual
                     2003
                     2004
                                                    363650,2
                                                    368817,9
                                                                Portaria nº 68/02
                                                                Portaria nº 58/02
                                                                                                                         100000
                                                                                                                           9300
                                                                                                                                                               Aknowledgements                                                                                                                prevalence of UBT (percentage intervals) in dairy cows.
                     2005                           342937,5    Portaria nº 321/03                                        17400                                This work is part of a project supported by FCT, POCTI AGG/48737/2002.
                     Total                         1576565,6    Portaria nº 384 a 389/03                                  77400                                We thank Xènia Illas for the edition of the maps.
                                                                Portarias (2004)                                         569000
                                                                Total                                                   2173100

				
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