Electronic Communications Networks Marcus Woo Kevin Appel Activity Stock X Person 1 represents a brokerage and has control over 1,000 shares and have access to market information Stock Y Person 2, 3, and 4 are private investors who have 100 Stock Z shares to invest and only know that all 3 stocks have been performing stably. Assume that all stocks have the same share prices. What is an Electronic Communications Network (ECN)? Alternative Trading System Privately Owned Subscription Service Establishes anonymous and direct connection between buyers and sellers Accounts for 65% of trading volume of NASDAQ-listed shares as of 2005 History of ECNs Technological changes Securities industry quick to adapt (SuperDOT) Instinet recognized as first electronic exchange market – 1998 Skeptical about lack of human interaction Name Founded Location/Owner Island 1996 Subsequently purchased by Instinet Instinet 1969 Numera Holdings, Inc. Archipelago 1997 NYSE Brut 1998 NASDAQ Redibook 1998 Spear, Leeds, & Kellogg Bloomberg 1997 Bloomberg, LP Trading on ECNs Essentially a limit order book Eliminates middleman ECN listed as contra-side party Smaller profit spreads (Buyer/Seller) ECN acts as 3rd party guarantor Benefits of Trading on an ECN Anonymity Lower transaction costs/errors Competitive pricing (transparency) Extended hours of operation Efficient transaction times Ability to pursue market makers Advantages of NYSE Preference ability and internalization More suitable for large stock orders Price improvement via the auction process No subscription fee for retail investors Regulations ECN serves a limited regulatory function Assume default risk NYSE Rule 390 Heavily criticized and repealed on May 8, 2000 Going public $1 billion class action lawsuit against market makers Maintaining high stock prices on open market Trading with each other at lower prices on Instinet Result: ECNs open to the public Electronic Communications Networks Today •Goldman Sachs •Salomon Smith Barney •Merrill Lynch •PaineWebber •Morgan Stanley •Credit Suisse First Boston •J.P. Morgan •Lehman Brothers •Bear Stearns Electronic Communications Networks Today Expand markets in which they hold investments Reduce volume of transactions flowing through specialist Cuts costs Involvement allows small-time investors access to ECNs Questions?
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