Conservation and Use of the Wild Populations of Coffea by xyd32971


									            Conservation and Use of the Wild Populations of Coffea arabica
                             in the Montane Rainforests of Ethiopia

                                                                                   Ethiopian Agricultural
                 Center for Development
                                                                                   Research Organisation
                 Research (ZEF), Bonn,
                                                                                   (EARO), Addis Ababa,

Coffee in Ethiopia

Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) originates from the Ethiopian highlands and received its name from the
Ethiopian Province of Kaffa. Wild populations of Coffea arabica grow naturally in the undergrowth of the
montane rainforests in southwest Ethiopia, at altitudes between 1,400 and 1,900 m.

                                                       The existence of wild coffee in the montane rainforests
                                                       of Ethiopia is highly threatened by deforestation due to
                                                       settlement projects and agricultural land-use pressure.
                                                       This development is alarming, as coffee production
                                                       and consumption is of considerable economic and
                                                       social importance to Ethiopia. The destruction of the
                                                       forests is leading to the loss of the natural genetic
                                                       diversity of Coffea arabica. This reduction of the
                                                       natural coffee gene pool is irreversible, leading to high
                                                       consequential costs for both national and international
                                                       coffee breeding and production. It should be kept in
                                                       mind that about 75% of the world coffee production
                                                       and 90% of the world coffee market are based on
                                                       Coffea arabica.

                                                         Ethiopia is the seventh largest coffee producer
                                                         worldwide and ranked ninth in coffee export. In
                                                         Ethiopia, coffee is grown on approx. 400,000 ha. The
                                                         average annual production amounts to about 200,000 t.
Coffee is by far Ethiopia's most important export crop (32% is exported to Germany) and contributes
decisively to the country's foreign currency income (40 - 60%). Almost one third of Ethiopian coffee is
produced in traditional forest or semi-forest coffee systems which are threatened by transformation into
agricultural land.

Conservation and use of wild coffee

The aim of the research project is to assess the diversity and the economic value of the Ethiopian coffee
gene pool, and to develop concepts of model character for conservation and use of the natural genetic
resources of Coffea arabica in its Ethiopian center of diversity. The concepts are based on the
conservation of the montane rainforests as the natural habitat of the wild coffee populations and of the
forest coffee systems as the traditional use of the wild coffee populations.

Following these objectives, the concepts include:
    •   the conservation of the genetic diversity of the wild coffee populations
    •   the conservation of the species diversity of the montane rainforests
    •   the use of wild coffee populations by the local population
The in-situ conservation of the genetic coffee resources thus offers an interesting approach in
biodiversity research: the conservation of genetic diversity in connection with the conservation of
species and ecosystem diversity and vice versa.
Interdisciplinary research approach

The investigation of wild coffee populations in their comprehensive biodiversity context calls for an approach
that considers natural sciences, economics and social sciences as well as biological and ecosystem cause-
effect chains. Only an interdisciplinary research approach allows the development of conservation and use
concepts that are ecologically sustainable, economically efficient and at the same time socially acceptable.
The project is subdivided into six subprojects:

Subproject 1: Species diversity of the montane rainforests
Comparative vegetation studies are performed in
different regions and at different sites to assess
the species and ecosystem diversity of forests
with the occurrence of wild coffee. Wild Coffea
Arabica occurs as part of three different
systems: (1) in relatively undisturbed forests and
not used, (2) in forest coffee systems with
minimal management activities by the users,
and (3) semi-forest coffee systems where
competing undergrowth is removed and
often replaced by coffee plants. Each system
is studied separately. Wild coffee populations
are mapped and their population dynamics
described. Special attention will be paid to
economically important wild plant species other
than coffee used by the local population.

Subproject 2: Genetic diversity of Coffea arabica
The genetic diversity is investigated on three levels: (1) comparatively within the whole Coffea Arabica area
along a climatic gradient (see subproject 3), (2) in rainforest areas and coffee production systems in
comparison to one another, and (3) within the various coffee populations.

                                                     Subproject 3: Ecophysiological diversity of wild coffee
                                                     Due to the expansion of coffee production to dryer regions,
                                                     questions regarding the selection of drought-tolerant coffee
                                                     plants play an important role. Therefore, investigations are
                                                     carried out on site-specific drought tolerance of the wild
                                                     coffee populations along a climatic gradient and, for
                                                     comparison, of the respective plant material under constant
                                                     climatic conditions.

                                                     Subproject 4: Importance of fungal pathogens in wild
                                                     coffee populations
                                                     The availability of coffee plants tolerant of, or resistant to,
diseases and pests is of decisive importance for successful coffee production worldwide. As a biotic factor, the
variability regarding fungal diseases both in the wild coffee populations along the climatic gradient and in
different coffee production systems are being investigated.

Subproject 5: Economic valuation
Conservation and use concepts should not only be oriented towards biological criteria, but also economic
criteria have to be considered. Therefore, by incorporating the interim results of the subprojects 1-4 and
closely cooperating with subproject 6, an economic valuation of the species diversity of the montane
rainforests and of the coffee-genetic diversity is being carried out. In addition, the costs for conservation of the
montane rainforest and the wild coffee populations therein will be estimated.
                                                    Subproject 6: Institutional analysis
                                                    The institutional reasons (e.g. land-use conflicts,
                                                    institutional inadequacies) opposing the conservation of
                                                    rainforests and coffee-genetic resources are analyzed, and
                                                    concepts for optimizing institutional structures are
                                                    developed. This means that the Ethiopian institutional
                                                    framework conditions must be considered and, therefore all
                                                    stakeholders are involved in the studies.

Decision support – Integration of stakeholders – Capacity building
In the framework of a strategy for implementation of the research findings, it will be especially important to
develop a decision-support system. Different scenarios of conservation and use concepts will be designed as
models, from which action recommendations can be derived.
Each potential conservation and use concept will be evaluated according to local and national acceptance and
feasibility. Only those concepts can be recommended that have proven to be biologically and economically
efficient and, that are feasible from an institutional point of view. Furthermore, special attention will be paid
to the integration of the target groups.
To guarantee scientific and technical success, Ethiopian as well as German scientists from Bonn University
will perform responsible tasks in the project. Doctorates and master students will ensure continuity of the
fieldwork and the Ethiopian and German doctoral students will work together in a kind of “tandem work-
system”. All students are participating in ZEF's international doctoral studies program.

Project leaders          Prof. Dr. Paul L.G. Vlek and Dr. Manfred Denich
                         Center for Development Research (ZEF)
                         D-53113 Bonn

Project coordinators     Dr. Franz Gatzweiler             Dr. Tadesse Woldemariam Gole
                         Phone: 49-228-73 1795            Phone: ++251-1-471215
Subproject 1
Dr. Manfred Denich                                        Prof. Dr. Sebsebe Demissew
Center for Development Research (ZEF)                     National Herbarium
Phone: +49 (0) 228-73-1864                                Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Fax: +49 (0) 228-73-1889                                  P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa

Subproject 2
Dr. Thomas Borsch                                         Prof. Dr. Endeshew Bekele
Nees-Institute for the biodiversity of plants             Dept. of Biology
University of Bonn                                        Addis Ababa University
Meckenheimer Allee 170, 53115 Bonn                        P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa
Phone: 49-228-73-2681
Fax: 49-228-73 3120

Subproject 3
Prof. Dr. H. Goldbach, Dr. Jürgen Burkhardt               Prof. Dr. Masresha Fetene
Institute of Plant Nutrition                              Dept. of Biology
University of Bonn                                        Addis Ababa University
Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 13                                P.O. Box 1176,
53115 Bonn                                                Addis Ababa
Phone: 49-228-73-2851                                     Phone: ++251-1-114250/125110/273048
Fax: 49-228-73-2489                                       Fax: ++251-1-552350
Subproject 4
Dr. H. Hindorf                                Million Abebe
Institute of Plant Diseases                   Jimma Agricultural Research Center
University of Bonn                            Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization
Nußallee 9                                    PO Box 2003
53115 Bonn                                    Addis Ababa
Phone: 49-228-73-2450                         Phone: ++251-1-161-2572
Fax: 49-228-73-2442                           Fax: ++251-161-1222

Subproject 5
Dr. Franz Gatzweiler                          Dr. Assefa Admassie
Center for Development Research (ZEF)         Dept. of Economics
Phone: +49 (0) 228-73-1795                    Addis Ababa University
Fax: +49 (0) 228-73-1889                      P.O. Box 1176

Subproject 6
Dr. Peter Mollinga and Dr. Franz Gatzweiler   Dr. Terefe Degefa
Center for Development Research (ZEF)         Addis Ababa University
Phone: +49 (0) 228-73-4918                    Institute of Development Research
Fax: +49 (0) 228-73-1972                      Demographic Training and Research Center
                                              Phone: ++251-1-9407942
                                              Fax: ++251-1-551333

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