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					     HIGH TECH INNOVATION
DRIVES SUSTAINABLE DEVEOPMENT




   High Tech and the Triple Bottom Line
            OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION

• The high tech industry is characterized by constant, dynamic
  innovation – and we just in the beginning of the Internet age

• Although we tend to take this innovation for granted, it serves
  critical human needs across the so-called “triple bottom line” of
  sustainable development:
     – Social progress
     – Environmental protection
     – Economic advancement


• Illustrations abound in this presentation

• Principles for regulating high tech without harming innovation

7/12/2010                    INTRODUCTION                             2
             HIGH TECH IS INNOVATION


• We are in early stages of the information and
  communications revolution
     – By 2001, fewer than 60 percent of US population had PCs
       (SOURCE: US Department of Commerce)
     – Phone, radio, electricity adoption rates all 90-100%, but took
       many years to get there
     – PC penetration rates for many countries is still very low


• Innovation means doing OLD things more effectively
  and more efficiently

• AND doing entirely NEW things…
7/12/2010                    INTRODUCTION                           3
    THE “INTERNET ERA” HAS JUST BEGUN

•    Although its roots go back further, the term “Internet” did not enter the
     popular lexicon until 1994

•    Internet access rates vary widely by country and region
      – Over half of US residents had access in 2001
      – In Europe it was 18 %
      – In Asia it was 4%

•    But Internet access and usage is exploding. Growth rates in 2001:
      – 10% in US
      – 33% in EU
      – 33% in Latin America
      – 44% in Asia


SOURCE: International Telecommunications Union; UN Commission on Trade and Development




7/12/2010                                        INTRODUCTION                            4
   THE “INTERNET ERA” HAS JUST BEGUN
                 (cont’d)


• In 2001, there were 500 million Net users, with one-
  third of new users coming from the developing world

• E-commerce continues to grow rapidly, up 50%
  worldwide in 2001

• Wider availability of broadband is anticipated to
  accelerate growth further


SOURCE: International Telecommunications Union; UN Commission on Trade and
   Development


7/12/2010                          INTRODUCTION                              5
                 A GLIMPSE OF THE FUTURE

• We are moving into the age of “pervasive computing” and
  ubiquitous connectivity

• In the words of Internet pioneer, Vinton Cerf:
            “What is the future of the Internet? It will become the 21 st Century‟s
              telecommunications infrastructure. It will become our medium of commerce and
              education, of research and medicine. It will be come a repository of the
              knowledge, wisdom and creativity of the human spirit. Internet will be there, for
              everyone.”


• The proliferation of broadband will help make this vision a reality


SOURCE: Crandall and Jackson, Criterion Economics, 2001


7/12/2010                               INTRODUCTION                                              6
        HIGH TECH SERVES HUMAN NEEDS



• Innovation in the high-tech industry makes
  sustainable development possible

• Sustainable development is the “triple bottom line”
     – Social progress
     – Environmental protection
     – Economic advancement




7/12/2010                  INTRODUCTION                 7
                THE SOCIAL DIMENSION

• Health care
     – Greater computing power makes new diagnostic tools available
     – New health monitoring technologies revolutionize medicine
     – Peer to peer computing speeds medical research


• Education
     – The Internet and wireless technologies bring education resources
       to remote locations
     – PCs and the Internet can aid the teaching many subjects, including
       reading and the environment


• Communications
     – The Internet and wireless phone connections can bring wide variety
       of services to remote rural villages

7/12/2010                         SOCIAL                                8
              THE SOCIAL DIMENSION (cont’d)

• Art and Cultural Restoration
     – New technology opens new opportunities

• Safety
     –      More cost-effective auto safety testing through simulation
     –      Advance auto safety systems make driving less hazardous
     –      GPS technology promotes driver security
     –      Advanced circuitry guard against electrical fires

• Emergency Response and Homeland Security
     – Ground-penetrating radar and GPS make emergency response
       quicker and safer
     – “Smart” chemical sensors detect hazardous gases
     – Remote sensing and modeling used to detect changes in coastal
       regions, aid in military operations


7/12/2010                             SOCIAL                             9
            TeraRecon 3-D Medical Imaging
•High-speed broadband, combined
with fast microchips, enable
detailed, 3D medical imaging


•2D CT or MRI scans processed in
centralized server, converted to 3-D
model
                                           Standard 2D image


•3-D image distributed via high-
speed broadband to doctors at
remote sites, accessed by basic
desktops, laptops
Source: TerraRecon, Inc; Intel



7/12/2010                        SOCIAL   TeraRecon 3D image   10
                          TeraRecon Benefits

• Better patient
  visualization provides
  better/faster diagnosis


• Saves film costs


• Eliminates mail latency or
  doctor travel time

Source: TerraRecon, Inc; Intel
                                          TeraRecon User Interface


7/12/2010                        SOCIAL                              11
             eICU Centralized ICU Management



• Using VISCU‟s
  technology, centralized
  ICU doctor can treat
  patients in multiple
  hospitals remotely
• All bedside telemetry
  available
• Videoconferencing for
  patient observation and
  interaction

Source: Intel, VISCU Inc.

 7/12/2010                  SOCIAL             12
                  eICU Benefits



• Trained ICU doctors
  reduce mortality by 20%
• But many more ICUs
  than trained ICU doctors
• ICU doctors can “work”
  at multiple locations
  simultaneously,
  providing needed care



7/12/2010               SOCIAL    13
            Given Imaging M2A Camera Pill

•   Ingestible pill containing
    camera, semiconductor,
    and radio transmitter

•   Flashes 4 pictures per
    second for 24 hours

•   Provides unparalleled
    medical imaging
    capabilities for endoscopy,
    proctology, and
    colonoscopy

SOURCE: National Semiconductor




7/12/2010                         SOCIAL    14
              Given M2A Camera Pill:
            “Convergence of Technologies”




                           Source: SPIE – The International Society for Optical Engineering



7/12/2010               SOCIAL                                                                15
            OTHER HEALTH-CARE ADVANCES
• Broader deployment of broadband Internet access will
  accelerate the growth of telemedicine applications that consume
  lots of bandwidth

• Bio-sensors and software now available to link Alzheimer‟s
  patients with their doctors to permit remote monitoring of
  condition (Source: Intel)

• Miniature computerized monitors can be implanted in the chest
  to detect and correct heart rhythm abnormalities (Source: Washington
    Post, 12/30/02)



• Subcutaneous computerized pumps can be used to precisely
  deliver insulin to diabetics (Source: Washington Post, 12/30/02)


7/12/2010                       SOCIAL                                   16
        HEALTH CARE ADVANCES (cont’d)

• “Virtual house calls” have become possible
     – Home monitoring of circulatory, heart, kidney conditions will be
       transmitted via Internet to doctors‟ offices (Source: Battelle)

• Cyber-Care, Inc. already provides “Electronic HouseCall,” an
  Internet-based system that allows doctors to monitor patients in
  their homes

• IBM working with medical researchers to perfect heart monitors,
  linked to cell phones, that will be able to automatically dial 911
  when a jogger‟s heart rate exceeds certain parameters

• Coming soon: Baby blankets with computerized sensors,
  equipped with radio transmitters, will monitor a baby‟s vital signs
  and alert parents of problems


7/12/2010                          SOCIAL                                 17
             PEER-TO-PEER COMPUTING
            SPEEDS MEDICAL RESEARCH

• Peer-to-peer computing entails using the Internet to link the hard
  drives and processing power of thousands of computers for a
  variety of purposes, including file-sharing (e.g., Napster)

• Peer-to-peer computing now being used to harness the
  computing power of multiple PCs to create a “virtual
  supercomputer” to perform computations required in medical
  and genetics research projects
     – Downloaded software and web link enable “idle” PCs to perform
       calculations on data packets, which are then returned, via web, to
       central program, in exchange for a new data packet

• United Devices, Inc., the American Cancer Society, Oxford
  University and Intel are cooperating to use peer-to-peer
  computing to speed cancer research

7/12/2010                         SOCIAL                                    18
                 THE INTERNET AND
                 RURAL EDUCATION

• China Netcom, one of the country‟s largest telecoms,
  is laying fiber-optic cable in rural areas.

• In pilot phase, local elementary schools will receive
  broadband Internet hookups to enable them to
  participate in classes in Beijing and Honk Kong
  through teleconferencing


SOURCE: Asiaweek.com, 10/11/02

7/12/2010                   SOCIAL                        19
             DISTANCE LEARNING
             USING THE INTERNET

• University of Ottawa (Canada) offers French-
  language courses via interactive video-conferencing

• Permits students in remote regions of Canada to earn
  credit towards their degree

• Students in Manitoba can earn their Masters in
  Nursing using video-conferencing and web-based
  learning software from the University of Ottawa,
  thousands of miles away

7/12/2010                SOCIAL                         20
        PCs HELP TEACH READING SKILLS


• IBM‟s Watch-me!-Read software designed to help students in
  grades 1-5 learn how to read

• Software includes over 110,000 words, spoken in multiple
  accents, as well as many books

• Using Watch-me!-Read, student reads aloud; PC “pal” spots
  errors and provides as-needed spoken assistance

• Makes it easier for one teacher to work with multiple students
  who are progressing at different speeds

SOURCE: IBM


7/12/2010                     SOCIAL                               21
The Internet and Environmental Education
            Intel and the Nature Conservancy




             Inspire science students, teachers and
              the community to explore and protect
                the “Last Great Places” on Earth.
              TNC has designated 200 “Last Great Places”

7/12/2010                       SOCIAL                     22
              Intel-TNC Last Great Places Website

              Explore the Last Great Places
• Website designed for 7-8-9 grade science students
  to take “Virtual Tours” of the “Last Great Places”
• 1st Tour - San Pedro River (Sonoran Desert)
• Provided in English and Spanish
• 2nd Tour – Berkshire-Taconic Landscape
• Visit: http://www.lastgreatplaces.org/




  7/12/2010                  SOCIAL                    23
        HIGH TECH TELECOMMUNICATIONS
    BRINGS THE WORLD TO REMOTE LOCATIONS


• Networks of “telecenters” established in parts of rural
  India, using a hub and spoke distribution model

• Telecenters in each village can communicate with
  each other and with world through the Internet,
  featuring
     – Wireless Internet connections
     – Back up solar generators

• Information content includes market prices, bus
  schedules, health care information, and education

SOURCE: UNEP, 2002

7/12/2010                     SOCIAL                    24
            Art Restoration and Preservation


•   Lasers, electron beams, and DNA
    mapping are used to restore and
    preserve paintings and other works
    of art.

•   For example, the picture on the
    upper-right is covered in black paint.

•   Hand-held lasers were used to
    carefully strip away the black paint
    to reveal the color paint beneath, as
    conventional methods, involving
    water or other solvents, can do little
    to improve this.

Source: The Economist, 11/22/02


7/12/2010                                SOCIAL   25
             SIMULATING AUTO SAFETY


• Cost of actual crash-testing limits amount of safety
  testing auto companies can afford

• Audi is installing a simulation system, based on Intel
  PentiumTM and XeonTM processor technology, that
  allows simulation of virtually any plausible crash
  scenario


SOURCE: Intel Corp.


7/12/2010                 SOCIAL                           26
               AUTO SAFETY SYSTEMS

• Antilock braking systems




• “Smart” cruise control
     – Mercedes Benz has developed “Proximity-Controlled
       Cruising” technology that adjusts cruising speed to ensure
       safe distance from cars in front of cruising vehicle




7/12/2010                      SOCIAL                               27
            GPS and Auto Safety and Security

• A number of companies use GPS technologies to
  identify location of vehicles, both to track stolen cars
  and locate drivers in distress:

     – Clifford Electronics‟ Mobile Trace 1 system uses GPS
       technology to locate and track vehicles

     – Alpine‟s Mobile MaydayTM system also uses GPS to track
       vehicles

     – GM‟s OnStarTM technology offers similar capabilities


SOURCE: Edmunds.com

7/12/2010                      SOCIAL                           28
            GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR
                   SAVES LIVES

• GPR used to locate buried landmines that threaten
  troops or civilian populations

• GPR permits systematic mapping of subsurface utility
  lines, ensuring that future construction avoids these
  hazards




7/12/2010                SOCIAL                       29
                    HOMELAND SECURITY


•   Scientists are using remote sensing,
    modeling, and information
    management capabilities to predict
    the fate and transport of
    contaminants that could threaten
    human safety and health, as well as
    contribute to environmental
    disasters.

•   Emergency management and,
    therefore, increased security, can
    begin with an assessment of
    vulnerability and the development of
    contingency response plans to
    natural, accidental, and intentional
    events.

Source: Battelle


7/12/2010                             SOCIAL   30
            EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND
              HOMELAND SECURITY

•   GPS units placed on fire hydrants, water lines, and other infrastructure
    can improve speed and efficiency of emergency response (Source: NASA)

•   Argonne National Lab has developed “smart chemical sensor system”
    technology that uses microchips to detect hazardous gases based on
    their unique chemical signatures (Source: Argonne National Lab)

•   PQuake system, developed at Georgia Tech, allows emergency
    workers to enter and manipulate real-team damage assessment data
    on Palm Pilots and other PDA devices (Source: National Science Foundation)
     – Enables quicker and safer planning of on-site responses to earthquakes
       and other disasters
     – Played an important role in recovery operations at World Trade Center site



7/12/2010                            SOCIAL                                      31
                             ELECTRICAL SAFETY --
             GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERUPTERS (GFCIs)

•    GCFI sensors constantly
     monitor electrical flow in a
     circuit

•    When miniscule losses of
     current are detected, the GFCI
     stops current flow to prevent
     shock

•    GFCIs have played a major role
     in reducing home electrocutions

SOURCE: National Electrical Manufacturers Association
    (NEMA)



7/12/2010                                               SOCIAL   32
            THE ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION

• Resource efficiency gains
     – Semiconductor progress in size, performance, and resource
       consumption


• Energy efficiency and climate
     – Advanced PC power management reduces greenhouse gas
       emissions
     – The Internet is reducing climate gas emissions through
       structural changes in the economy
     – Energy efficient lighting also reducing climate impacts


• Automobile emissions control

7/12/2010                  ENVIRONMENT                         33
THE ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION (cont’d)

• Monitoring, mapping, and modeling
     – Advanced sensors permit real time monitoring of
       environmental resources
     – Ground penetrating radar and GIS technology permit
       sophisticated management of natural resources



• Teleworking
     – The Internet and advanced communications technology
       prevent commuter trips, reducing congestion, improving air
       quality and quality of life

7/12/2010                   ENVIRONMENT                             34
       SEMICONDUCTOR EFFICIENCY GAINS

• 1000x Decrease in Size (Resource Savings)
• 10,000x Increase in Performance (Energy Savings)
• 100,000,000x Decrease in Cost




            1 Transistor           64 Meg DRAM
                 $6                     $6
                1959                   1999
7/12/2010                  ENVIRONMENT           35
                  HIGH TECH INCREASES
                   ENERGY EFFICIENCY


• Integrated circuits and sensors drive energy efficiency in many
  industry sectors…
            [UPDATE TI DSP INFO FROM WRI]


• Advanced thermostats and building system controls..
            [UPDATE HONEYWELL INFO FROM WRI]


• The Internet drives both structural and efficiency gains

• Teleworking reduces the need for energy-intensive air and auto
  travel

7/12/2010                    ENVIRONMENT                            36
            Intel’s Instantly Available PC (IAPC)

• Intel developed technology – licensed freely to any OEM
    – Based on ACPI open standard

• Stand-by power state
   – Low power consumption < 5 watts
   – Network connectivity
   – Quick “wake-up” ~5 sec

• Exceeds Energy Star requirements (<15 watts)

• Always On – Always Connected
     – Enables “appliance-like” usage model.



7/12/2010                      ENVIRONMENT                  37
Annual Carbon Dioxide Reductions in PCs
             (Worldwide)
                                               From 2002-2010, an additional 350 billion lbs of CO2 prevented.
                                               In 2010, equivalent to removing an additional 5 million cars from the road.



                                         100                    Source: EPA ENERGY STAR Program
  Annual Carbon Dioxide (Billion lbs.)




                                         90
                                         80
                                         70
                                         60                                             Incremental Savings from IAPC
                                         50
                                         40
                                         30
                                                                                   Projected Savings from ENERGY STAR
                                         20
                                         10
                                          0
                                           2002       2003       2004      2005       2006       2007      2008       2009   2010
    AMD’S ENERGY SAVING TECHNOLOGY


• AMD flash memory semiconductors, found in a variety of
  appliances, equipment and vehicles, consume very low amounts
  of power, e.g. 0.002 – 0.036 watts, and these devices consume
  so little current in standby (0.0000002 amperes) that most test
  equipment cannot measure it.

• AMD’s microprocessor families support the Energy Star
  computer specification of 15 W watts sleep-state power
  consumption. AMD has also developed PowerNow!, a
  combination of software and hardware, which allows set top
  boxes to reduce power consumption up to 74%.



7/12/2010                 ENVIRONMENT                          39
                HIGH TECH CAN HAVE HUGE
                 POSITIVE CLIMATE IMPACT

• 1997 Japanese Telecom Ministry study estimated
  that a combination of high tech applications could
  meet 7% of Japan‟s emission reduction commitments
  under the Kyoto Protocol

• Significant emissions reductions projections included
  (in kilotonnes):
     – Telework: 1,290
     – Intelligent transportation systems: 1,200
     – Internet: 500

     SOURCE: UNEP, 2002


7/12/2010                                             40
              THE INTERNET POTENTIAL
• The Internet may be one of the most powerful environmental
  improvement technologies in history

• The Internet enables energy efficiency gains of two basic types:
     – Structural gains:
        • Achieved when growth shifts to sectors of the economy that are
           not particularly energy-intensive such as the high-tech industry
           and away from sectors such as chemical manufacturing, pulp
           or paper manufacturing, and construction, which are energy-
           intensive

     – Efficiency gains:
        • Achieved when businesses change their activities reducing
           energy use relative to their output of goods and services. This
           can happen, for example, through the spread of teleworking
           and more efficient logistics systems made possible by Internet.
                                    Source: Center for Energy & Climate Solutions


7/12/2010                      ENVIRONMENT                                          41
                INTERNET STRUCTURAL GAINS


     • Reduction of, or elimination of the need for, office space
              -- By 2007, B2C and B2B e-commerce together could
                avoid the need for 1.5 billion square feet of retail space
                and up to 1 billion square feet of warehouse space.


     • Energy savings just from the operations and maintenance of
       these "un-buildings" could total:
              -- 53 billion kilowatt hours per year
              -- approximately 13 percent of total electricity growth
                 projected under business-as-usual scenarios.

            Source: Center for Energy & Climate Solutions



7/12/2010                                     ENVIRONMENT                    42
                              INTERNET EFFICIENCY GAINS

• Internet shopping
       -- Internet shopping uses less energy to get a package to a
                            house: Shipping 10 pounds of packages by overnight air
                            - the most energy-intensive delivery - uses 40 percent
                            less fuel than driving roundtrip to the mall. Shipping by
                            truck saves 90 percent.


• Amazon.com saves significant energy compared to
  traditional bookstore. Energy cost per square foot of
  space:
     – Traditional bookshop: $1.10
     – Amazon.com: $.56



7/12/2010                                            ENVIRONMENT                    43
     Source: Center for Energy & Climate Solutions
       MACRO TRENDS VALIDATE
  ENERGY EFFICIENCY ROLE OF INTERNET
• Rise of Internet has coincided with a decrease rather than an
  increase in energy intensiveness of economy

• Comparing pre-Internet era (1992-6) to Internet era (1996-
  2000):

     – GDP growth rate increased by nearly 50 percent, while
     – Electricity demand growth rates actually declined

• If Internet was a significant “energy hog,” you would expect to
  see accelerated electricity demand growth rates, not the decline
  the data actually show

• And, we are in the early stages of Internet deployment
                                   Source: Center for Energy & Climate Solutions
7/12/2010                     ENVIRONMENT                                          44
            GDP vs. OTHER GROWTH RATES

                             ANNUAL GROWTH RATES

                                  1992-1996    1996-2000

5.0%

4.5%

4.0%

3.5%

3.0%

2.5%

2.0%

1.5%

1.0%

0.5%

0.0%
            Electricity        Energy             CO2               GDP


              Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration


7/12/2010                               ENVIRONMENT                                  45
                ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING

• Modern energy-efficient lighting fixtures are 4-6x
  more energy efficient than incandescent lighting

• Use of these fixtures significantly reduces emissions
  of air pollutants and greenhouse gases




SOURCE: National Electrical Manufacturers Association


7/12/2010                                   ENVIRONMENT   46
                          Lifetime Air Pollution Emissions
                                                        *
                                                                                               292.0          KEY
                              300
                                                                                                           Hg Released
                                                                                                           During
                                                                                                           Disposal
                              240
      Milligrams of Mercury




                                                                                                           Hg Released
                                                                                                           From Power
                                                                                                           Generation
                              180

                                                                                                              CONCLUSIONS
                              120       89.0 (Mag)                                                     • Hg from lamp disposal is
                                       78.0 (EEMag)                                                      small compared to Hg
                                                                                                         released from power
                                                                55.0            55.0
                                                                                                         generation required to
                                                                                                         operate lamp
                               60
                                                                                                       • Incandescent lamps contain
                                                                                                         no mercury but result in the
                                                         0.24             7.2                            highest Hg emissions
                                      0.7
                                                                                                       • Similar reductions for
                                0                                                                        greenhouse gasses and smog
                                     4 ft. T12           4 ft. T8         4 ft. T8      Incandescent
                                     Magnetic                             Electronic     Equivalent      and acid rain forming
                                                        Electronic
                                    TCLP Failing      TCLP Compliant   TCLP Compliant   Light Output     pollutants.
                                     Recycled            Recycled        Incinerated

*Based on 20K burning hours, Hg content of 23 mg per T12 lamp, and 8 mg per T8 lamp.
 Hg content of fuels is the US weighted average for fossil and non-fossil fuels,
       7/12/2010                                                                                                           47
     calculated from “Environmental and Health Aspects of Lighting: Mercury” J.IES 1994.
 Disposal emissions assume 3% in residuals of recycling, 90% from incinerators.
        LEDs Drive Energy Efficient Lighting

•   Use of conventional light bulbs
    is being replaced by Light
    Emitting Diodes (LEDs) that are
    controlled by semiconductors

•   LEDs are more efficient than
    bulbs at converting electricity
    into light.

•   The best white LEDs on the
    market emit 25 lm/W, which is
    almost twice as efficient as an
    equivalent tungsten-filament
    light bulb.

Source: The Economist, 10/03/02


7/12/2010                         ENVIRONMENT   48
               ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTORS

• Electrical motors consume 63% of all electricity in the industrial
  sector

• The National Electrical Manufacturers‟ Association (NEMA) as
  established a “Premium Motors” standard to drive motor
  efficiencies beyond Federal requirements

• Based on US Department of Energy (USDOE) data, broad
  adoption of Premium Motors standard could save:
     – 5,800 gigawatt hours of electricity
     – 80 million metric tons of carbon emissions – equal to taking 16
       million cars off the road

SOURCE: NEMA



7/12/2010                      ENVIRONMENT                               49
                ENERGY EFFICIENT HOMES


• Combination of high tech sensors, “smart”
  thermostats, and PC controls can significantly
  reduce energy intensity of buildings and homes

• Estimates of potential savings are in the 10-30%
  range


SOURCE: UNEP, Global e-Sustainability Report, 2002




7/12/2010                                            50
    ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND MAPPING


•   The potential is immense:

            “Because innovative technologies have the potential to clean up and
              protect the environment and the public's health in a more cost-effective
              and efficient manner, finding ways to encourage their increased use is
              crucial.” (Source: USEPA, 1999)

•   Marine environments
     – Bio-optical monitoring buoys, linked to satellites, can track fish populations,
       oil spill plumes, and monitor water quality (Source: NASA)

     – IBM and Australian Institute of Marine Sciences have developed
       sophisticated modeling tools to visualize growth and destruction of coral
       reefs in response to varying water conditions (Source: IBM)

•   Environmental GIS
     – Computer monitors combined with GPS can create detailed geographic
       information systems (GIS) for environmental management (Source: NASA)


7/12/2010                            ENVIRONMENT                                     51
    ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING (cont’d)

•   Soil and hydrologic mapping

     – Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can map water tables and identify plumes
       of chlorinated solvents and other pollutants in the groundwater (Source: MALA
            Geoscience)


     – Used for the detection of heavy metals in soil (primarily), XRF analyzers
       emit X-rays that irradiate the sample and excite the electrons of the
       element(s) present.

              • As these excited electrons return to their normal state they give off
                energy that is detected by the XRF equipment and the pattern is
                analyzed to determine the element.

              • After data collection, the analyzer is connected to a computer for data
                analysis and storage.


     Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Sept. 1999


7/12/2010                              ENVIRONMENT                                        52
    ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING (cont’d)


• Endangered species

     – Intel and the Duck Island Bird Sanctuary (Maine) have
       installed a network of inexpensive silicon-based sensors to
       monitor and report environmental conditions to central
       database

     – Sensors also used to monitor nesting behavior of
       endangered bird species h




7/12/2010                   ENVIRONMENT                              53
                           TELEWORKING
• Teleworking improves the environment and raises quality of life
  in several ways

• Reduced congestion and lower vehicle miles traveled (VMT)
  reduce all forms of air pollution associated with the car
     – Local air quality
     – Global warming

• “Typical” commute = 18 miles; translates into 15 lbs of air
  pollutants (Source: ITAC, 1999; www..teletrips.com)

• Telecommuting potential enormous
     – 9% of US workers telecommute occasionally (Source: Rutgers U.)
     – 17% of Finns telecommute (Source: www.eto.uk.org/eustats)
     – Projected 137 million teleworkers globally by end of 2003 (Source: PC
            World)




7/12/2010                        ENVIRONMENT                                   54
         TELEWORKING SUCCESS STORIES
Sun Microsystems
• As of 11/02, 800 employees at Sun work full- or part-time from
  home
• “Drop-in Centers”: Sun provides “mini-offices” that enable
  workers to work at company sites near their homes, deferring
  commute to main campus until after rush hours
AT&T
• AT&T‟s employee telework program eliminates 100 million miles
  of commuting per year

• Environmental benefits include:
     –      Saving 5 million gallons of gasoline
     –      Reduction of 44,000 tons of CO2 emissions
     –      Reduction of 500 tons of CO emissions
     –      Reduction of 200 tons of NOx emissions
SOURCE: Sun and AT&T

7/12/2010                         ENVIRONMENT                      55
TELEWORKING SUCCESS STORIES (cont’d)

• Compaq estimated productivity increases in 15-45%
  range as a result of their telework program (Source: CO
    Telework Coalition)




7/12/2010                 ENVIRONMENT                       56
            THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION

• High tech raises economic productivity and efficiency, enables
  higher standard of living

• High tech employs many high-wage workers

• B-to-C e-commerce is exploding

• New markets and marketing technologies have been created

• New technologies spur agricultural development

• Teleworking provides multiple benefits


7/12/2010                    ECONOMIC                              57
            HIGH TECH RAISES PRODUCTIVITY

• Rising standards of living depend on increasing productivity

• Information and communications technology have been the
  principle drivers of recent productivity improvements
     – High tech contributed 50 percent of the acceleration in U.S.
       productivity growth in the second half of the 1990s. Source: DOC, Digital
            Economy 2000

     – Falling prices of high-tech goods and services have reduced overall
       U.S. inflation by an average of 0.5 percentage points a year (from
       1994 to 1998). Source: DOC, Digital Economy 2000


• High tech helps create a highly-efficient economy
     – Information technology improves communications between
       suppliers and customers, facilitating U.S. manufacturers‟ efforts to
       sell products and reduce inventory. Source: DOC, Digital Economy 2000


7/12/2010                           ECONOMIC                                       58
       IMPROVING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

• High tech helps create a highly-efficient economy
     – Information technology improves communications between
       suppliers and customers, facilitating US manufacturers‟
       efforts to sell products and reduce inventory (Source: US
            Department of Commerce, Digital Economy 2000)


• Utilities Afrique Exchange provides African utility
  companies an e-trading platform, helping sellers and
  buyers of power to reduce their costs through more
  efficient trading (SOURCE: UNEP, 2002)


7/12/2010                                ECONOMIC                  59
                      HIGH TECH DROVE
                  ASIAN GROWTH EXPLOSION

• Asian high tech exports have increased dramatically since 1985
      – China: From 5% in 1985 to 20% in 1998 (high tech exports as a
        percentage of total exports)
      – “New tiger” economies: From 10% to 37%
      – “Mature tiger” economies: From 17 to 38%

• Asian growth rates (ex. Japan) have ranged from 4% to almost
  10% since 1985

• Average manufacturing wages increasing as well
      – China: Annual growth (1997-2000) = 14%

Sources: International Labor Organization; The World Bank; Lall and Albaladejo (2001)



7/12/2010                                       ECONOMIC                                60
            HIGH TECH PROVIDES
      HIGH WAGE JOBS, EXPORTS, and R&D

• In 2001, the high tech industry employed over 5 million
  Americans; almost 11% of US manufacturing workforce

• High tech is one of top export sectors of US economy –
  accounting for over 25% of total US exports in 2001

• In 2000, wages in US high tech industry were over 90 percent
  higher than the average for entire private sector

• The high tech industry is the largest investor in non-federally
  funded R&D, leading to rapid innovation and long-term
  employment gains

SOURCE: AeA; US Department of Labor; US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census and Bureau of Economic Analysis




7/12/2010                                            ECONOMIC                                                      61
                      GROWTH OF INTERNET USE
                       FOR B-to-C e-COMMERCE
• 1995:
       – 28 million in US have access to Internet
       – 1.5 million use Internet for making purchases

• 2002:
       – 149 million Internet users in US
       – 35.5 million use Internet for shopping each week

• Widespread deployment of broadband Internet connections will
  make e-commerce more efficient and attractive, spurring rapid
  growth
       – Convenience yields time savings for consumers – a huge societal
         economic benefit


SOURCES: Vanderbilt University; Nielsen Ratings; Comscore.com; Cyberatlas.internet.com


7/12/2010                                              ECONOMIC                          62
                      B-to-B e-COMMERCE
                WILL DRIVE ECONOMIC GROWTH

• Most e-commerce today is B-to-B


• Global Internet trade has been forecast to reach USD 6.8 trillion
  in 2004, or almost 9% of global sales of goods and services


• Goldman Sachs has estimated that cost savings associated with
  B-to-B e-commerce can contribute a sustained additional 0.25%
  economic growth globally over next ten years



SOURCE: UNEP Global e-Sustainability Initiative report, 2002



7/12/2010                                                         63
CREATING MARKETS OVER THE INTERNET

• Viatru Co. links artisans in India with museum shops in the U.S.
     – Web site (www.mfa.org/poppy) provides virtual tour of goods as
       they are being made (Source: NYTimes, 3/16/01)


• The Manobi project provides access to Internet-enabled mobile
  phones
     – Allows farmers in Senegal to access up-to-date market prices for
       their crops before they decide which market to sell in (Source: BBC,
       10/6/02)


• The MyBiz network in Malaysia provides local small and
  medium-sized businesses with a platform for collaborative
  marketing by linking 300 companies up and down the supply
  chain (UNEP, 2002)

7/12/2010                        ECONOMIC                                64
            3D MARKETING ON THE WEB

• General Motors and other companies are using 3-D
  imaging technology to provide prospective customers
  a more realistic view of their vehicles, inside and out,
  via the web (Source: Intel)




7/12/2010                ECONOMIC                       65
                NEW TECHNOLOGIES SPUR
               AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
• GIS systems can use geographical data to help improve
  agricultural yields by identifying where crops should be planted
  to take advantage of soil, slope, and hydrologic characteristics
    (SOURCE: CATIE, The Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center, Costa Rica)




• GIS systems can use forest data to help local communities and
  farmers manage rain forest cover and yields (CATIE)



• Coming soon: Computerized sensors, equipped with radio
  transmitters, attached to individual trees and plants to notify
  farmers of problems or disease (SOURCE: Intel)




7/12/2010                                            ECONOMIC                                     66
               TELEWORKING PROVIDES
             MULTIPLE ECONOMIC BENEFITS

•   Teleworkers tend to be more
    productive
                                                        Productive Hours Per Workday
•   Teleworking promotes work/life                 8
    family balance, improving job                                             7.4
    satisfaction and performance
                                                   7
                                                             6.5
•   Teleworking brings work to
    where the workers are,                         6
    including rural areas
                                                   5
•   Seniors and disabled find it
    easier to work from home
                                                   4
SOURCE: AT&T, International Telework Association
   and Council (ITAC)
                                                           Office            Home

7/12/2010                                    ECONOMIC                                  67
            TELEWORK CAN BRING DISABLED
             INTO THE VIRTUAL WORKPLACE

• Operation Job Match in Washington, DC
     – Assists in the purchase of IT and office equipment and
       training
     – Matches workers with disabilities with employment
       opportunities that permit teleworking




     SOURCE: Crandall and Jackson, Criterion Economics, 2001



7/12/2010                                  ECONOMIC             68
PRINCIPLES FOR REGULATING HIGH TECH

•   Keep the “big picture” in mind
     –      Do the intended benefits of the regulation outweigh negative impacts on product
            innovation?

•   Don’t mandate specific technological fixes or try to “pick winners”
     –      Will regulation freeze innovation and progress by dictating one solution?

•   Ensure sound science and consideration of trade-offs
     –      Is there a valid technical foundation for regulation?
     –      When you restrict one substance, are the risks of substitutes greater?

•   Focus on risk, not hazard in restricting substances
     –      Are there really environmental and human exposures?

•   Harmonize with other countries if possible
     –      Will the proposed requirements establish an „uneven playing field” or create a potential
            trade barrier or damper on competitiveness?

•   Openly consult with all interested stakeholders
     –      Decision-makers should solicit input at an early stage from all interested stakeholders,
            especially technical experts, who represent those who have a direct stake in the
            outcome

7/12/2010                          PRINCIPLES FOR REGULATION                                       69

				
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