LIS651 lecture 0 PHP introduction_ HTML form_ shop

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					     LIS651 lecture 0

Gathering and showing data

        Thomas Krichel
• We introduce PHP. Understanding PHP is the
  most difficult aspect of the course.
• We look at forms filling in to prepare for active
  web sites.
• We look at how PHP can be used to show the
  data that we get from the form.
• You should think about what data to get and how
  to show it.
• Thomas has built a little shop with form and
                 PHP introduction
• PHP is the PHP hypertext processor.
• It is a tool that allows for server-side scripting.
• It is an interpreted language.
   –   You write a series of statements.
   –   Apache hands these statements to the PHP interpreter.
   –   The interpreter executes these statements one by one.
   –   When it find an error, it stops running and signals the
• Compiled languages are different. They read the
  whole program before starting to execute it.
               good old wotan
• Remember we duplicate validated.html when
  creating a new new file.
• Right-click on validated.html, choose duplicate.
• You may be asked to supply your password
• You erase the contents of the dialog box that
  suggests a new file name and put your new file
  name in there.
• If it contains PHP code, it has to end in .php.
                 first PHP script
• Create a file with the name info.php, and the
  following contents
• nothing else. This will create a test page that tells
  you everything PHP knows about. Look at some
  of the variables.
           comment on info.php
• If a file has the ending .php, Apache does not
  show the file to the client as is. The client never
  sees the PHP code.
• Instead Apache calls another program, the PHP
  processor. When it finds "<?php", it starts to
  interpret the content of the file. It does special
  things with it, until it encounters "?>".
• The rest of the file is transmitted as such.
•   A PHP program contains one or more statements.
•   Each statements tells the interpreter something.
•   Each statement is ended by a semicolon.
•   In our first script there is only one statement.
•   Each statement is ended with a semicolon!
•   Never forget the semicolon!
• The stuff before the semicolon is called an
• You can think of an expression as anything
  anyone may want to write in a computer program.
• So this is just a way to talk about "stuff" in a
  program in a more edifying way than just calling it
• phpinfo() is a function.
• Functions are one of the most fundamental
  concepts in computer programming.
• A function is an expression that does something
  to something else. The "something else" is in the
  parenthesis. It is called the argument of the
• phpinfo() is a function. Its argument is empty.
            output of phpinfo()
• phpinfo() create a whole web page for you, that
  validates against a loose HTML specification.
• That page contains a lot of technical detail.
• The section we may be interested in is PHP
  Variables. It contains variables that we may be
  interested in.
      second php script: hello.php
• Normally we write HTML code and then we add
  bits and pieces of PHP inside.
• Take validated.html, copy to hello.php
• make the body
  print("hello world");
• Validate the resulting XHTML.
            comment on hello.php
• print() is also a function. print prints its argument.
  Here the argument is a string. A string is a
  sequence of characters enclosed by single or
  double quotes.
• For print, the () can be omitted.
• You could have written three statements
   print "<div>";
   print "Hello, world!";
   print "</div>";
                      good style
• Write each statement on a new line.
• Add plenty of comments. There are three styles of
  comments in a PHP program
   – // the rest of the line is a comment
   – # the rest of a line is a comment
   – /* this is a comment */
• The last style can be used over several lines. It is
  familiar from CSS.
    another way to write hello.php
  $greeting="Hello, world!";
  print "<div>$greeting</div>";
• Here $greeting is a variable. The first statement
  assigns it the string value "Hello, word!". The
  second statement prints it out.
• This example is important because it illustrates
  the concept of a variable.
• The name of the variable is greeting.
• Forms are parts of an HTML document that users
  can fill in. They may include buttons, checkboxes,
  text areas, file selections.
• The thing that users fill in are called the controls
  of the form.
• Some controls are hidden.
• Controls are submitted to PHP in the form of
  variables. Each control in the HTML form
  becomes a variable in PHP. This is seen later.
                forms examples
• Here is an example in

• Elements used in forms use a special attribute
  group that I will call the "form attributes". I will
  discuss them now.
        form attribute: tabindex=
• Stupid users use the mouse to fill in form. Smart
  users use the tab character on the keyboard. It is
  much quicker.
• if you set the tabindex= on a in input, you can set
  the order. The value of the attribute is a number
  between 0 and 32767. The input with a lower
  number will be dealt with before the one with a
  higher number.
         form attribute: readonly=
• If you set readonly="1" the control can only be
  read but not set. readonly="0" is the default, it
  means that the control can be set.
• If an input is, i.e. if readonly="1" it means:
   – It can receive focus but cannot be modified by the user.
   – It is included in tabbing navigation.
   – It is transmitted to the server for processing.
          form attribute: disabled=
• If you set disabled="1" the control can only be
  read but not set. disabled="0" is the default, it
  means that the control can be set.
• if an input is disabled="1"
   – it can not receive focus and can not be modified
   – it is excluded in tabbing
   – it is not transmitted to the server for processing.
• This element encloses a form.
• It accepts the core and i18n attributes.
• It has a required action= attribute.
   – The value of this attribute is the location of a file that
     contains the action to execute when the form is
   – In our case, this will be the file name of the PHP script
     that deals with the form on wotan.
• By default, scripts are executed using return on
  the browser or a special submit button.
            method= of <form>
• <form> admits a method= attribute. This attribute
  determines the http method by which the form is
  submitted to the script. There are only two
  realistic choices
  – method="GET"
  – method="POST"
• When the form is submitted the http request line
  that follows will have the method GET or POST.
• If you use GET, the form data is transmitted by
  appending it to the URL of the script.
• Google's Web search does it that way.
• There is a standard way to write the data in the
  URL knows as Common Gateway Interface, CGI.
  It is of no further interest to us.
• Advantage: you can bookmark the form.
• Problem: there is a limit of 1024 chars for the
  URL, therefore only a limited information can be
  transmitted in this way.
• If you use post, the user agent sends the form as
  a POST message to the server.
• The data is sent in the body of the http exchange.
• Thus it can be as long as you want.
• If you use POST you can set the MIME type of
  the data with a special attribute enctype=
        more attributes to <form>
• Here are two more attributes I will list for
   – accept-charset= says what character sets will be
     accepted by the form
   – accept= says what MIME-types can be accepted.
        the form control <input/>
• This element creates a control. Usually a form
  has several <input/>s as well as text that explains
  the from.
• Note the emptiness of the element.
• It admits the core, i18n and the form attributes.
      the type= attribute of <input/>
• This attribute can only take the following values
  –   text       enter text
  –   password   enter text, but don't echo on screen
  –   checkbox   enter checks on boxes
  –   radio      check one select
  –   submit     press to submit form
  –   reset      reset form
  –   file       upload file (can only be done with POST)
  –   hidden     hidden form data, not shown
  –   image      image map submission, not covered further
  –   button     a button
    the name= attribute of <input/>
• This give a name to the control that the users are
• The script that is found by the action= attribute
  will identify the controls by name. Therefore every
  control should have a different name.
   control name and PHP variable
• When the form is passed to the PHP script
  named with the action= attribute of the the form,
  the controls are accessible as PHP variables.
• If name is the name of the control, and if the
  method is POST, the control is read as the
  variable $_POST['name'].
• If name is the name of the control, and if the
  method is GET, the control is read as the variable
     the size= attribute of <input/>
• It lets you set the initial size of the input field.
• When the type is 'text' or 'password' the value you
  give to this field is the number of characters.
• Otherwise it is the number of pixels.
the maxlength= attribute of <input/>
• This sets the maximum length on the value.
• Note that this is different from the size of the input
  field because there is scrolling.
• If you don't specify a maximum length there is no
• But it is good security to have a limit.
    the value= attribute of <input/>
• This gives the initial value of the <input/>.
• The initial value is shown to the user.
• value= is optional but should be given for the
  radio and checkbox type.
       other attributes of <input/>
• When the input is of type 'radio', setting the
  checked= attribute to any value will tell the
  browser what button is initially set. Of course
  there can only be one of them.
• When the input is of type 'checkbox', setting the
  checked= attribute to any value will make sure it
  is checked initially.
• When the input is of type 'image' the src= attribute
  gives the URL of the image. This is for input using
  image maps.
• HTML file greet.html has
  <form action="greet.php" method=“GET"><p>
   your last name: <input type="text"
• PHP file greet.php has
  print "Hello ";
  print $_GET['lastname'];
        the push button <button>
• This makes a button for decoration.
• It takes a type= attribute that can be either be
  'button', 'submit' or 'reset'.
• It has takes a name= attribute for the name of the
  control that it sets.
• It takes a value= attribute attribute to set a value.
• It also takes the core and i18n attributes.
• And it can have character contents!
• I am not sure what it is good for.
              creating menus
• This is done with <select> element.
• Each <select> element can have a number of
  <option/> elements that contain the options that
  the user can choose from.
           attributes to <select>
• name= has the name of the control that is set
• multiple="1" allows and multiple="0" (default)
  disallow multiple selections. However, I don't
  know how they are being transmitted. Therefore I
  suggest you don't use this option.
• size= sets how many rows of the selection should
  be displayed at any one time.
• <select> also takes the core and i18n attributes.
      selectable choice: <option>
• Within a <select> there are a series of <option>
  elements that contain the selections.
• <option/> takes the core, i18n and form attributes.
 <select name="brewery">
      value= attribute to <option>
• value= can be used to set the value of the control
  when the value set is different than the contents
  string of the <option/> element.
• Example
 <option value="nyc">New York City</option>
       label= attribute to <option>
• label= can be set to label the option. if it is set, the
  user agent should use label rather than the
  content. At least this is what the spec says.
  Firefox does not seem to agree.
• This element has <option> elements as its children.
• It is used to create hierarchical options. This is
  mainly a time and space-saving device in the
  presence of many options. Say
 <optgroup label="dark">
  <option name="b6">Baltika 6</option>
  <option label="gu">Guiness"/></option>
• <optgroup> takes the same attributes as <option>.
        the <textarea/> element
• This creates a text area where you can put a
  large chunk of text.
• name= sets the name of the control that is set.
• cols= sets the number of columns in the text area.
• rows= sets the number of rows in the text area.
• <textarea> also admits the i18n, core and form
• This is a way to add labels for inputs.
• Normally, the input label should be taken from the
  label= attribute of the input.
• <label> can be used if the other method can not
• It accepts a for= attribute to give the input for
  which it is the label is for. Example:
• <input name="sex"/><label for="sex">your
• Forms deliver data to the server. The server can
  then process the data and deliver a response.

• Active effects can also be done client-side. This is
  done using the <script> element that mostly uses
  a language called javascript.
        complete example: shop
• We build a form, that allows people to buy things
  in a shop.
• The result of the form is the itemized bill,
  including totals with sales tax!
• Don't be intimidated by the example. But try to
  build your own form with PHP feedback script
• When you are done, you can go home.
• You will not go home until you are done!
            saar_bier.html, part 1
<form action="saar_bier.php" method="post">
<tr><td valign="top" rowspan="2"><a
  Grosswald Brauerei</a> (since 1860)</td>
<input type="text" name="gw_pils" size="2"/>
<input type="hidden" name="p_gw_pils" value="1.56"/>
            saar_bier.html, part 2
<input type="text" name="gw_expo" size="2"/>
</td>                                     <td>@1.34&euro;
<input type="hidden" name="p_gw_expo" value="1.34"/>
<tr><td valign="top">Brauerei Bruch (since 1702)</td>
<input name="bruch_land" type="text" size="2"/>
</td>                                     <td>@1.22&euro;
<input type="hidden" name="p_bruch_land" value="1.22"/>
           saar_bier.html, part 3
<input type="hidden" name="euro_rate" value="1.22"/>
<input type="submit" value="I order!"/>
          saar_bier.php, part 1
            saar_bier.php, part 2
// add up the grand total in euros
// note how this statement stretches several lines
// get the euro rate from the form
// calculate the total dollars
            saar_bier.php, part 3
print "<div> You ordered <ul>";
print "<li>$gross_pils bottles of Grosswald Pils,
cost $t_gross_pils</li>";
print "<li>$gross_expo bottles of Grosswald Export,
cost $t_gross_expo</li>";
print "<li>$bruch_land bottles of Bruch Landbock,
cost $t_bruch_land</li></ul>";
print "Your bill is $total_dollar US dollars.<br/>";
print "We ship when we get your check!<br/>";
print "Prosit!</div>";
?> <!-- normal HTML goes on hereafter ... -->

      Thank you for your attention!

    Please switch off computers when
             you are done!

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