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					              California Institute for
              Telecommunications
              and Information
              Technology

              Volume 1 | Issue 3 | Summer 2006




What Lies
   Beneath
             University of California, Irvine
interface-2-face                       Building on Progress

                                                                   Calit2 has come a long
                                                                   way in a short time. I’ve
                                                                   been involved since the
                                                                   beginning, both as vice
                                                                   chancellor of research
                                                                   and graduate studies,
                                                                   and – from 2002 to 2004
                                                                   – as the Irvine interim
                                                                   director. I take special
                                       pride in the institute’s many accomplishments.
                                          In its short history, I have seen Calit2 evolve from
                                       concept to reality. It has grown from a skeleton
                                       staff to a robust entity, and it has moved from
                                       temporary quarters into its high-tech new home.
                                          In the early years, I helped identify UCI faculty
                                       who wanted to participate in the bold, new
                                       collaborative effort. Today, large corporations
                                       like Carl Zeiss SMT are realizing the benefits of
                                       Calit2 partnerships. Zeiss saw the institute’s
                                       adaptable research space, multidisciplinary
                                       environment and local industry participation as
                                       ideal components for its Center of Excellence,
Interface                              which opened in the building this spring.
Summer 2006
                                          Many other diverse projects and labs reside in the
Calit2@UCI
Albert Yee
                                       new building. From ResCUE (Responding to Crises
Director                               and Unexpected Events) and the Center of GRAVITY
Lorrie Minkel                          (Graphics Visualization and Imaging Technology) to
Assistant Director
Operations                             the EcoRaft and the Computational Biology Research
Shellie Nazarenus
                                       Lab, collaborative research is flourishing. And UCI
Assistant Director                     student researchers are gaining important experience
Marketing and Outreach
                                       that will benefit them in their post-graduate careers.
Stuart Ross
Assistant Director                        Calit2’s innovative future looks equally bright.
Research Development
                                       The institute is pursuing an integrative, complex
Interface Staff
Shellie Nazarenus – Executive Editor
                                       research agenda that will lead to new products
Anna Lynn Spitzer – Managing Editor    and systems. Calit2’s pioneering, collaborative
Rob Sexton – S2 Design S
Stuart Ross – Contributing Writer      approach is enabling research teams to ignite
Fran Tardiff – Contributing Writer
Debbie Nielsen – Corporate Relations   IT solutions that will improve our daily lives.


University of California, Irvine
4100 Calit2 Building
Irvine, CA 92697-2800                                                    William Parker
(949) 824-6900                                                           Vice Chancellor for Research
www.calit2.net                                                           Dean of Graduate Studies
calit2@uci.edu                                                           Professor, Physics
                      Imaging
                      the Future
Photo: Paul Kennedy




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                                              M
                                                    inuscule is the next Big thing.
                                                    Nanotechnology – the science of engineering functional
                                                    systems at the molecular scale – was wishful thinking just 10
                                              years ago. Today, it is poised to make a profound impact on society.


                       by Anna Lynn Spitzer   Experts say it will change the face of        For scientists to build tiny
                                              health care, electronics, packaging,     nanosystems, they must be able to
                                              pharmaceuticals, environmental           slice, dice and examine the minute
                                              protection, homeland security and        pieces comprising them. That’s
                                              much more; in fact, in the near          the job of the three new scanning
                                              future, nanotechnology is expected       electron microscopes in the Carl Zeiss
 Carl Zeiss Center of                         to affect 30-plus industries to the      Center of Excellence, which opened
 Excellence Brings                            tune of more than $61 trillion.          in the Calit2 Building this year.
                                              One-Millionth of a Millimeter                 While 70 percent of the lab’s
 Advanced Microscopy                          Nanotechnology is the science of         research involves nanotechnology, the
 to Calit2 and                                small. A nanometer is one-billionth      Zeiss lab also will be used by biologists,
                                              of a meter, which is equal to one-       physicists, engineers, geologists,
 Southern California                          millionth of a millimeter. How small     chemists, and even archeologists and
                                              is that? A human hair is roughly         anthropologists. Any faculty member
                                              70,000 nanometers in diameter.                                   (continued, page 4 )

Page  | Interface | Summer 2006
                                                                                                           This page: Doctoral candidate Lynher Ramirez
                                                                                                           views samples on the Ultra 55 under the
                                                                                                           tutelage of project scientist John Porter.
                                                                                                           Page 1: Dan Mumm (top) helps doctoral
                                                                                                           candidate Grace Qin on the EsB CrossBeam®
                                                                                     Photo: Paul Kennedy


                                                                                                           workstation, while Ramirez (center) and
                                                                                                           postdoctoral researcher Wayne Zhou work
                                                                                                           on the Ultra 55 and EVO, respectively.




The ABCs of SEMs
Conventional microscopes use a series            A standard SEM pumps air out                              Combined with an array of unique
of glass lenses to bend light waves and     of the specimen chamber, creating a                            detectors, it is ideal for very high-
create a magnified image. Scanning          vacuum, to prevent the electrons from                          resolution characterization of both
electron microscopes use electrons          colliding with air molecules. If scientists                    insulating and conducting materials.
instead of light waves, allowing more       were examining a living specimen or a                               The third instrument, the 1540
detailed images at higher magnifications.   wet specimen in a solution, creating a                         EsB CrossBeam® workstation, is
     In scanning electron microscopes,      vacuum would dehydrate and destroy it.                         a combination scanning electron
a beam of high-energy electrons travels          The Zeiss EVO®, with its                                  microscope and focused ion beam. The
through a series of magnetic lenses that    environmental chamber pressure                                 beam uses gallium ions, which are much
focus them into a fine beam. A set of       capability, allows specimens to be                             larger than electrons, to knock particles
scanning coils moves the focused beam       examined with reduced pressure, but                            off the specimen’s surface. The ion
back and forth across the specimen.         with enough air and water to prolong                           beam is easy to focus and packs a lot of
As the electron beam hits each spot         the life of a cell or wet specimen.                            energy. This feature allows scientists to
on the sample, secondary electrons are      This allows specimens to be imaged                             engrave trenches in or “mill” the hardest
knocked loose from the surface and          in their native environments.                                  materials, with nano-scale precision. It
counted. The final image is constructed          The Ultra 55, conversely,                                 is also used for fabricating nanometer-
from the number of electrons emitted        requires a high vacuum, so it’s not                            sized systems or precisely preparing
from each spot on the sample.               suitable for wet specimens. It has                             specimen surfaces for imaging. These
     The three microscopes in the           higher resolution, however, than                               processes are closely monitored with
Zeiss lab differ in several ways from       the EVO® – to 0.8 nanometers.                                  “live” electron-beam high-resolution
standard scanning electron microscopes           It also uses lower voltage without                        imaging.
and each serves a specific purpose.         decreasing final image resolution.

                                                                                                                                    | innovate | integrate | ignite | Page 
                                                     on campus – and affiliated researchers                         55 CDS ultra-high-resolution field-
                                                     – can be trained to use the microscopes.                       emission scanning electron microscope;
                                                          “It’s truly fostering multidisciplinary                   and the 1540 EsB CrossBeam®
                                                     research on campus,” says Albert Yee,                          workstation, a combination of ultra-
                                                     Calit2 Irvine division director. “There are                    high resolution field-emission electron
                                                     other electron microscopes on campus,                          beam technology and focused ion beam
                                                     but they can’t do the job as well.”                            (FIB) technology. All three instruments,
                                                     Advantageous Alliance                                          which have a combined value of $2.5
                                                     The center is a partnership between                            million, are considered leading-edge
                                                     Calit2@UCI and Carl Zeiss SMT, a global                        technology in their respective fields.
“We wanted an                                        semiconductor and nanotechnology                               shared Benefit
 environment that makes                              instrument manufacturer. The                                   The equipment will be shared by
                                                     strategic alliance is providing a                              Calit2’s researchers, its industry
 a strong and genuine
                                                     Southern California regional center for                        partners and Carl Zeiss SMT’s
 statement of innovation,                            nanotechnology and biotechnology                               application development team.
 technology and excellence.                          research, as well as advanced materials                             The SEM microscopes will be
 Calit2 exactly matches                              development and innovation.                                    a boon to all three. The high-level
 this requirement.”                                       Zeiss supplied the three state-of-                        microscopy will be particularly useful to
                                                     the-art electron microscopes, including:                       Orange County and Los Angeles-based
                                                     the EVO® multi- purpose scanning                               aerospace, biomedical, semiconductor
                                                     electron microscope with variable                              and energy systems industries, which
                                                     chamber pressure capability; the Ultra                         will have the opportunity to use these




Reaching for the Stars
One of many researchers benefiting                         Conventional rocket propulsion uses                      thrust required for deep space missions.
from the cutting-edge equipment in                   ejected combustion products comprised                               She designs and builds the complex
the Zeiss Center of Excellence is Jessica            of lightweight elements like hydrogen                          field emission tips – which enable the
Ayers. Ayers, a biomedical engineering               and oxygen to produce thrust. Ayers’                           fuel to migrate to the emitting portion
graduate student, is working with fellow             ionic propulsion system will use much                          during operation – using MEMS (micro-
BME graduate student John Lin to build               smaller quantities of heavier elements                         electro-mechanical-systems) techniques.
a microscopic field-effect propulsion                that are ejected at extremely high                                  The scanning electron microscope
system for deep space missions.                      velocities to produce the long-term                            in the Zeiss lab at Calit2 allows
                                                                                                                    Ayers to image the fabricated tips.
                                                                                                                    In the next stage of her research,
                                                                                                                    she’ll use it to analyze the necessary
                                                                                                                    surface coatings to ensure coverage
                                                                                                                    integrity and thickness. She will also
                                                                                                                    use the EVO to view the wetting
                                                                                                                    characteristics of the molten indium
                                                                                                                    (fuel compound) on the coated tip.
                                                                                                                         “One of the major challenges of my
                                                                                                                    project is a very precisely shaped tip,
                                                                                                                    so confirming that is my first priority,”
                                                                                                                    says Ayers. “The SEM in the Zeiss lab
                                                                                                                    is user-friendly, with more automation
                                                                                              Photo: Paul Kennedy




                                                                                                                    and graphical user interface windows
Ayers, a Ph.D. candidate, uses the Ultra 55 to design
and build field emission tips for deep-space missions.                                                              than the other scanning electron
                                                                                                                    microscopes on campus.”

Page  | Interface | Summer 2006
                                                 Open House Celebrates
instruments on a recharge basis.
Zeiss will use the lab to demonstrate

                                                 Center’s Debut
the instruments’ capabilities and
application ranges for its customers.
And UCI faculty and students will
use it to conduct their research.


    “There are other electron
   microscopes on campus, but
   they can’t do the job as well.”

      According to Peter Clark, president
and general manager of Carl Zeiss SMT
Inc., Calit2 was a perfect choice for
the Center of Excellence. “We wanted
an environment that makes a strong
and genuine statement of innovation,
                                                                                                                                Micrograph contest
technology and excellence. Calit2                                                                                               winner Thomas
exactly matches this requirement.                                                                                               Pine, Stenkamp,
                                                                                                                                second-place winner
It was also clear that UCI has a                                                                                                Grace Qin and
strong desire to grow and a vision to                                                                                           Adam Schofield,
                                                                                                                                who placed third.
position itself as one of the leading
universities in North America.”
Productive Partnership
                                                 Calit2 marked the opening of the Carl Zeiss Center of Excellence
Current and potential users are
                                                 with a two-day open house, April 27-28. The event included tours
enthused with the technology and its
                                                 of the new microscopy lab, specimen sampling and display of the
capabilities, says Joe Hovendon, Zeiss
                                                 student micrograph entries. Contest winners were announced
district sales manager. He’s brought in
                                                 in welcoming remarks by Calit2 Irvine Division Director Albert
aerospace, semiconductor, forensics,
                                                 Yee. UCI Assistant Professor Dan Mumm and Dirk Stenkamp,
materials research and nanotechnology
                                                 managing director of Process Control Solutions at Carl Zeiss SMT
companies for demonstrations, with
                                                 AG, Germany, gave brief presentations about the partnership.
positive results. “They’re all excited
about having the facility here in
                                                 The micrograph entries are pictured on page 10-11.
Southern California, and they’re
all looking forward to using it.”
      Industry partners will use the
equipment as the lab becomes fully
staffed. “The biggest hurdle right now
is getting everyone here fully trained
                                              Zeiss Center of Excellence Recharge Rates
and qualified to use the microscopes,”
says Hovendon. “The demand for                                             Hours of Use                 Rates per Hour
this technology is very high.”                Equipment/Supply        Peak: 6 a.m.- :9 p.m.      UCI                   Industry
                                                  or Service        Off-Peak: Midnight-:9 a.m.   Users                    Users
      Dan Mumm, assistant professor of
                                                      EVO                      Peak                   $45                     $120
chemical engineering and materials
                                                      EVO                     Off-Peak             $22.50                     $120
science, and project scientist John
                                                   Ultra 55                    Peak                   $45                     $120
Porter are training student users.
                                                   Ultra 55                   Off-Peak             $22.50                     $120
At present, 37 UCI students, whose
fields range from materials science               Crossbeam                    Peak                   $75                     $120

to chemistry, biology and MEMs, are               Crossbeam                   Off-Peak             $37.50                     $120
training on the equipment. Instruction         Technical Training                                     N/A                      $30
                                                                                                            Rates subject to change without notice
                        (continued, page 6)

                                                                                                                   | innovate | integrate | ignite | Page 
                                            High-Tech Tools
includes a one-hour group orientation
and one-on-one training with Mumm
or Porter, as well as successful
completion of a comprehensive test.
                                            SBT Donation Facilitates Specimen Preparation
    “This partnership will keep us          Researchers using Calit2’s Carl Zeiss Center of Excellence recently got some
     on the forefront of research           state-of-the-art assistance.
     activity and infrastructure.”                Six specimen-preparation tools were donated to the lab by South Bay
                                            Technology, Inc., a Southern California materials-preparation manufacturing
     Calit2 is in the final stages of       company. The equipment
evaluating applicants for a permanent       will be used to prepare SEM
lab manager to oversee training and         cross sections, deposit high-
day-to-day operations. The center will      resolution films onto samples,
eventually operate 16-24 hours each day.    and clean samples and/or
A Bright Future for Research                microscope parts. It is valued
The Zeiss Center has the potential          at more than $125,000.
to change the Southern California                 “These instruments
research landscape in important ways.       represent the latest in materials
“Southern California is a hotbed of         processing equipment and
biotech activity,” says Mumm, who was       will provide the users with a
                                                                                          The IBS/e Ion Beam Sputter Deposition
integral in getting the Zeiss partnership   broad range of technologies,”                 and Etching System helps researchers
established. “In addition to the cluster    says South Bay Technology                     prepare specimens for SEM imaging.
of small industrial organizations located   President David Henriks. “The idea here is not to limit the researchers to
here, we have a large aerospace and         tools that may have been acquired years ago for a different purpose.”
defense industry that continually                                                                  The donated equipment
requires access to high-resolution                “Our goal with the Calit2                   includes a lapping and polishing
microscopy. Furthermore, the lab                                                              system, a lapping fixture, a
offers easy access, being five minutes
                                                   partnership is to always                   tripod polisher, a low-speed
from the Orange County airport.”
                                                 have the proper equipment                    diamond-wheel saw, an ion-beam
     Zeiss’s president agrees. “Our                 available for the job.”                   sputter-deposition and etching
long-term success will be based on                                                            system, and a plasma cleaner.
our ability to be present and intimate            “If you’re trying to drive a nail into a piece of wood and all you
with the growing nanotechnology             have is a screwdriver, you won’t be very effective,” says Henriks.
communities in the U.S.,” says              “We have the tools to allow researchers to be effective in processing
Clark. “Southern California is a            their samples for analysis. Our goal with the Calit2 partnership is
fast-growing and exciting arena for         to always have the proper equipment available for the job.”
nanotechnology, thanks especially to              In addition to assisting Calit2 researchers with their specimen
its strong local defense companies.”        preparation, the SBT/Calit2@UCI partnership provides other
     The microscopy center offers           opportunities. The company’s headquarters and manufacturing facility
another benefit to UCI and Calit2. As       are located in San Clemente, and the lab’s proximity allows SBT to
one of only a couple in the country that    respond quickly to new materials preparation challenges as well as
exists in partnership with an instrument    demonstrate the efficiency of their equipment to new customers.
manufacturer, “when Carl Zeiss develops           “Zeiss manufactures outstanding instruments and their performance
a product innovation, they’ll exchange      is limited only by the quality of the specimen being imaged. South Bay
the existing instruments for those          Technology provides a means to improve sample quality, which then allows
incorporating the latest technologies,”     customers to exploit the technology in the Zeiss tools,” says Henriks.
Mumm says. “This partnership will                 He adds: “We’re very excited about the possibilities this partnership
keep us on the forefront of research        presents. It is a win-win-win situation for South Bay Technology, UCI
activity and infrastructure.”               and Zeiss. I am looking forward to a mutually beneficial partnership
                                            and I foresee more rapid development of materials processing
                                            tools that could change the face of materials research.”

Page 6 | Interface | Summer 2006
        FUNDING NOTES                                                            by Stuart Ross




Government funding agencies and the          National Institutes of Health. The            and university at the project level,
University of California itself encourage    grants are awarded in three phases            typically through short-term personnel
research interactions with industry.         – proof of concept, development, and          assignments. For example, GOALI
Because Calit2’s charter emphasizes          commercialization, with successively          supports faculty visits to industry
close working relationships with             greater levels of funding. Typically the      for a few months at a time, industry
industry, it is important to be aware        Phase I funding is limited to $75,000,        visits to the university for teaching or
of these possible sources of support.        but Phase II can provide up to $750,000.      research, support for a postdoctoral
Some of the more important funding           In these programs, the small business         fellow working in industry, or support
sources that match industrial funding        must be the prime contractor to the           for industry mentorship of graduate
of university research include:              government and the university can be          students, to name some examples.
                                             a subcontractor; the university’s share       GOALI is also an NSF program;
Discovery Grants
www.ucdiscoverygrant.org
                                             of the funding is set by the guidelines.      deadlines vary by topic area.
The University of California offers          Research topics and deadlines vary from
                                                                                           Partnerships for Innovation
grants in the fields of digital media,       one federal agency to the next, but           www.nsf.gov/pubs/2006/nsf06550/nsf06550.htm
networking, biotechnology, electronics       the overall procedures and guidelines         This program for medium-scale efforts
manufacturing and IT for the life            are common to all the programs.               may also involve governmental partners
sciences. A pilot program also provides      The Industry-University Cooperative           or international partners, in addition
funding related to nanotechnology,           Research Centers Program                      to the university lead organization and
health and wellness, and energy and the      www.nsf.gov/eng/iucrc                         the industrial partner. Through research
environment. One of the advantages of        This National Science Foundation              and/or education, the projects should
the Discovery Grant program is the wide      program promotes longer-term, more            promote sustained innovation in the
range of funding levels – from $50,000       formal arrangements with industry,            chosen field. Funding up to $600,000
to well over $1 million, depending on        focused on a general research topic.          is available over three years; letters
the project needs and quality. The           Typically a center has a formal               of intent are due in late June 2006
industrial firm must have a research base    membership list of companies, with            and full proposals are due in August.
in California and must match the UC          differing levels of membership fees,
funding; there are specific guidelines for   a formal evaluation procedure,                All of these programs share some
the funding provided by industry. The        arrangements for sharing intellectual         predictable concerns, such as intellectual
application process is completed online.     property among the members, and an            property, liability and indemnification,
The next deadline is in October 2006.        agreement signed by all the members.          conflict of interest, and indirect costs.
                                             Awards are usually made for five              Although there are variations in the
Small Business Innovative
                                             years; the level of funding provided          particulars, all of the programs require
Research (SBIR) and Small
                                             by NSF is scaled according to the             that the company and the university
Business Technology Transfer
(STTR) programs                              size of the center and the amount of          complete a written agreement on such
www.sba.gov/sbir/indexsbir-sttr.html         funding received in membership fees.          issues before funding can begin.
As the names imply, these programs           The host university (or universities)
seek to help small businesses                must provide cost sharing as well.
advance their research, typically            Grant Opportunities for
through cooperation with university          Academic Liaison with Industry
researchers. The programs are offered        www.nsf.gov/pubs/1998/nsf98142/nsf98142.htm
by several federal agencies, including       Usually called “GOALI,” this program
the Department of Defense, the               emphasizes close ties between industry
National Science Foundation and the
                                                                                                                    | innovate | integrate | ignite | Page 
                                    Submerged/
                                      Ascension


                                                                                                            Submersion: Dancers Marc
                                                                                                            Sicignano, Rachel Lopez and
                                                                                                            Jae Cho interpret underwater
                                                                                                            life in “A Fish Impression.”

                                                                                                                     Photo: Gregory Gallardo




                                              M
                                                     ost research buildings have one purpose. They house research.
                                                     Deidre Cavazzi and Kara Miller had other ideas.
                                                     They decided the Calit2 Building should star in their master’s
                                              thesis dance performance.

                                              Cavazzi and Miller are UC Irvine MFA       in – and starring – the Calit2 Building.
                       by Anna Lynn Spitzer   candidates, charged with conceiving             The dances were choreographed
                                              and producing a performance piece to       to emphasize the structure’s atrium
                                              satisfy degree requirements. Both are      and flowing spaces, as well as its New
                                              interested in exploring dance beyond       Media Arts lab. Dancers incorporated the
                                              the boundaries of the traditional stage    building’s staircase, windows, concrete
                                              and both are fascinated by technology.
                                                   On the recommendation of                 “I was absolutely fascinated
Graduate Students’                            dance professor Lisa Naugle, the                  by the expansiveness
                                              two decided to collaborate.
                                                                                                    of the space.”
Collaboration Stars                                Thus began a partnership that
                                              resulted in a unique two-night multi-      floor and four separate stories into their
Calit2 Building                               media dance performance and video          work. The New Media Arts lab served
                                              installation held in February and staged   as a sort of theater-in-the-round – in

Page  | Interface | Summer 2006
                                                                                                                                                                                    Photo: Bentley Cavazzi
reverse – as audience members moved                               performance to honor her late mother.
themselves around the room in wheeled                                  Cavazzi envisioned flying high;
chairs for improved vantage points.                               Miller was feeling inundated.
      Submerged/Ascension consisted                                    “I was absolutely fascinated by
                                                                                                                Ascension: Lanterns contribute to the ambience.
of five dances that exemplified                                   the expansiveness of the space and
ascension – choreographed and, in                                 those windows,” says Cavazzi, who adds        filmed in Mexico and Sri Lanka as part
one case, videotaped, by Cavazzi,                                 that she was struck by the ascendant          of her performance. She views the ocean
and performed in the building’s                                   quality of the atrium’s architecture.         as a metaphor for connecting diverse
soaring atrium and surrounding areas                                                                            cultures through dance. “Because
– and five dance/audio-visual pieces                                                                            some of what I presented involved
representing submersion, that were
                                                                      “I was submerged in the                   people from different countries, it
choreographed, directed and/or filmed
                                                                     experience of technology...”               was really the ocean that connected
by Miller and presented in the second                                                                           all of those pieces,” she explains.
floor black-box theater-style lab.                                      “I felt submerged,” says Miller,              Cavazzi is deeply connected to the
Merging themes                                                    who was already considering the ocean         ocean as well. She is a certified marine
Cavazzi and Miller approached                                     she had come to love as a backdrop            naturalist who wrote the curriculum for
the project differently.                                          for her dances. “I was submerged in           the Dana Point Ocean Institute when it
      Miller was interested in                                    the experience of technology and the          opened its ocean education center. She
juxtaposing the ocean and dance                                   idea that this gigantic ocean is a place      still works at the institute part-time.
as a way to increase cross-cultural                               where dance and technology could                     Miller, who directed a New York
understanding. Cavazzi wanted her                                 meet and grow together. At the time,          City dance company for seven years,
                                                                  I couldn’t begin to ‘ascend’ because          is currently interning at DreamWorks
                  Ascension: Dancers                              there was so much to comprehend.”             SKG, and hopes to use her experience
                  unfurl gauzy banners
                  from the atrium’s                                     Once the two started working            to produce and direct independent
                  upper levels                                    together, they discovered their               dance films. “Video dance is a tool of
                                                                  respective approaches actually                cross-cultural understanding,” she says.
                                                                  complemented each other.                      “Dance can cross borders and transcend
                                                                        “When we began to work,                 language, and film reaches more
                                                                  we realized that our themes                   people than dance in a theater can.”
                                                                  overlapped so much. Deidre has                triumph
                                                                  submersion in her work and I have             Cavazzi, Miller and their mentor, Naugle,
                                                                  ascension in mine,” Miller states.            were all delighted with the outcome.
                                                                  cooperation and connection                          “This was the first project
                                                                  Cavazzi’s theme of ascension – brought        I’ve set within an interior space
                                                                  to life by dancers dressed in white,          and it all really exceeded my
                                                                  ethereal music, filmy strips of fabric        expectations,” says Cavazzi.
                                                                  descending from upper floors, and the               “It was just really incredible,” Miller
                                                                  use of lanterns and soft lighting – was       agrees.
                                                                  inspired by her mother, who passed away             Says Naugle, a member of both
                                                                  last summer. “My mom was extremely            students’ thesis committees: “Deidre and
                                                                  instrumental in supporting me and             Kara did an exceptional job of conveying
                                                                  encouraging me to dance,” she says. “It       their themes and presenting intriguing,
                                                                  was really important to me as a dancer        moving performances. They clearly
                                                                  and an artist to share my love and my         demonstrated that dance does not have
                                                                  feelings for my mom through my work.”         to be confined to a theater stage.”
                                                                        Miller, who has traveled extensively,
                                         Photo: Bentley Cavazzi




                                                                  presented dance video installations

                                                                                                                                         | innovate | integrate | ignite | Page 9
                                                                                             What Lies
                                                                                             Beneath
                                                                                             Calit2 sponsored a student
                                                                                             micrograph competition in
                                                                                             conjunction with the opening
                                                                                             of the Carl Zeiss Center of
                                                                                             Excellence. Micrographs
                                                                                             – photographs captured with
                                                                                             the center’s scanning electron
                                                                                             microscopes – were judged
                                                                                             on image quality and the
                                                                                             science behind the research.
                                        Thermal Facets on the Free Surface of Annealed       Judges included: Dave
                                    Yttrium-Doped Strontium Titanate (SYT) Ceramic Pellet
                                             Thomas Pine • Faculty sponsor: Daniel Mumm      Howard, Jazz Semiconductor;
                                                                                             Ali Yousefiani, Boeing; Mike
                                                                                             Lowery, AMO, Inc.; and Phil
                                                                                             Collins, UCI assistant professor
                                                                                             of physics and astronomy.
                                                                                                  First-place winner Thomas
                                                                                             Pine, whose micrograph
                                                                                             “Thermal Facets on the Free
                                                                                             Surface of Annealed Yttrium-
                                                                                             Doped Strontium Titanate (SYT)
                                                                                             Ceramic Pellet” appears on
                                                                                             the cover and at top left, is a
                                                                                             graduate student in mechanical
                                                                                             and aerospace engineering.
                                                                                                  He explains that the
                                                                                             conductivity of strontium
                                                  Crystal Tree of Perovskites                titanate, a superconductive
                                             Ya Grace Qin • Faculty sponsor: Daniel Mumm
                                                                                             ceramic material, can be
                                                                                             enhanced by introducing
                                                                                             (doping) the element yttrium.
                                                                                             This doping can increase its
                                                                                             potential for use as an anode
                                                                                             component with higher purity
                                                                                             and better electrochemical
                                                                                             properties in high-temperature
                                                                                             solid oxide fuel cells.
                                                                                                  Grace Qin’s second-place
                                                                                             “Crystal Tree of Perovskites”
                                                                                             and Adam Schofield’s third-place
                                                                                             “Seventy Microns Beneath the
                                                                                             Surface” also appear at left.

                                                                                             At right are the contest’s
                                            Seventy Microns Beneath the Surface
                                            Adam Schofield • Faculty sponsor: Andrei Shkel   eight semi-finalists.




Page 10 | Interface | Summer 2006
             LSM Deposit on AAO Template                                        MEMS FEEP Thruster Tips
          Anh Duong • Faculty sponsor: Daniel Mumm                       Jessica Ayers • Faculty sponsor: William Tang




A Web of Decomposition: Zircon’s Loss is Mullite’s Gain         Zinc Oxide Nanowire Capped with Spherical Tin Catalyst
       R. Peter Dillon • Faculty sponsor: Martha Mecartney                 Zhiyong Fan • Faculty sponsor: Jia G. Lu




                  Do You See the Matrix?                                  Polysilsesquioxane Nanoparticles
          Yen Peng Kong • Faculty sponsor: Albert Yee                   Mariya Khiterer • Faculty sponsor: Kenneth Shea




   (Mn, Cr)3O4 Spinel Phase Formed on Solid Oxide
                                                             473nm-Grating Silicon Mold Cross-Section for Nanoimprinting
    Fuel Cell Interconnect (Crofer APU22) Surface                           Wei Zhou • Faculty sponsor: Albert Yee
         Sungbo Shim • Faculty sponsor: Daniel Mumm


                                                                                                                          | innovate | integrate | ignite | Page 11
Calling

                                                                                                                                                                                Photo: Paul Kennedy
       all Commuters
by Anna Lynn Spitzer                                                                                      Postdoctoral researchers James Marca and Craig Rindt are developing
                                                                                                          travel behavior models for the travel assistant. The device will
                                                                                                          predict its owner’s destination and recommend alternatives.


It’s 8 a.m. Monday. Does your cell                            by cell phones’ global positioning
phone know where you are going?                               systems, the platform will extrapolate                              The Personal Travel Assistant
      It will soon. UC Irvine’s Institute of                  relevant data from the user’s daily                                    will be highlighted at the
Transportation Studies, in conjunction                        travels. A complex series of algorithms                                next Igniting Technology
with UC San Diego researchers, is                             and statistical modeling will shape                                    presentation on June 8.
developing a platform that will transform                     the data into a probabilistic model                                  To register: www.calit2.net/
cell phones into Personal Travel Assistants.                  of the driver’s daily travel habits.                                  events/ignitingtechnology
      Not only will your phone advise you                          Will Recker, professor of civil
about freeway conditions, it will “know”                      and environmental engineering, and                                   wDevelopers are designing the
your destination and when necessary, supply                   postdoctoral researchers James Marca                           new system to work with existing
you with a revised route and/or timetable.                    and Craig Rindt are overseeing the travel                      technology. “Cell phone technology
      By incorporating human social                           behavior modeling research in Irvine,                          with GPS and fancy graphics is
dynamics and behavior modeling, the PTAs                      while the San Diego contingent, led                            already available, so it makes sense
will predict your travel plans and suggest                    by Ingolf Krueger, assistant professor                         to utilize that,” Marca explains.
alternatives in the event of traffic tie-ups.                 of computer science and engineering,                                 The behavior modeling is
      Using live information supplied                         is designing the PTA’s software.                               computationally intensive. It will require
                                                                                                                             three or four days to crunch several
                                                                                                                             months of travel data into a probabilistic
                                                                                                                             model. The behavior model will run on a
                                                                                                                             dedicated server that will be connected
                                                                                                                             wirelessly to drivers’ cell phones.
                                                                                                                                   A continuous data stream
                                                                       Part Two                                              constantly allows the system to
                                                                                                                             build and update models when the
                                                                                                                             driver is not traveling. “If you drive
                                                                                                                             somewhere new one day, the system
                                                       Thursday, June 8, 2006                                                will learn it by the next,” Rindt says.
                                                 5:30 pm – light buffet, lab tours                                                 The initial user interface is a
                                                6:30 pm – moderated presentation
                                                                                                                             cell phone, but future platforms
                                       Calit2 Building, University of California, Irvine                                     can include automotive navigation
                                    Igniting Technology is sponsored by Knobbe Martens Olson & Bear LLP in partnership
                                    with the UC Irvine division of the California Institute for Telecommunications and       systems, PDAs or even wristwatches.
                                    Information Technology.
                                                                                                                             Developers expect the prototype
                                                                                                                             to be complete by this summer.


Page 12 | Interface | Summer 2006
  Expert’s Guide
  VoiP Phones
Garrett Hildebrand, network planner, and    frequent long-distance calls. The packets     to can tell the difference between an
John Schaefer, communications analyst,      of digitized voice data can be forwarded      IP phone and other types of network
work in UCI’s Network and Academic          over the Internet or other IP networks at     devices. The IP phones are put into
Computing Services department, where        no cost. As the call nears its destination,   their own private VLAN (Virtual Local
they provide information technology         it is connected into the network,             Area Network) that other devices
leadership, expertise, infrastructure and   reducing or eliminating toll fees.            – such as computers – cannot “see.”
service to support the university.
                                            How does one switch to VoIP service?          Are there any other disadvantages
What are VoIP phones?                       From home, you can download                   to the consumer?
A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)       software from Skype, SipPhone or              Your IP phone is only as reliable as
phone is a device that acts like a          other VoIP developers, and start              the network(s) it connects to. If you
telephone but passes digitized voice        making calls immediately over your            experience ISP outages with your
traffic across local-area or campus         DSL or cable modem connection.                computer, so will your phone.
networks, or the Internet, using Internet   These companies have various monthly              One of the biggest disadvantages
Protocols. IP telephones encapsulate        rates that include certain features           is power. Your regular phone service
digitized voice data into data packets,     like voicemail, caller ID and others.         line is always powered, even in a major
which are then routed to a server.              Alternately, you can pick up an IP        power outage. The same is true with
                                            phone adapter at an electronics store         the campus telephone system. There are
What equipment is required?                 and plug it into your network. You            battery and generator backup systems
You will need a data network that           add your standard phone, sign up for          that keep the phone services running
supports the Internet Protocol and          their service and you are ready to go.        during a power outage of any kind.
provides connectivity to other IP           The phone adapter is about $60.                   With home VoIP, you will lose your
phones. Because other IP phones                                                           phone service if your computer, VoIP
are typically on the Internet, you          Because the VoIP uses the Internet,           converter, DSL box and/or cable modem
need an Internet connection, like           are long-distance and international           are not connected to an uninterruptible
DSL or a cable-modem line at home,          calls free, after you pay your ISP?           power supply (UPS) system. Even then,
or the campus network. If you’re            This is true if you are using VoIP at         it will only work for as long as the UPS
calling standard phones, you’ll also        home or you have subscribed to a VoIP         can maintain power via batteries.
need a gateway to that system.              provider independent of the campus
                                            telephone service. Not all international      What are some other companies
Are there differences in VoIP phones?       calls are free, but they can be if you        that offer these VoIP services?
There are three types of VoIP phones.       are calling someone who uses the              There are a myriad of companies that
One is the type used at Calit2: it is       same VoIP service provider. There isn’t       offer VoIP services: Vonage, SunRocket,
self-contained, and only requires a         one VoIP provider that covers every           VoiceElipse, SipPhone, Speakeasy,
capability to find the VoIP server so it    continent; those countries that are           Covad, Google and more. They are
can access its pre-programmed features.     not covered are still less expensive          not all the same. Each one offers
It also requires a network connection       than regular telephone services.              different international calling countries
with power over Ethernet (PoE).                                                           and prices. There is even a company
    The second type is a “soft phone.”      Are companies like Skype safe for             known as Onvine which markets a
Skype software, which runs on your          computer users? What are the risks?           VoIP phone and videoconferencing
computer, is an example; it uses            There are more than 500 million               service known as “Tomato Vine.”
speaker and microphone jacks to             Skype users. The computer is safe
support a headset that handles calls.       as long as you keep current with              Is Calit still the only building on
    Lastly, the VoIP phone can be a         the latest anti-virus and operating           campus using this technology?
standard phone set that is plugged          software and/or have a firewall.              Not anymore. Natural Sciences II is
into a VoIP adapter. That system                VoIP is vulnerable to the same            using Cisco IP phones. Information and
converts the analog signal to digital,      issues that affect the data network,          Computer Sciences announced that it
encapsulates it in TCP/IP packets,          like viruses and spam. It is much easier      plans to use them in its newest building,
and interfaces it to the network.           to “tap” into the network and capture         Bren Hall (ICS3). About half of NACS
    For Skype and other similar services,   data than it is to tap into your phone        is using IP phones at this time. The
there is a monthly service fee for          line. This will become less of an issue       determining factor is the network, which
using the servers and gateways.             as encryption and other security              needs an upgrade in certain areas.
                                            measures continue to develop.
What are the benefits to                        The UCI IP phones, such as the            More:
phone customers?                            Cisco IP phones deployed at Calit2,           www.nacs.uci.edu/telephone/voip.html
VoIP benefits anyone who makes              are secure. The network they connect
                                                                                                                | innovate | integrate | ignite | Page 
EcoRaft
 Seeds of Restoration
                                                                                                           Carpenter, an evolutionary biologist,
                                                                                                           and Tomlinson, who has art and
                                                                                                           computing backgrounds, each
                                                                                                           brought unique skills to the project.

                                                                                                                          Photo: Paul Kennedy




                                                 M
                                                        ore than 80 percent of lush Costa Rican rainforests have
                                                        been chain-sawed and bulldozed for pasture and farmland.
                                                        Exposed to rain, the rich topsoil eroded, vast areas lie
                                                 abandoned and useless to farmers – yet they’re far from useless
                                                 to Calit2 affiliates Bill Tomlinson and F. Lynn Carpenter.

                                                 They’ve employed the tropical             desktop computers are virtual islands.
                                                 environment in their EcoRaft project to   A mobile tablet PC is the “raft” on
                                                 model a lesson in restoration ecology.    which plant and animal species “float.”
                                                 Incorporating new technology developed    With raft in hand, the child picks up
                                                 at Calit2, the engaging, interactive      a hummingbird, a coral tree seed or
                                                 game focuses on kids 8 to 12 years old.   other plant from a healthy, diverse
                                                       “While having fun playing           environment and carries it to an island
                                                 the game, they’re learning basic          where habitat has been destroyed. A
                                                 rules of an ecosystem; namely, that       program, written in Java and C++, works
                               by Fran Tardiff   destroying a habitat is easy. Restoring   with infrared sensors to enable the
                                                 it, while an uphill battle, is still      animated object to “jump” from healthy
                                                 possible,” says Tomlinson, assistant      island to raft to barren land. Youngsters
                                                 professor of informatics and drama.       working together can repopulate
                                                 collaboration Breeds education            the devastated island and help it
                                                 His collaboration with Carpenter,         blossom into a thriving rainforest.
                                                 professor of ecology and evolutionary          The unique, multi-device game
                                                 biology, has created a way of             lets kids break the plane of the
                                                 transferring computer-generated           computer screen to interact with the
                                                 plants and animals from one virtual       environment and other people in ways
                                                 habitat to another. In EcoRaft, three     both exciting and loaded with potential.

Page  | Interface | Summer 2006
About 2,500 people have seen EcoRaft         tropical forests and soils led to her role   Carpenter, who believes EcoRaft
so far. Responses have ranged from           as ecological consultant for EcoRaft.        can be a positive way of cultivating
“Wow, that’s cool,” by kids who tried        She has lived with the vibrant hues          hope and cooperation, of getting
it in the Calit2 lab and at Santa Ana,       and sounds of the tropical forest. She       young people to skip the paralysis
Calif.’s Discovery Science Center, to        knows how hummingbirds fly, and which        stage and go directly to activism.
nods of approval from grownups at the        plants must grow first to support other      A Project Blossoms
Siggraph 2005 exhibit in Los Angeles.        species, all nuances of the interactive      The researchers’ common hope of
The next step is to install permanent        EcoRaft game that make it come alive.        repairing damaged environments
exhibits at the Discovery Science                  Restoration ecology grew out of        through education is one reason EcoRaft
Center and similar sites around the          the need to repair the heavy metal           sprouted at UCI. Calit2 is another. “They
country. Tomlinson sees EcoRaft as a         slag heaps left after mining. Now it’s       provided the lab space. And by its nature
powerful educational tool, part of a         the study of how a destroyed habitat         Calit2 encourages cross-disciplinary
comprehensive lesson plan teachers           returns to biodiversity and how human        collaboration; it gave me a reason to
can build around a museum field trip.        intervention can help by jumpstarting        call Lynn to see if we could combine
      It also could be used to teach         the succession process. Restoration is       our interests,” says Tomlinson. For
about other ecosystems on a more             most necessary where human activity          similar reasons, EcoRaft has attracted
sophisticated level. Tomlinson and his       – farming, fishing, mining, road building    funding from a host of sources: an
team of graduate and undergraduate           – has changed the whole ecological           $80,000 Calit2 Nicholas Foundation
students are working on an                   function of an area, Carpenter explains.     Prize for Cross-Disciplinary Research, the
infrastructure that accommodates             Costa Rica is only one trouble spot.         Emulex Corp., the Donald Bren School
new content for this kind of platform.       “The Amazon has the largest tract of         of Information and Computer Sciences,
And a downloadable version of                uncut rainforest, but it’s going fast.       and Claire Trevor School of the Arts.
the game will soon be available              Great Britain has only 1 percent of its           With a reminder that “it all starts
for play on home computers.                  forests left, and the U.S. is down to        with the kids,” Tomlinson opens an
Repairing the Damage                         about 10 percent of its original forests.    online video of youngsters enjoying
“Most people don’t know about                Many people are in denial. Others who        the game. “Children are a pathway to
restoration. Yet they have the feeling       realize the enormity of the problem          new ideas within a
that something’s not quite right with        go from discouraged to depressed to          family. Parents want
the natural world,” says Carpenter,          paralyzed. They think it’s hopeless, so      to be seen as valuing
an expert in hummingbirds. Her                    they continue their destructive         and acting on the
research in Costa Rica restoring                        consuming behavior,” adds         principles of their
                                                                                          children.” So as EcoRaft
                                                                                          flourishes around
                                                                                          the country, it will
                                                                                          disperse the seeds for a
                                                                                          budding generation of
                                                                                          restoration ecologists.

                                                                                          Video available at:
                                                                                          www.ics.uci.
                                                                                          edu/~wmt/movies/
                                                                                          EcoRaftUCI.mov




                                   Players use a tablet PC to
                                   “repopulate” a barren landscape
                                   with plants and animals from
                                   a healthy environment.                                                       | innovate | integrate | ignite | Page 
             Photo: Paul Kennedy
      Young entrepreneurs learn from experts
      In January, Calit2 partnered with the UCI Center for
      Entrepreneurship and Innovation to offer a semi-monthly
      series of workshops for students. The Student to Start-Up
      Entrepreneurial Skills Workshop Series is designed to give
      young business minds the skills necessary to navigate
      the complexity of the business-formation process. It is
      geared to those interested in starting closely held/family-
      owned businesses as well as those more interested in
      technology-based investment-grade ventures. Each class
      is taught by a team comprised of a member from the
      Senior Core of Retired Executives (SCORE) and recent
      UCI graduates with successful experience in the subject area. The
      program is supported by Web-based distance learning materials for
      students who want to pursue the subject in more detail. The series
      will continue next academic year in the Calit2 Irvine Building.




                     governor’s Office Pays a Visit
                     Representatives from the Office of the Governor visited UCI’s Calit2
                     Building in early February. David Crane, special advisor on jobs
                     and economic growth, and Mindy Fletcher, deputy chief of staff
                     for external affairs, spent the day touring the facility and learning
                     more about the impact the institute is having on California’s
                     technology research sector. The meeting, which was facilitated by
                     Duane Roth, Calit2 advisory board member and CEO of CONNECT,
                     included project demonstrations. Crane and Fletcher were also
                     briefed on research investments made by private and public funding
                     sources, including corporate partnerships and federal grants.




                                                                          gaming goes MAssiVe
                                                                          More than 100 invited academic and industry participants joined
                                                                          in a dialogue about the future design, and technical and cultural
                                                                          challenges presented by massively multiplayer games. Presented
                                                                          by UCI’s Game Culture and Technology Lab, Institute for Software
                                                                          Research (ISR) and Calit2, the MASSIVE research summit in
                                                                          April included case studies and models for collaboration. Jack
                                                                          Emmert, creative director of Cryptic Studios, gave the keynote
                                                                          address. Massively multiplayer online games are those in which
                                                                          thousands, or in some cases, millions of people, inhabit a virtual
                                                                          world via the Internet. MMOGs are the fastest-growing sector
                                                                          of the PC game market and are placing new demands on the
                                                                          Internet. The two-day summit included an evening reception
                                                                          with gaming demonstrations and industry recruitment tables.




Page 6 | Interface | Summer 2006
                                             [Bits and Bytes]
                                                      getting the Big Picture
                        From soup                     The high-definition plasma display screens
                        to nuts,                      installed in the Irvine Calit2 Building’s atrium
                        consumers                     might be superb for viewing the big game, but
                        scan
                                                      instead, they will be used to broadcast a variety
                        smartly
                                                      of Calit2 presentations, performances and research
                           Shoppers
                                                      demonstrations. Two 61-inch screens and a cluster
                           deciding what
                                                      of four 42-inch screens were installed in the four-
                           to buy at the
                                                      story atrium. The six screens can simultaneously
                           supermarket now
                                                      broadcast different images, or, in the case of the
                           have a new tool
                                                      four-screen cluster, can air a larger view of a single
                           to learn more
                                                      image. The plasma screens connect to the Internet
                           about products
                                                      and to labs operating in the building. They also
   ranging from cans of peas to bars of
                                                      will be used for webcasting lectures, playing DVDs
   soap. GreenScanner, developed by UCI
                                                      and transmitting new media arts performances. In addition, they
   Calit2 researcher Bill Tomlinson, is a
                                                      can be integrated into specific research projects: for instance,
   public database of product information
                                                      to post announcements in a simulated ResCUE disaster drill.
   and opinions that can be accessed
   from home or by using mobile devices
   with Internet capabilities, such as
   cell phones and PDAs. Consumers can
   freely access GreenScanner by visiting
   www.greenscanner.net to find out which                                       Water experts talk technology
   company makes the product and other                                            A group of water research scientists came together
   items produced by that manufacturer.                                           in March to discuss technological challenges
   It also provides the framework for                                             and opportunities in hydrology and near-coastal
   consumers to evaluate and share their                 oceanography. The attendees included not only experts from the UCI and
   own information about products.                       UCSD divisions, but also an expanded group of potential collaborators
   Tomlinson’s vision is that GreenScanner               from coast to coast. The two-day workshop incorporated focus group
   will become a forum for shoppers to                   discussions on environmental sensors, data information systems and
   read comments on whether products                     scientific visualization, and environmental modeling. Participants
   are environmentally friendly, as well                 prioritized research opportunities with plans to have Calit2 formally
   as how they taste, whether they work                  support project areas that will advance technologies and applications
   well and if they are a good value.                    in hydrometeorology, the environment and water resources.




computational Biology ignites Panel series
                   In April, G. Wesley Hatfield and Rick
                   Lathrop shared their CODA Genomics
                   Inc. success story with Orange County
                   entrepreneurs and investors at the first
                   “Igniting Technology” panel presentation.   that uses the power of computation to build synthetic genes
                   Co-sponsored by Calit2 and intellectual     for pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Other panelists
                   property law firm Knobbe Martens            included Bob Molinari, CODA Genomics’ CEO; and V. J. “Raj”
                   Olson & Bear LLP, Igniting Technology       Rajadhyaksha, senior director for business development
                   is a four-part series that examines         at Paramount Biosciences LLC, who until recently was the
                   UCI research and showcases the ways         associate director of UCI’s Office of Technology Alliances.
                   it can have broader applications in         The next Igniting Technology presentation, scheduled for
                   the business community. The event           June 8, features transportation experts who are prototyping
                   included an overview of the research        a device for personalized travel assistance (see page 12 ).


                                                                                                              | innovate | integrate | ignite | Page 
The California

Institute for

Telecommunications

and Information

Technology is

a two-campus

multidisciplinary

research institute.                                                             Chris Davison’s Evac-Pack looks
In collaboration                                                                like a futuristic backpacking
                                                                                kit. Instead, it will save
with UCSD, Calit@
                                                                                lives in the urban jungle.
UCI integrates                                                                        The Calit2 Responsphere
                                                                                team designed and
academic research
                                                                                constructed the apparatus
with industry                                                                   to aid first-responders in
experience to                                                                   crisis situations; it allows
                                                                                constant communication with
seek innovative IT                                                              an emergency operations
approaches that                                                                 center during search-and-
                                                                                rescue procedures. In
will benefit society
                                                                                buildings equipped with
and ignite economic                                                             multi-modal sensors and
                                                                                Wi-Fi, it can also tell rescuers
development.
                                                                                which rooms are occupied.
More than 0                                                                         Read more about Evac-
UCI faculty, 0                                                                Pack’s high-tech lifesaving
                                                                                capabilities in the next
students and 00                                                                     issue of Interface.
industry partners

are actively

engaged in Calit

research areas

that include the

environment,

transportation,

emergency

management, health
                                                          Photo: Paul Kennedy

care, education and
                       California Institute for                                                    NONPROFIT ORG.
entertainment. The     Telecommunications and                                                      U.S. POSTAGE
                       Information Technology                                                      PAID
four-story Calit      University of California, Irvine                                            Santa Ana, CA
                       4100 Calit2 Building                                                        Permit No. 1106
                       Irvine, CA 92697-2800
building on the UCI

campus includes

state-of-the-art

labs, meeting

rooms and open

research spaces.

				
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