Mining What is mining? “Extraction of natural mineral resources from the surface of Earth by digging out” Mining Methods •Open Pit method for minerals nearer to the surface. •Placer Method for mineral in the water bodies. •Underground method for deposits that are very deep Mining Methods Diagram Given in book pg 57, by Huma Naz National Mineral Policy (1995) • Government hast set up different corporations for the development and exploration of minerals. • The result was not satisfactory, so mineral policy was introduced fro the 1st time by the Government. • The purpose was development, exploration of minerals. • Geological survey of Pakistan has made a tremendous progress, with in single year 1996/1997, it has covered 5000 km2 North-West and took samples for chemical analysis. Mining Problems in Pakistan • Financial constraints • Leak of technical knowledge • Inaccessible mineral deposits. • Leak of expert. • Low priority given to mineral extraction. Important Minerals • Natural Gas • Most valuable • Formed by rotting of plants 300 million years ago. • Found in association of a oil in a gas pocket. • Fairly easy to distribute using pipe lines. • Fulfills 40% of all the country needs. • Used in homes for cooking, heating, fertilizers, transport as CNG • Coal • Pakistan is having little coal • Coal found is of poor quality, it has large sulphur and ash in it. • Sulphur and ash is the major content of pollution • Because of poor quality only used in industries, using little technology. Like brick, tile, pottery and glass making industry. • Very difficult to mine, became its very thin layered. Less then 10cm. And often found in folded mountains, where they are difficult to mine. Main Coal Field of Pakistan (Map Attached) • Oil • 17% of all the money is spend aboard to buy oil. • If this money could be saved hundreds of schools, colleges and hundreds of Km of roads can be constructed. Main Oil Fields (Map Attached) • Metallic Minerals • Pakistan is in short of metallic Ares. • Main iron field is at kalabagh, where the iron is of poor quality. • Better quality is found at chitral. • Metallic minerals are used for making, surgical instruments, high speed tools and scientific instruments. • Non-Metallic Minerals • Pakistan is well supplied with non-metallic minerals but of poor quality. • These are used as raw material for industries. • Non-metallic minerals are rock salt, gypsum, china clay, Kaolin, Limestone, Marble etc. Uses of Minerals • Gypsum is used for making plaster of Paris, ceilings and books etc. • Limestone is used for building purposes, in glass and chemical industries. • Marble, Pakistani marble is among the best in the world, used for buildings, flooring, monuments and statues. • Kaolin: China ware and pottery for making rubber and paper making.