Recruitment and Retention of Appropriately Skilled people for the

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					Recruitment and Retention of
Appropriately Skilled people for the
Public Service to meet the challenges of a
Developmental State




Conference of Senior Managers of the Free State Provincial Government,
       Local Authorities, State Agencies and the Business Sector
        29-31 August 2006 - Protea Mountain Hotel, Thaba Nchu
      Professor Stephen Hendricks, the Acting Director General of
     the South African Management Development Institute (SAMDI)
Overview of presentation

♦ What are the „capabilities‟ of a developmental state?
♦ What are the challenges to a developmental state in the South
  African context ?
♦ What are South Africa‟s developmental priorities for 2014?
♦ What are the reasons for skills shortages in the Public Service?
♦ What are the frameworks for human resource management in
  the public service?
♦ What are the current practices pertaining to staff recruitment
  and retention in the public service? (general staff retention
  strategy; departmental retention strategy)




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Notions of a Developmental State

1.   Chalmers Johnson (1982) conducted seminal work on
     the „developmental state‟ in Japan.
2.   The Characteristics of a Developmental State in
     most definitions include:
♦    Self-sustaining growth; structural change in patterns of
     production; technological upgrading; social, political and
     institutional modernisation; widespread improvement in the
     human condition or as articulated by
♦    Amartya Sen (1999) – Ensuring freedom from poverty and
     expanding the „capabilities‟ of citizens.
3.   The success of developmental states is determined by specific
     historical circumstances both at a nation and international level.
4.   Currently ,the agenda of developmental states are under –risk
     from global monetary policies which under the „Washington
     Consensus‟ (Coined in 1990 by John Williamson) favour short –
     term capital flows and rob countries of their economic autonomy.
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What are the Developmental
Challenges in South Africa

The issues of a developmental state that the South African
government have to deal with are:
♦ Reducing poverty and unemployment (spatial; race; gender
  dimensions
♦ Social exclusion and integration of society;
♦ Dealing with issues of crime and insecurity;
♦ Achieving an adequate supply of relevant skills required by the
  public & private sector & dealing with issues of the „brain drain‟;
♦ Small and under- developed local and regional markets;
♦ Industrialisation and diversification;
♦ Public sector reform & service delivery to both the „first‟ &
  „second‟ economy;
♦ Weak infrastructure;


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What are South Africa’s
developmental priorities for 2014

♦ Reducing poverty by half;
♦ Growing the economy;
♦ Achieving an adequate supply of the skills required in the
  country;
♦ Ensuring that all South Africans are able to exercise their
  democratic rights;
♦ Ensuring that government is compassionate and accessible and
  the Batho Pele principles are observed in dealing with the
  citizens;
♦ Reducing unemployment by half;
♦ Massively reducing the incidence of emerging and re-emerging
  diseases;
♦ Significantly reducing the number of serious and priority crimes;
♦ Positioning South Africa strategically regionally and globally

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What are the Capabilities required
by a Developmental State?
♦ Public servants are increasingly confronted by a range of
  demands as public policy and governance becomes more
  complex and contested. The need to work co-operatively with
  civil society and the private sector is pivotal for a developmental
  state and public servants must master these skills;
♦ International agreements concluded raises challenges for the
  regulatory capacity of our public administrators;
♦ The challenges at local, regional and global level requires that
  public servants are thoroughly informed to fulfill the spirit and
  letter of their mandate and are able to deal positively with the
  poor;
♦ Inherent in the concept of a developmental state is the need for
  a public sector that is populated by public servants whose
  norms, values attitudes and orientations are consistent with the
  objectives of a Developmental State.


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Capabilities required cont…

♦ The importance of technical skills should not be
  underestimated. The Developmental State needs to address
  both the normative & Constitutional priorities and develop
  technical skills & expertise in the citizenry
♦ Some of the technical skills that require strengthening
  relate to government business processes include:
      policy development and analysis,
      improved systems for monitoring and evaluation and systems to
       improve financial management;
      planning,
      budgeting and
      reporting.
♦ Participation in and contribution towards a Knowledge
  Economy

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What are the reasons for skills
shortages in the Public Service in
our country?
♦ Historical reasons
  South Africa‟s apartheid-based economy contributed to
  shortages of skills as a whole host of developmental activities
  were restricted and access to highly specialised skills were
  reserved for a few;

♦ Education and Training & the Labour Market
  Poor articulation between the skills acquisition in institutions of
  higher learning and the HRD needs of the public service




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Reasons for skills shortages cont.

♦ Globilisation
  South Africa is negatively affected by skills flight as a result of
  attractive salary packages offered outside the country and
  perceived high levels of crime.

♦ Increased mobility
  Employees with scarce skills are in great demand and are often
  “poached” by other employers who can offer better packages
  and better working conditions. As a result this category of
  employees is much more mobile and it is harder for government
  to keep them.



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What kind of human resources
are needed for service delivery in a
developmental state?
Staff that is capable of playing a leading and active role
in the reconstruction and development of our country
and able to remain loyal to the following constitutional
principles:
1.   Observe, promote and maintain high standards of professional
     ethics;
2.   Promote efficient, economic and effective use of resources;
3.   Should be development oriented;
4.   Provide impartial, fair, equitable service without bias;
5.   Respond in time to the needs of the public and encourage
     community participation in policy making;


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Human Resources needed cont.

6.   Be accountable;
7.   Foster transparency by providing timely , and accurate
     information;
8.   Practice good human resource management and career
     development to maximise human potential;
9.   Ensure that employment practices are based on the principles
     of ability, objectivity, fairness, equity and are representative of
     all SA‟s people.




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What are the frameworks for
Human Resource Management in
the Public Service?
In 1999 a new human resource management framework was
introduced in the Public Service and it entailed the following:
♦ Gave departments powers to develop and implement their own
  human resources management policies, practices and
  processes;
♦ Introduced an open system according to which all vacancies in
  the Public Service have to be advertised before they can be
  filled;
♦ It emphasised the need for departments to apply efficient
  recruitment, selection and retention practices to meet their
  human resource requirement.


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Framework for Human Resource
Management in the Public Sector
cont…
In summary the regulatory frameworks to be considered for
recruitment and retention in the Public Service are:
♦   The Constitution and in particular section 195(1)(h)(i);
♦   White Paper on Human Management in the Public Service;
♦   Public Service Act, 1994;
♦   Public Service Regulations,2001
♦   Labour Relations Act, 1995;
♦   Employment Equity Act, 1998;
♦   Public Service Coordinating Bargaining Council Resolutions;
♦   Senior Management Service Handbook;
♦   Promotion of Administrative Justice Act, 2000
♦   Framework for the Determination and Compensation for Scarce
    Skills in the Public Service, Annexure 1 to circular 1 of 2004.

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What are the current practices
pertaining to staff recruitment and
retention?
Various studies into employment practices at departmental
level reveal the following:
♦ Recruitment and selection practices not aligned with
  organisational, service delivery, equity and strategic priorities
  of departments;
♦ Although decisions about selection are mostly based on
  interviews the process appeared flawed in that:
      The requirements for the post and the person to fill it were not
       properly defined;
      Questions asked in the interviews not properly linked to the job
       requirement, operational requirements and the job context;



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Current practices pertaining to staff
recruitment and retention? Cont…

      Questions asked in the interviews not properly linked to the job
       requirement, operational requirements and the job context;
      Members of interviewing panels seemed to lack selection and or
       interviewing skills and in most cases appear not to have thoroughly
       prepared themselves beforehand to probe the skills, knowledge
       and competencies of applicants;
      Departments do not use well- researched methods of retaining
       staff;
      Departments do not have effective systems of measuring the
       effectiveness of their recruitment and selection processes.




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Strategies used by government
to recruit staff

♦ According to the Public Service Regulation1.1.1, Chapter III, it
  is clear that no filling of posts can start until:
      Job evaluation for posts level 9 and upwards has been conducted
       and approved;
      A job description describing the main objectives and inherent
       requirement for the post has been developed and approved;
      A motivation for the filling of the post has been approved;
      A job advertisement taking into consideration the job description
       has been drafted and approved;




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Strategies used cont…

      A selection committee to handle the appointment of a suitable
       candidate has been appointed;
      A selection criteria for screening purposes have been drafted
       approved and applied consistently for screening all candidates;
      Nomination for appointing the most suitable candidate has been
       approved by the executive authority or her delegate;
      Candidates not successful have been notified by letter and the
       successful one has also been notified in writing;
      A candidates accepts, in writing their appointments.




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What is staff retention?

There are many views on what staff retention entail but the
most common views are:
♦   That it focuses on both attracting employees to join the
    organisation through focused recruitment strategies and also
    keeping those already employed, and in particular those with
    crucial skills;
♦   That it is about motivating staff;
♦   That it deals with both the psychological aspects of the employees
    and the operational aspects attached to the tasks for which they
    were appointed;
♦   That it can be part of the normal every day human resource
    management or undertaken as a specific strategy to obtain staff;
♦   That it requires a management approach that takes both the
    internal and external factors into consideration;
♦   That it depends on almost all other human resource management
    practices.

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The key aspects to staff retention

Staff retention is influenced by the following factors and the
better these are managed the more likely staff will be
attracted or remain in an organisation:
♦   Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and Selection;
♦   Optimal Human Resource utilisation;
♦   Human Resource development;
♦   Compensation and benefits;
♦   Employee and Labour Relations; and
♦   Safety and Health




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Key aspects cont…

It is also important that there should be a link between the
organisational goals and the expectation of the employees
i.e.:
♦ Employees must see their work as worthwhile;
♦ They must see themselves as personally accountable for
  performance outcomes and implementation;
♦ They must be given feedback regarding their performance and
  quality of work.




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Some of the reasons why
employees leave?

Some of the reasons for staff turnover are unavoidable but
the following can be avoided:
♦   Financial considerations;
♦   Work environment;
♦   Career development;
♦   Affirmative action and employee equity;
♦   Resistance to change
♦   Internal mobility and job-hopping;
♦   Leadership and management style;
♦   Lack of effective communication and grievance procedure


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Some reasons that make employees
stay.

Generally speaking the reasons for employees to stay with
an employer are linked to their own motivation and
preferences. However, research has shown that the
following can contribute positively to employee retention:
♦ Availability of enough resources to meet the demands of the
  job;
♦ Employee empowerment through training and skills
  development to meet the job requirements;
♦ Culture of ownership – where employees feel part of the
  organisation;



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Some reasons that make
employees stay cont.…

♦   Provision of challenging work;
♦   Opportunities for individual and team work;
♦   Rewarding good work;
♦   Ensure efficient communication and feedback;
♦   Provide sufficient opportunities for growth and development




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Staff retention- whose responsibility
is it?
Theory and best practice studies suggest that it is critical for
both the line managers and the human resource
components to work together in people management issues,
including staff retention management.

The role of line managers
♦ The ability to effectively lead, coach and mentor staff;
♦ The ability to provide proper feedback;
♦ The ability to align work processes and jobs with organisational
  goals;
♦ The ability to create a culture of life-long learning and
  development in which employees can grow and improve their
  own competencies.
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Staff retention- whose responsibility
is it? Cont….

The role of the human resource components
♦ The ability to provide line managers with relevant, efficient and
  strategic human resource advice and interventions;
♦ The ability to provide the line manager with cutting edge of new
  people management thinking.




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Policies and Acts used by
government to retain staff

There various pieces of legislation and or policies that
would enable managers in the Public Service to retain Staff
and they are:
♦ The Public Service Act, 1994 section 3(5) and 7(3) gives the
  heads of departments the responsibility of ensuring that the
  human resources are managed effectively, departments can
  deploy and use employees in ways that will improve their
  chances of keeping them;




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Policies and Acts used by
government to retain staff cont.…

The laws and policies governing employment allow for
changes to normal practices when these are necessary to
find or keep people with scarce skills. For example:
♦ Section 37(2) of the Act and the Public Service Regulations,
  2001 (chapter 1, part VIII F and G) allow for employees to be
  rewarded either financially or otherwise for good performance
  and valuable suggestions or improvements;
♦ The salary and or salary level for a post can be set at a higher
  notch or level than usual if necessary to recruit or retain an
  employee with regard to skills. This can be effected through
  chapter 1, part V C.3 of the Public Service Regulation.


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Policies and Acts used by
government to retain staff cont.…

♦ The Public Service Regulation, 2001- Chapter 1, part VII
  C 2.5 allow departments to deploy employees to other
  posts horizontally if this addresses their career
  development expectations;
♦ As per PSCBC resolution no.7 of 2000 employees can be
  granted special leave for developmental purposes. This
  can be paid or unpaid leave depending on departments.
♦ Public Service Regulation, 2001 – Chapter 1, part IX
  enjoins departments to provide employees with ongoing
  access to training that should support their work
  performance and career development. Bursaries can also
  be granted to employees to improve their levels of
  education;
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Policies and Acts used by
government to retain staff cont.…

♦ The PSCBC Resolution 3 of 1999 allows for a once of amount
  to be paid to recruits from abroad for their relocation costs to
  South Africa. This is done to enable government to source
  scarce skills from outside the country.
♦ Except the above mentioned positive ways of attracting and
  keeping staff, the following makes it difficult for employees to
  leave:
      Employee that leave before completing 12 months of service will
       loose their service bonus;
      Employees who resigns before completing 12 months of service
       and were paid money for relocating will have to pay back the costs
       incurred;
      Employees have to serve at least 12 months in a rank before
       qualifying for assessments for pay progression.


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Creating a Successful Retention
Strategy

Best practice reveals that there is no “one-size-fits-all”
retention strategy and that a successful retention strategy
should have at least the following:
♦ It should focus on the skills required by an organisation at that
  particular time;
♦ It should be informed by the availability and demand for a
  particular skill within an organisation and in the broader labour
  market;
♦ It should be supported by senior management within a clearly
  defined framework of authority, execution and role
  responsibility;
♦ It should be implemented through a collaboration between line
  managers and the Human Resource components
♦ It must be based on a sound Human Resources strategy and
  execution plan.
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Key Steps in Staff Retention

There are four steps to managing staff retention and they
are:
1.   Analysing staff mobility and turnover trends
♦    Assess staff morale;
♦    Conduct exit interviews;
♦    Interview candidates who turn down job offers;
♦    Keep staff statistic;
♦    Conduct an internal human resource audit;
♦    Analyse the information and look for trends
2.   Identifying skills to be retained
♦    Ask the question “which skills need to be retained”
♦    Identify them by consulting with line managers;
♦    Classify them into scarce, valued and high risk

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Key Steps in Staff Retention cont….

3.    Link staff retention with an effective recruitment and
      selection process;
♦     Link staff retention with an effective induction process;
♦     Integrate employee development into staff retention strategy;
♦     Align competencies with job requirements;
♦     Provide growth opportunities;
♦     Reward employees who are high performers and value
      creators within an organisation;
♦     Lead by example;
♦     Conduct exit interviews;
♦     Improve compensation for scarce skills;
♦     Implement performance management;
♦     Make employees aware of career opportunities
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Key Steps in Staff Retention cont….

      The following methods can be used for specific groups of
      employees:
♦     Introduce mentoring and coaching programmes for senior and
      middle managers;
♦     Introduce specific programmes to accelerate middle managers
      to senior positions e.g. accelerated pools for women managers
      at middle management level;
♦     Devise strategies to retain knowledge workers;
♦     Design special programmes for promising and talented
      employees;
♦     Devise special programmes for high performers;
♦     Design special programmes for designated groups in terms of
      employment equity.

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Key Steps in Staff Retention cont….

4.    Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and Evaluation mechanisms should be identified
right at the start of the programme and should be part of the
strategy. The mechanisms should include:
♦    Periodic assessment of the turnover within targeted skills or
     occupational class;
♦    Checking the appropriateness of what you are offering;
♦    Assess skills movement within the department and within the
     sector;
♦    Assess whether the interventions have impact;
♦    Conduct comprehensive evaluation over longer periods to
     assess the impact of the retention strategies.


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Drafting a Departmental- Specific
Retention Policy

♦ The following can be used as a guide:
      Briefly introduce the concept by stating the reason and the need for
       the policy;
      Define the strategy in terms of the circumstances of your
       department;
      Outline the purpose of the policy and what it seeks to achieve;
      Provide the regulatory framework that underpins the policy;
      List principles that inform the policy;
      Indicate what the scope of the policy is and also identify various
       categories of skills;
      Outline in detail the strategies/ intervention/ programmes that would
       be used for different occupational categories;
      List roles of different stakeholders managing the retention strategy;
      Describe mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation;
      Describe how the policy is going to be reviewed taking into
       consideration the methods, conditions and the period for review.

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Conclusion

Recruitment and retention strategies are not a panacea for flight of
staff from one department or from one sector to the another, but
implemented well and reviewed overtime can minimise staff
turnover significantly.

In the Public Service there currently exists mechanisms that could
be used to retain staff as we have seen in the slide that dealt with
the Policies and Acts promoting human resource management and
in particular, staff retention. The challenge is in the implementation.
But the framework is there – It may not be perfect but it exists!




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