A new Peer to Peer Caching Techniques for Transmission The Video over Wireless Ad Hoc Network

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					                                                               (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                         Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010

          A new Peer to Peer Caching Techniques for
         Transmistting the Video over Wireless Ad Hoc
                             Saleh Ali K. Al-Omari, Putra Sumari, Mohammad Azmi Q. Al-Madi
                                                 School of Computer Science
                                                  Universiti Sains Malaysia
                                                      Penang, Malaysia
                            salehalomari2005@yahoo.com, putras@cs.usm.my, almadi_moh@yahoo.com

                                                                               The P2P caching can reduce the loading of cluster head and
Abstract—In our life today’s the wireless networks becomes so               shorten the cache distance and increase hit ratio. Video is
significant due to the advancing in science and technology. It is
                                                                            encoded into three layers and broadcasts all layers to the
also playing an important role in many applications in our daily
lives especially in widespread Ad Hoc network. Ad hoc networks
                                                                            cluster head via the internet/backbone [20]. Through radius-
are the wireless mobile networks to create a communication                  based binary search algorithm, it can evenly distribute clients
between the nodes or devices without using any existing fixed               to caching which layers of the video. By using a Peer to Peer
network infrastructure. Currently multimedia services are                   caching system through Radius Based Binary Search
applied to ad hoc networks where the problem of the mobility                Algorithm (RBBSA) and mobile management, the mobile
constantly makes an interruption of the video packets                       nodes can request nearby nodes for lost video clips through
transmission. This paper proposes a new peer to peer caching                P2P model. Mobile management able to predicate the time
techniques using radius based binary search algorithm (RBBSA)               when mobile nodes leave cluster by predication model, this
and mobile management in order to solve the problem at the
                                                                            can inform members to help cache the videos from the cluster
same time proposed the cluster head to provide Video services to
other nodes or devices. In turn to transmit video packages                  head. In order to solve the problems which can cause an
through ad hoc network, layered scalable video coding are                   interruption of the video packets transmission in mobility, a
adopted where the video is encoded into a three layers by layered           new Peer to Peer caching system are proposed in this paper.
scalable video coding. The result for this new technique that the           Furthermore, the node acting as a client, server or cluster head
hit ratio of the peer to peer can increase the catching and reduce          provider are able to transmit the video to another nodes and
the cache distance, where the cluster head for the node                     this leads to extending the range of the services as well as to
mechanism can provide the Video to another nodes which the                  construct lesser load on the main cluster head or server. An
node acting as server. It also extends the range of the services as         important network (Ad Hoc Network) to transmit the video
well to make lesser load on the main cluster head or server.
                                                                            packet from node to another within the transmission range will
                                                                            be discussed in detail in section 2.

    Keywords-wireless ad hoc networks, RBBSA, ad hoc network,                  The subsequent sections are organized as follows. Section 2
peer to peer (P2P), random caching, mobile management.                      described the architecture for Peer to Peer caching system,
                                                                            while in Section 3 introduces the performance evaluation with
                                                                            the result of our simulation for our new peer to peer caching
                       I.    INTRODUCTION                                   system. Finally, the conclusion is presented in Section 4.
    In recent years, the popularity of the Peer to Peer (P2P)
system for media streaming become so significant which it                        II.   THE ARCHITECTURE FOR PEER TO PEER CACHING
been studied more extensively in recent years by a lot of                                           SYSTEM
number of authors. The P2P system have offered many
advantages where it extensively developed in excess of the                      The proposed architecture consist three components as
Internet such as [1][2][3][4][17][18][19]. The basic building               shown in Figure 1, Central Video Services Provider (CVSP),
block for the Peer to peer streaming system is the nodes. The               cluster head and clients.
nodes acting as a server or client and at the same time form an
overlay and simultaneously send and receive the media
streaming data between each other’s.

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                                                                                                       ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
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                                                                              .have to be done between all the nodes. This case Called Peer
                                                                              level Multi Hopping and that is the main building block for Ad
                                                                              Hoc Network.
                                                                                  In the past few years, the people became realized to use all
                                                                              the technology so widely and the people’s future living
                                                                              environments are emerging, based on information resource
                                                                              provided by the connections of different communication
                                                                              networks for clients also we have seen a rapid expansion in the
                                                                              field of Mobile Computing because the proliferation not
                                                                              expensive, widely available wireless devices .A new small
                                                                              devices such as personal communication like laptops, PDAs,
                                                                              cell phone, handhelds, and also there are a lot of traditional
                                                                              home appliances such as a digital cameras, cooking ovens,
                                                                              refrigerators, with computing and communicating powers
                                                                              attached. Expand this area to became a fully pervasive and so
                                                                              widely. With all of this, the technologies must be formed the
                                                                              good and new standard of pervasive computing, that including
                                                                              the new standards, tools, services, devices, protocols and a new
       Figure 1. Our architecture for peer to peer caching system             architectures. In this days the internet users in ad hoc network
                                                                              through increase in the use of its advantage is that not involve
Central Video Services Provider (CVSP) is a Server or cluster                 any connection link and the wiring needed to save space, and
of servers as a main entity for providing VOD services to the                 building low cost, and improve the use, and can be used in
end clients and it has storage of video services. It provides                 mobile phone, because of these advantage local wireless
video service to the end client through cluster head and                      network architecture readily. And also beads in these
assumed that the network is cluster-based, it also proposed to                advantages the wireless network can be used in the local area
use scatter of cluster head for covering wider area. Every                    network terminal part of the wireless [6].
cluster head receives the packet from the server and forwards it              B. Wireless Mobile Network Systems
to the client. The cluster head is the main component of the
peer to peer caching system (P2PCS) which it took over the
                                                                                  The past decade the Mobile Network is the only one much
roles of the managing node mobility and peer to peer caching                  important computational techniques to support computing and
system. The Clients are the mobile hand-held devices such as                  widespread, also advances in both software techniques and the
PDA and Cell Phone. Every cluster head get the service (video                 hardware techniques have resulted in mobile hosts and wireless
packets) through the backbone directly from the CVSP and                      networking common and miscellaneous. Now we will discuss
then forwards it too the clients through the internet backbone.               about to distinct approaches very important to enabling Mobile
The server allows the video contents to be encoded into                       wireless Network or IEEE 802.11 to make a communication
multiple layers by layered scalable video coding, one of the                  between each other [7, 8, and 9]. Firstly, infrastructure wireless
compressed layered is the base layer also other compressed                    networks also called Cellular where the communication
layers are the enhancements layer 1 and enhancements layer 2,                 between nodes must through the Base Station. Basically the
or as known as layer 1 (LR1) and layer 2 (LR2).                               Cellular supported by a wired fixed infrastructure and the
                                                                              communication only occurs within the single hop. Secondly,
A. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks                                                   infrastructure-less wireless networks is knows as mobile
    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANETs) is a collection of two                     network commonly known as Ad Hoc Networks, unlike the
or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless                           cellular nodes the ad hoc network dynamically from a
communications and networking capability that communicate                     temporary network without nay support of any network
with each other without the aid of any centralized administrator              infrastructure based wireless LANs [10].
also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to
exchange information without using any existing fixed network                 The communication between the nodes is the network is in a
infrastructure. and all the nodes in a wireless ad hoc network                P2P style. The source node will forward a packet of data
act as a router and host as well as the network topology is in
                                                                              directly to the destination node if both nodes in within the
dynamically, because the connectivity between the nodes may
                                                                              transmission range. Otherwise, the intermediate node is use
vary with time due to some of the node departures and new
node arrivals. The special features of MANETs bring this                      forward the message towards the destination node if the source
technology great opportunity together with severe challenges                  node is unable to send the message directly as well as each
[5]. All the nodes are responsible to organize themselves                     node work as end hosts and as router because of the mobility of
dynamically the communication between the each other and to                   the node and the unfixed network topology. In figure 2
provide the necessary network functionality in the absence of                 Illustrations the difference between two types of wireless
fixed infrastructure or we can call it ventral administration, It             networks, for the cellular and Ad Hoc networks.
implies that maintenance, routing also management, and so on

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                                                                                                          ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
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                                                                                       E. Peer to Peer Caching Management.
                                                                                           As we discussed, the Central Video Services Provider
                                                                                       (CVSP) allows video content to encode into several layers
                                                                                       (base, enhancements layers) and broadcasts all layers videos to
                                                                                       all clusters heads through the backbone, where all clusters
                                                                                       heads broadcast all layers videos to their through separate
                    (a)                               (b)
                                                                                       channels [14][15]. Clients will face interruption during
Figure 2. Illustrations different types of wireless network (a) infrastructure         receiving video packet when their move far away or quit the
wireless networks also called Cellular (b) Ad Hoc Networks                             cluster. A new Peer to Peer caching technique called radius
                                                                                       based binary search algorithm are proposed in order to solve
C.   Layered Scalable Video Coding                                                     above problem. A cluster head assigns the members of cluster
   These sections briefly summarize the concept of scalable                            to cache one of the bit-streams, including base layer,
video coding. Generally; each video is encoded into one                                enhancements layers LR1, LR2.
compressed bit-stream, which is referred to as non-scalable
video coding. The layered scalable coding in contras is to                                 The cluster head will response to the request with some
encode video into multiple layers including a base layer, one or                       information’s such as cached node ID and position. When a
more enhancement layers. The base layer can be independently                           mobile node joins a cluster, it can request cluster head for lost
decoded and provides the version of least equality, while its                          video clips. Through responding message, the mobile node can
combination enhancement layers can only be decoded together                            request for the cached video clips from the nearby clients
with the base layer to provide a better quality. In detail, the                        where the nearby clients can send cached video clips to mobile
layered scalable video coding can be classified into three types,                      nodes using unicast protocol. Clients are used to cache the
(1) SNR Scalability, (2) Spatial Scalability and (3) Temporal                          video clips for reducing the cluster head loading, but the cluster
Scalability owing to spatial scalability which been used in our                        head will be overload when many clients move and request a
video encoder. The following discussion in the subsection                              video clips at the same time. Besides decreasing cache
below focuses on Spatial Scalability [11].                                             distance, caching video clips by nearby clients also can reduce
                                                                                       the server during loading, as well as the nodes or device can be
D. Spatial Scalability                                                                 cluster head entity and have enough resource to provide the
    Spatial scalability is using the same characteristic of video                      video services to other nodes or devices. In figure 1
but different in spatial resolution or size. For example: A                            illustrations the procedure whereby PDA1 also working as a
spatial scalability video encoder compress a video which has                           cluster head and provide the services to PDA2 and cell phone.
solution 352x288(CIF) into two layers at the same frame rate,                          Due to the characteristic of wireless Ad Hoc Network the
but different in spatial resolutions. The base layer is encoded at                     nodes organize themselves dynamically the communication
a lower spatial resolution, and therefore to reconstructed base-                       between each other and provide the necessary network
layer picture resolution which has only 176 x 144 (QCIF). In                           functionality in absence of fixed infrastructure.
other words, it is the highest qualities (352 x 288) that combine                      F. Probability Analysis
with all the layers [12]. The characteristics of spatial scalability
encoding in Table 1 described the bitrates of single layer. It is                          For the probability in the cluster, we assumed that the
compared between both base and enhancement layers of spatial                           arriving nodes get base layer with probability Pprob, get LR1
scalability encoding which been used the CIF format for                                layer with probability Rprob, and get LR2 layer with probability
enhancement layer and the QCIF format for base layer [13].                             (1- Pprob - Rprob). It is apparent that to getting the base layer,
                                                                                       LR1 and LR2 layer are independent events. Consequently at
TABLE I.    COMPARISON OF AVERAGE BITRATE OF SINGLE LAYER TO                           the same time we assume in the equation 1 the probability of
THOSE OF TWO LAYERS OF SPATIAL SCALABLE ENCODING AT DIFFERENT                          getting base layer, LR1 and LR2 is S. also the probability of S
                    QUANTIZATION VALUES.                                               is Pprob * Rprob * ( 1 – Pprob - Rprob ). in additional we assuming
                                      Bit rate    Bit rate Ratio of Base               that the number of members in the cluster head is “C”, the
         Quantization Index           (Mbps)     Ratio(%) Layer Bitrate to             number of nodes that cache base layer is Nnodes, the number of
                 Enhance       Base                                                    nodes that cache LR1 layer is LR1 and then the number of
                  Layer        Laye                                                    nodes that cache LR2 layer is ( C-Nnodes-LR1 ). After our
                (LR1,LR2)       r                                                      assumption above, we obtain equations 2. Transposing terms
     Single               13           0.87        100          NA                     and simplifying, in additional the equations 3 indicates the
     Spatial       13           4      1.66        191         66.9%                   probability of w in proportion to the result of Nnodes * LR1 *
                                8      1.35        155         46.9%                   LR2.
                                13     0.96        110         31.4%
                                24     0.87        100         15.9%                   S = Pprob ∗ Rprob ∗ (1 − Pprob − Rprob)                      (1)

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  ⎛ N nodes ⎞ ⎛ LR1⎞ ⎛ C− Nnodes− LR1⎞
S=⎜         ⎟×⎜    ⎟ ×⎜              ⎟                                (2)
  ⎝ C ⎠ ⎝ C ⎠ ⎝              C       ⎠

S = N nodes ∗ LR1 ∗ LR2                                              (3)
Where describe these equations in the Underneath.
 S                 Probability of base layer, LR1 and LR2
 Pprob             Probability in the base layer.
 Rprob             Probability in the LR1 and the Probability of LR2 is (1- Pprob -
                   Rprob ).
 C                 Number of members in the cluster head.
 Nnodes            Number of nodes that cache using base layer, the number of
                   node chacing in LR1 is LR1, and in LR2 it’s ( C-Nnode-LR1 ).
 LR1, LR2          It’s the enhancements layers.
                                                                                                        Figure 3. shown the Cluster head Using RBBSA

Also describe the number of base layer, and the enhancement                                 H.    The Mobile Management (MM)
layers LR1, LR2 versus the probability as we shown in Table 2.                                  Ad Hoc Network to be provided by Mobility is a fully
                                                                                            wireless, can be any mobile network infrastructure without a
                                                                                            base station, all the nodes can be any link, each node at the
TABLE II.           ILLUSTRATIONS THE PROBABILITY VS. WITH THE BASE LAYER,                  same time take router work with the Mobile IP completely
                                 RL1 AND RL2                                                different levels of Mobility. And the Mobility becomes an
                                                                                            important issue in an ad hoc network. How cluster head
                                 The            The             Results of
         The number of
                              number of      number of                                      manage the mobility and join of members will be discuss in
              96                 12             12                LR1 *
                                                             (C *13824 LR2)                 this section. Equations number 4 shows the prediction of model
                                (RL1)          (RL2)
              84                 24             12                24192                     [16] which is introduced the mobility and join of members. The
              72                 48                 12            41472                     information of Global Positioning System (GPS) is introduced
                                                                                            into predication model; to get the Dt, the equations 4 indicates
              60                 36                 24            51840
                                                                                            which it can predicate how long a node has left its cluster.
              48                 36                 36            62208                     Through the prediction model, a mobile node is able to detect
              40                 40                 40             6400                     the poor connection with the cluster. When the mobile nodes
                                                                                            detect a poor connection from the cluster, mobile nodes will
                                                                                            directly inform the cluster head in advance. The cluster head
There are 120 nodes with different rates to distribute numbers                              will forward a message to nearby cluster head when it receives
of members among caching base layer, enhancement LR1 and                                    a message from the cluster head, so that the members of nearby
LR2. These layers will substitute the numbers of three different                            cluster can help cache videos. Through this way, the members
layers into the equation number 3 from Table 2. From this                                   also can request for lost video clips from nearby cluster
equation the number of getting base layer, LR1 dan LR2. and                                 members when the mobile node is moving to the nearby cluster
we can know that the numbers of getting base layer, LR1, LR2                                and in the same time the when the cluster head provide the
layers distribute more averagely, the probability of “S “ is
                                                                                            video packet to the node within the transmission range and
                                                                                            some of the these nodes may have the enough resources, and
                                                                                            also as we mentioned earlier we use the Ad Hoc Network that
                                                                                            means the nodes can contact with each other and move freely.
G. Radius Based Binary Search Algorithm (RBBSA)
                                                                                            in this case the node is an MANET node which can have
    According to the results in previous section, the proposed                              enough resources to provide Video services to other device
radius-based binary search algorithm cluster head can evenly                                with his transmission range. In figure 1 Illustrations his
distribute one of base, LR1 and LR2 layered video to clients for                            approach whereby PDA1 get the services from the head cluster
caching.                                                                                    also is working as a cluster head and providing services to
                                                                                            PDA2 and cell ph1.
    Figure 3 is a flow chart which shows and describes how a
cluster head uses the radius-based binary search algorithm.
This flow chart also shows the position and distance between                                       − (ab + cd )+ ⎛ 2      2⎞ 2
nodes and nodes by GPS system and at the same time assume                                                        ⎜ a + c ⎟Tx − (ab − cd )2
                                                                                                                 ⎝          ⎠
that clients are built-in GPS system.                                                       Dt =                                                           (4 )
                                                                                                                   (a 2 + c 2 )

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                                                                                                               layered scalable video coding due to the BLR which it can be
       (                                                                    ) ⎛(                               independently decode and provide the version of the least
                                                                              ⎜ v1COSθ 1−v2COSθ 2 ) +
     − v1COSθ −v 2COSθ * x1− x 2 + v1Sinθ * v 2Sinθ * y1− y 2 +                                    2
             1        2                  1         2
                                                                              ⎝                                quality. In the same time, the probability of getting the base
=                                                                                                              layer and the LR1 it’s almost 70%. It means the Radius Based
                                                                                                               Binary Search Algorithm (RBBSA) can provide the better
                                                                                                               quality of the video in Ad Hoc Network and better transmit
    (v1Sinθ1 *       θ
                 v2Sin          (
                         )2 )Tx2 − v1COS1 − v2COS 2
                                       θ        θ       * x1−x2       −        θ
                                                                           v1Sin * v2Sin * y1− y2
                                                                                                     2         video packet within a short distance. Also shown in figure 5
                                                                                                               the Radius Based Binary Search Algorithm (RBBSA) get
                                                   2 2
                                                 (a + c )                                                      cached the Video clips within almost 1.5 hops. In contrast the
                                                                                                               random caching algorithm is within almost 2.5. In random,
                                                                                                               caching algorithm has more than one hop caching distance
                                ((      θ       θ
                                    v1COS 1−v2COS 2   )2 + (v1Sinθ1 * v2Sinθ2 )2 )                             than the Based Binary Search Algorithm.

Where a is                      v1COS θ 1− v 2 COS θ 2                , b is     x1 − x 2     , c is a
v 1 Sin θ 1 *             v 2 Sin θ 2    and d is       y1 − y 2      .

                     III.        THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS
   We evaluated the performance of our system through a
simulation study and present the result of the study in this

A. Simulation Model
Table 3 summarize of the input parameters for our simulation.
    TABLE III.               ILLUSTRATIONS THE PROBABILITY VS. WITH THE BASE                                                 Figure 4.   peer to peer caching hit ratios
                                   LAYER, RL1 AND RL2

                    The Parameters
                         TABLE IV.                           Notation                Default Value

     Clients Transmission Range                                   d                     10m

     Number of nods                                          Nnods                       100
     Number of the broadcast                                      k                       5
     Video Size in Mbyte                                      Vsize                      150

     Clients arrival rate                                     Carrival               {2,4,5,8,10}
     Session                                                      S                     1000

B. The simulation result                                                                                                    Figure 5. Illustrations the caching distance
    The simulation results are shown in this section in the
                                                                                                                                     IV.     CONCLUSIONS
figures 4, present the probability of getting caching video and
we present three situations for the mobile nodes. The first                                                        We proposed a new peer to peer (P2P) caching technique
mobile nodes getting Base Layer, and the second nodes getting                                                  using the radius based binary search algorithm (RBBSA) and
the base layer and the LR1 layer, while the last mobile nodes                                                  mobile management. The mobile management can predicate
getting the three layers (Base Layer + LR1 +LR2).                                                              the time when mobile nodes leave the cluster head by
                                                                                                               predication model, and after that the cluster head uses the
    The Radius Based Binary Search Algorithm (RBBSA) get                                                       radius based binary search algorithm (RBBSA) to assign
the probability of caching video is generally almost 10% more                                                  members to cache video packets. Furthermore, when the
than the Random caching algorithm. This will explain in                                                        mobile nodes have enough resources the nodes can provide the
Figures 4 where the probability of getting Base Layer is 93%.                                                  services to the others. By the result of our simulations, it is
In this study, the base layer is the most important of the

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                                                                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
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appear that RBBSA and mobile management can promote
Peer to peer caching hit ratio and shorten the cache distance.
                                                                                              IEEE Internatio- nal Conference on Mobile Data Management (MDM),
                           ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                                     pp. 212–223, Berkeley, CA,January 2004.
    Special thank and recognition go to my advisor, Associate                          [15]   R. Cucchiara, M. Piccardi, A. Prati. “Neighbor cache prefetching for
Professor. Dr. Putra Sumari, who guided me through this                                       multimedia image and video processing,” in Press on IEEE Transactions
                                                                                              on Multimedia, 2004.
research, inspired and motivated me. Last but not least, the
                                                                                       [16]   W. Su and M. Gerla, “IPv6 Flow Handoff in Ad- Hoc Wireless
researchers would like to thank the University Sains Malaysia                                 Networks Using Mobility Prediction,” Proceedings of IEEE
USM for supporting this research.                                                             GLOBECOM’ 99, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 1999, pp. 271-27.
                                                                                       [17]   Zhang X,Liu J,Li B, and YUM TP (2005) coolStream/DONet : A data
                                                                                              driven overlay network for efficinalt live media streaming. INFOCOM
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[4]    Saleh A. AlOmari, Putra Sumari and Sadik A. AlTaweel (2010) Peer to                                         AUTHORS PROFILE
       Peer Media Streaming System: A /V Conferencing System Using
       Custom Protocol. IEEE Conference FutuerTech 2010. 5th International                                    Saleh Ali Khattab Al-Omari has obtained his
       Conference of Future Information Technology, Korea.                                                    Bachelor degree in Computer Science from Jerash
[5]    http://www.comp.brad.ac.uk/~sburuha1/wirelessadhoc.htm                                                 University, Jordan in 2004-2005 and Master degree in
[6]    In conclusion, health, free wireless network multi-path redundant                                      Computer Science from Universiti Sains Malaysia,
       mechanisms, in June 2008.                                                                              Penang ,Malaysia in 2007. Currently, He is a PhD
                                                                                                              candidate at the School of Computer Science,
[7]    IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee, Wireless
                                                                                                              University Sains Malaysia, Penang, His main research
       LAN medium access control                                       (MAC)
                                                                                       interest now on Video on Demand (VoD) over Heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc
       and physical layer (PHY) specifications, IEEE standard 802.11, 1997.
       The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, NY,            Networks (MANETs).
[8]    IEEE Computer Society. IEEE standard for information technology
       telecommunications and information exchange between systems – local                                     Putra Sumari is currently working as Assistant
       and metropolitan networks – specific requirements – part 11: Wireless                                   Professor of School of Computer Science, Universiti
       LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY)                                                Sains Malaysia, Penang in 2009. Assoc. Prof Dr. Putra
       specifications: Higher speed physical layer (PHY) extension in the 2.4                                  received his MSc and PhD in 1997 and 2000 from
       GHz band, 1999.                                                                                         Liverpool University, England. Currently, he is a
                                                                                                               lecturer at the School of Computer Science, Universiti
[9]    Saleh A. AlOmari, Putra Sumari .”An overview of Mobile Ad Hoc
                                                                                                               Sains Malaysia, Penang. He is the head of the
       Networks For The Existing Protocols and Applications” The
                                                                                                               Multimedia Computing Research Group, School of
       International Journal on Applications of Graph Theory in Wireless Ad
       hoc Networks and Sensor Networks (GRAPH-HOC),Vol.1, No.1, March                 Computer Science, USM. He is Member of ACM and IEEE, Program
       2010.                                                                           Committee and reviewer of several International Conference on Information
                                                                                       and Communication Technology (ICT), Committee of Malaysian ISO
[10]   Xuefei Li, “Multipath Routing and QoS Provisioning in Mobile Ad hoc             Standard Working Group on Software Engineering Practice, Chairman of
       Networks”, Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary,                    Industrial Training Program School of Computer Science USM, and Advisor
       University of London, April 2000.                                               of Master in Multimedia Education Program, UPSI, and Perak.
[11]   D. Wu, Y. Hou, and Y.-Q. Zhang, “Scalable video coding and transport
       over broad-band wireless networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 89, pp. 6–20, Jan.                                Mohammad Azmi Qasem Al-Madi has obtained his
                                                                                                              Bachelor Degree in Computer Information System
[12]   W. Li, “Overview of fine granularity scalability in MPEG-4 video                                       (CIS) from Al-Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan
       standard, ”IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 11, pp. 301–                                in 2005 and his Masters degree in Computer Sciences
       317.                                                                                                   from Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM in 2009.
[13]   TMN3.1                                                                                                 Currently, he is a PhD candidate at the School of
[14]   Tran, Duc A., Le, Minh, Hua, Kien A. “MobiVoD: A Video-on-Demand                                       Computer Sciences in USM. His main research
       System Design for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. In: Proceedings of the               interests are in Computer Networks, IPv6, Mobile IPv6 and 4G.

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