"A Gender Analysis of the Educational Achievement of Boys"
A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM DISCLAIMER This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared by Management Systems International (MSI). EQUATE: ACHIEVING EQUALITY IN EDUCATION For more information, please contact: E QUATE is a three-year contract awarded by the USAID Office of Women in Development to Management Systems International (MSI), who will implement the project in partnership with Michigan State University.This task order contract, under the Gender Matters IQC, assists Christina Rawley Project Director field missions in strengthening their capacity to institute gender-equitable practices and policies Management Systems International in basic education activities. 600 Water Street, SW The project aims to: Washington, DC 20024 Develop a conceptual framework for articulating approaches to achieve gender equality in (202) 484-7170 basic education in consultation with Field Missions, USAID/Washington staff, and other email@example.com stakeholders; Julie Hanson Swanson Provide cost-free technical asistance that is tailored to meet the needs of Field Missions and Task Order Cognizant Technical Officer USAID/Washington staff; US Agency for International Development EGAT/WID RRB 3.8-005 Develop practical tools and deliver demand-driven training and technical assistance to 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue enhance the ability of operating units to design, implement, monitor and evaluate projects Washington, DC 20523 contributing to gender equality in basic education, as a means of improving people's (202) 712-1687 attainment of a basic education, especially girls. firstname.lastname@example.org A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM EQUATE Project Management Systems International 600 Water Street, SW Washington, DC 20024 Revised January 2005 EGAT/WID Basic Education Contract # GEW-1-01-02-00021 Office of Women in Development U.S. Agency for International Development DISCLAIMER The findings, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the team and do not necessarily reflect the views and or the policies of USAID/Jamaica, the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T his report presents the findings of a gender analysis of the educational achievement of boys and girls in the Jamaican educational system. The report was produced for USAID/Jamaica by Management Systems International (MSI), Washington, D.C., with support from EQUATE, a task order of the USAID Office of Women in Development, Education Sector Program. The assessment was conducted by a five- member research team comprised of Oralia Puente, Team Leader; Daniel Gordon and Carol Narcisse, Gender Technical Specialists; and Logistics and Research Assistants Uki Atkinson and Terry-Ann Miller. We wish to thank the staff of USAID/Jamaica who gave so generously of their time and who demonstrated a wholehearted interest in the progress and findings of the report. We also thank the many Jamaican staff of the Ministry of Education, Youth & Culture, non- governmental organizations, and the staff of other donor organizations who participated in focus groups and interviews. Special thanks go to the youths, teachers, principals, and parents who participated in the assessment. We thank the Inter-American Development Bank for the courtesy use of photos on the cover page. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CETT Centers for Excellence in Teacher Training CXC Caribbean Examination Council DFID Department for International Development (UK) ESSJ Economic and Social Survey of Jamaica GCE General Certificate in Education GDP Gross Domestic Product GOJ Government of Jamaica GSAT Grade Six Achievement Test IDB Inter-American Development Bank IR Intermediate Result MOEY&C Ministry of Education, Youth & Culture MSI Management Systems International NAP National Assessment Program NGO Non-governmental organization HEART/NTA Human Employment and Resource Training Trust/National Training Agency PATH Program for Advancement in Education and Health PIOJ Planning Institute of Jamaica PLA Participatory Learning and Action SCOPE School Community Outreach Programme for Education SO Strategic Objective SOW Scope of Work TFER Task Force on Educational Reform UK United Kingdom US United States USAID United States Agency for International Development UWI University of West Indies A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS V CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................IV ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................V EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................VII GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS ......................................XII INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................1 SITUATION ANALYSIS ................................................................................5 FINDINGS ......................................................................................................21 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION ................................................................................27 REFERENCES ................................................................................................33 ANNEX I:THE FORMAL PUBLIC EDUCATION SYSTEM IN JAMAICA: ORGANIZATION CHART ........................................35 ANNEX II: FLOW CHART OF THE FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM ............................................................................36 ANNEX III: EDUCATION SECTOR PROGRAMS (1993–2007)....................................................................................................37 ANNEX IV: GENDER EQUALITY PLANNING MODEL ..................................................................................39 A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT VI CONTENTS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY T he Jamaican education system has research also indicated that boys lagged been the subject of intense national behind girls in both attendance and scrutiny and debate as analyses of, achievement and that they did not receive and reports on, severe weaknesses in student equal treatment and attention in the achievement at primary and secondary levels classroom. have made national media headlines in recent The purpose of this assessment was to explore months. Many share concerns about the the role that gender plays in boys’ and girls’ marked underachievement of male students, development, performance, and outcomes in The purpose of this particularly in literacy at the primary level and assessment was to school, with the goal of unearthing strategies their under-representation in tertiary-level that could address differential performance explore the role that institutions. Stakeholders have engaged in the and impact. In the process, the researchers debate through various fora, most recently gender plays in boys’ examined the nature and function of gender those created by the Government of Jamaica and girls’ development, dynamics in teaching and learning at home, at in the island-wide public consultations carried school, and in the wider society. performance, and out by the Ministry of Education, Youth & Culture (MOEY&C) and the deliberations of The study findings show generalized outcomes in school, the national Task Force on Educational weaknesses in overall student attendance and with the goal of Reform (TFER). These fora have resulted in, achievement in the Jamaican education unearthing strategies among other things, a national vision system. Our research shows that, while boys statement for education, which emerged from lag furthest behind in attendance and literacy, that could address the Ministry of Education’s national girls also perform below age- and grade- differential consultations, and recommendations for a appropriate levels. Like others before it, this performance and transformed education system contained in study identified a number of causative factors impact. the TFER report published in late 2004. related to student underachievement in Jamaica. It indicates the need for a mix of Within this context, particularly with respect interventions undertaken by a variety of actors to the widely expressed concern for the to create better outcomes for students. performance of male students in the Jamaican education system, USAID/Jamaica This study highlights the fact that traditional commissioned this study to determine the gender socialization and stereotypes are reasons for, and possible interventions to significant factors in the educational address, the underachievement of male experiences, expectations, and outcomes for students. The assignment’s Scope of Work boys and girls. The findings further (SOW) was based on the local research demonstrate that there is cause for concern findings, which indicated that gender about, and need for, targeted interventions to inequities in school participation and address gender disparities that exist in the achievement become evident among students educational experiences and outcomes of all in Jamaica as soon as they enter school. The students in the Jamaican education system. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VII SUMMARY OF FINDINGS · IR2: Increased School Attendance The study finds clear and persistent gender IR3: Improved Management of Schools inequalities, as follows: · IR4.4: Number of Non-governmental gender roles and expectations Traditional Organizations (NGOs) Delivering Services for boys and girls exist in the home and are to “At-Risk” Youth perpetuated in school and the broader society; In addition to being based on the findings of this assessment, the recommendations are also Bothsexes have uneven enrollment and in keeping with the TFER recommendations attendance records; but the data for girls is relating to governance and management, higher than that for boys, with the gap curriculum, teaching and learning support, widening considerably at the tertiary level; and stakeholder participation. Alongside gender academic performance is better than Girls’ The specific recommendations presented here inequalities, the study boys’ at the primary level but is not fall into 13 categories. shows an education consistently so at the secondary level; system with wide Course choice and selection for boys and MAINSTREAM GENDER IN USAID variation and girls are gender stereotyped; STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES FOR EDUCATION Mechanisms are needed to mainstream inequalities in terms of Despitethe underachievement of boys in gender-specific analysis and interventions into physical, social, and education, more males are employed and USAID/Jamaica’s Strategic Objectives to move employable than females. human resources ... toward addressing the particular concerns of significant numbers of Alongside gender inequalities, the study shows both boys and girls in education. Much an education system with wide variation and concern is being expressed in Jamaica about both boys and girls inequalities in terms of physical, social, and the education system in general and male perform at human resources, including staffing, quality of underachievement in particular—but such unacceptable instruction, and leadership. The net effect of focus runs the risk of undertaking these systemic inequalities is that significant interventions that improve the performance of academic standards. numbers of both boys and girls perform at male students at the expense of females. unacceptable academic standards, which puts Assessment findings suggest that achieving them at a disadvantage for realizing their full “best practice” will depend on a strategy that potential. is informed by analyses of, and interventions to meet, the needs of both groups of learners. RECOMMENDATIONS USAID/Jamaica should position itself to play The recommendations offered in this report a leadership role in addressing boys’ needs build on the experiences and successes of without compromising the educational needs existing projects, which meet the objectives of of girls by recognizing and taking a gender- USAID’s current strategy, specifically: equality approach to its planned interventions. The new strategy should emphasize Strategic Objective (SO) 4: Increasing community partnerships and linkages and Literacy and Numeracy among Targeted synergies with other strategic interventions. Jamaican Youth This study recommends developing a set of IntermediateResult (IR): 1 Improved gender-mainstreaming strategies for inclusion Quality of Teaching in the program design for SO 12 of A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT VIII EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM USAID/Jamaica’s new strategy 2005–2009 Sensitizestudents to gender issues through (532-012). It is important to incorporate a the schools’ life skills curricula and other gender equality perspective in the language existing programs; provide students with an and design of the Education Results opportunity to make choices that are not Framework. In particular, USAID/Jamaica based on traditional gender stereotypes; may wish to consider the inclusion of a improve gender relations among students gender-specific Intermediate Result with and enable them to learn and express supporting indicators. This would entail themselves in both single-sex and co including objectives, outputs, and activities educational settings. that expressly focus on promoting gender equality in the design of USAID/Jamaica’s BUILD CAPACITY OF EDUCATORS TO education projects. The design would then CREATE CHILD-CENTERED CLASSROOMS present appropriate indicators to measure This study recommends building schools’ progress and impact in the implementation of capacity to encourage and implement child- these gender-based activities. centered classrooms. While too-large class sizes often compromise an optimal learning DEVELOP AND/OR SUPPORT environment, teachers also need help in It is important to IMPLEMENTATION OF GENDER-TRAINING identifying and implementing strategies to incorporate a gender MODULES meet students’ needs and enliven the learning This study found that parents, teachers, experience. During this research, the team equality perspective in principals, and students hold traditional views visited schools, such as the St. Peter Claver the language and on the roles, expected behaviors, and Primary School, which are working toward this design of the responsibilities of males and females and that goal despite difficult social and environmental these views influence their actions, Education Results circumstances. The efforts of such schools need interactions, and relationships in ways that to be documented, supported, publicized, and Framework. perpetuate inequitable gender- specific generalized with appropriate adaptations to suit outcomes. Therefore, a major recommendation different contexts. is for an intervention that can: Provide information on gender socialization EXPAND INTERVENTIONS WITH A FOCUS and its impact on males and females and ON LITERACY increase awareness of gender dynamics The USAID/Jamaica-funded project, New among parents, teachers, principals, and Horizons for Primary Schools, and the students; recently completed Jamaica All-Age Schools Project funded by the UK’s Department for Sensitizeparents and educators to the need International Development (DFID), have for strategies to achieve equitable and fair strong literacy strategies that need to be more treatment of boys and girls in both the widely disseminated among teachers. This home and school settings; study indicates the critical need to continue the focus on improving literacy, with greater Provide technical assistance to schools to emphasis on the early childhood years and enable them to incorporate gender analysis primary grades 1 through 4. This focus, in their School Development Planning linked to the gender training module, would process and to develop strategies to address emphasize the importance of reading and both boys’ and girls’ confidence and self- literacy as a life skill for both boys and girls. esteem while improving their achievement in traditional and non-traditional subjects; A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY IX BUILD ON SUCCESSFUL SUPPORT PROGRAMS TO STRENGTHEN AT-RISK PROGRAMS STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOLS The study recommends continuing support The MOEY&C has implemented projects for at-risk programs. Two programs, the New aimed at increasing community involvement Horizons for Primary Schools Project and the in the development of schools; however, these Uplifting Adolescents Project, have existing projects do not seem to have extended beyond mechanisms of counseling, group discussion, the pilot phase despite their demonstrated and decision-making. They address the needs effectiveness. USAID should assist the of poor-performing students, youths at risk of MOEY&C in reviewing those models (such as dropping out of school, and others who have the School Community Outreach Programme Students had better already dropped out of school. These for Education [SCOPE] project and the programs should incorporate modules for Adopt-A-School Programme) with a view to outcomes in schools gender equality training, aimed at fostering reintroducing and/or expanding the relevant, where principals and positive and supportive relationships, into successful components throughout the teachers collaborated their HIV/AIDS, health and/or family life education system. to create a challenging education curricula. and supportive SUPPORT GENDER-SENSITIVE SUPPORT NATIONAL FORA CURRICULUM REVIEW/REFORM learning environment; The MOEY&C has ongoing programs for With the publication and presentation of the where rules were clear, TFER findings and recommendations to curriculum reform, and the Human fair, and consistently Parliament, an important next step involves Employment and Resource Training facilitating public education and discussion on Trust/National Training Agency applied; and where all the recommendations advocating for a radical (HEART/NTA) takes part in strengthening stakeholders, including overhaul of the education system. Gender technical high school curricula. USAID could educators, students, equity in education is a necessary and add value to these efforts by providing important component of such an overhaul. support for activities aimed at achieving and parents, took part How this is to be achieved is a matter of gender-balanced curricula, with strategies for in the decision-making achieving equitable representation of boys and debate currently underway in Jamaica, but is process and were held not explicitly addressed in the report of the girls in all areas. This goal would necessitate accountable for doing Task Force. USAID could therefore make a targeted outreach to students to increase valuable contribution to the national enrollment in non-traditional courses of study. their part. discussion and decision-making by supporting national fora of stakeholders to: PROMOTE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP TRAINING Become informed about the On visits to schools, researchers observed that recommendations of the Task Force and, in a critical factor in student performance was that context, the analysis, findings and the vision and sense of mission of principals recommendations of this report; and teachers. Students had better outcomes in Discuss,debate, and form understanding schools where principals and teachers and consensus on the best strategies for collaborated to create a challenging and achieving gender equality in education as supportive learning environment; where rules part of the recommended overhaul of the were clear, fair, and consistently applied; and system. where all stakeholders, including educators, students, and parents, took part in the decision-making process and were held A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT X EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM accountable for doing their part. This was the teachers agreed with the need for more male case even when such schools were in similar teachers and role models, they were adamant settings as those schools with poor outcomes. that their recruitment should not be conducted on a basis that creates inequities in The study recommends transformational remuneration and other conditions of work leadership training (not to be confused with for male and female teachers. management training) for principals and other staff members. Not only does research reveal One strategy could serve to increase the number that effective leadership is key to change and of male teachers without compromising equity reform in schools, the far-reaching in the profession: a targeted promotional/ recommendations of the Task Force on publicity campaign highlighting the benefits of Education demand implementation of a new, teaching as a career option for males. USAID visionary type of school leadership. As part of should consider hosting consultations with the the process of transforming school leadership MOEY&C and relevant stakeholders to and culture, our recommendations include examine the feasibility of a publicity campaign To respond directly to providing support for sustaining and expanding aimed at sensitizing males to the impact they the dearth of male the “Change from Within” program so that it could have on children’s futures as positive, has system-wide implementation. teaching, role models. The campaign could teachers and role highlight current male teachers as spokespersons models across the STRENGTHEN OVERALL and include vignettes of male and female education system, TEACHER TRAINING teachers working together to improve the recommendations We propose the development and strengthening education environment for boys and girls. Such of pre-service and in-service training curricula to a campaign would contribute to a positive step have been made that address child-centered learning environments, forward in dispelling myths that education is the MOEY&C teaching of reading in the integrated curriculum not “macho” and may help make schooling implement special at the primary level, and gender sensitization. more attractive for male learners. measures to recruit This could be achieved in collaboration with activities already underway, such as the Centers SUPPORT A NATIONAL MENTORSHIP FOR more male teachers. for Excellence in Teacher Training (CETT) STUDENTS PROGRAM program. In particular, all USAID projects with Existing partners of USAID, such as Youth teacher training activities underway should Opportunities Unlimited, have a strong track integrate gender sensitization training modules, record in the implementation of mentoring and USAID should support efforts of the programs. A special thrust to recruit male Centre for Gender and Development Studies, mentors and to provide both male and female University of West Indies (UWI), to develop mentors with gender-sensitivity training could and implement such modules for use in impact positively on boys’ and girls’ self- Teachers’ Colleges. esteem, motivation, and performance. SUPPORT MOEY&C EFFORTS TO RECRUIT STRENGTHEN USAID’S AND TRAIN MALE TEACHERS EVALUATION PROCEDURES To respond directly to the dearth of male As supported in the current SO, USAID teachers and role models across the education should continue to focus on developing and system, recommendations have been made strengthening evaluation mechanisms to gauge that the MOEY&C implement special what is working and what should be improved measures to recruit more male teachers. Our with respect to gender-related and other field research found that, while female education indicators. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY XI GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS Gender refers to a set of qualities and Gender parity is the first step toward behaviors expected from males and females by achieving gender equality in education. It society. Gender roles are learned and can be refers to a situation of proportional affected by factors such as education or representation of males and females in an economics. They vary widely within and education system relative to the population between cultures. While an individual’s per age group. Gender parity would be (biological) sex does not change, gender roles achieved in enrollment if the numbers of are socially determined and can evolve over males and females represented were time.1 commensurate with their respective population percentage for particular ages. It is Gender equality means that males and the most-often utilized criteria for measuring females have equal conditions for realizing the gender situation in a country’s education their full potential and for contributing to and system. However, reaching gender parity is benefiting from economic, social, cultural, just the initial phase in achieving gender and political development (OECD, 1998). It equality. means males and females have equal enjoyment of goods, opportunities, resources, Gender equity is the second step towards and rewards at home, school, and society. It gender equality. It involves fairness in also means the society values males and representation, participation, and outcomes or females equally for their similarities and benefit among males and females. This does differences and the diverse roles they are able not mean that boys and girls should to play. It means, too, that males and females necessarily receive the same treatment, as enjoy equality of rights, freedoms, individual differences among them demand responsibilities, and opportunities. Striving different interventions, or that one group towards gender equality entails a thoughtful should receive preferential treatment. The goal and strategic process that examines long-term in terms of equity is that both groups have a outcomes for males and females and actively fair chance of having their needs met and have creates actions and mechanisms to minimize equal opportunities for realizing their full and eliminate disparities. Such a process is not potentials as human beings. necessarily linear as different steps or stages can occur simultaneously. 1. http://www.engenderhealth.org/wh/sg/egwhat.html A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT XII GLOSSARY OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM INTRODUCTION B etween September 27 and October 29, Changes needed in institutional practices 2004, a team of five researchers and social relations in school. provided technical assistance to the This research and report aims to further United States Agency for International USAID/Jamaica’s efforts to promote gender Development/Jamaica (USAID/Jamaica) to equality in education. As a result of trends conduct a gender analysis of the education of that increasingly seem to favor girls in the boys and girls in Jamaica. Management education system, the EQUATE project Systems International (MSI), through the undertook the task of providing feedback on USAID Office of Women in Development The EQUATE project and recommendations for moving towards EQUATE task order, fielded the team. gender equality in basic education in Jamaica. undertook the task of providing feedback on This study looks at the situation with respect STATEMENT OF WORK to the educational experiences and results for and recommendations USAID/Jamaica proposed focusing on the male and female students and, thus, applies a for moving towards needs of boys in grades 1 through 4 of poor- gender analytical approach. We look at the gender equality in performing primary schools; in grades 7 situation through a gender lens as if putting on through 9 in selected upgraded secondary basic education in a pair of glasses. Looking through one lens, the schools; and at-risk youth attending classes study examines the participation, needs, and Jamaica. presented by selected non-governmental realities for boys; looking through the second organizations (NGOs). The task was to lens, the study examines the participation, answer a primary set of questions regarding needs, and realties of girls. Thus, the study the conditions and experiences of these three provides a full vision—presenting information categories of students and to propose a menu on the distinctive realities for boys and girls, of activities to address the needs of boys in men and women, as well as the factors that ways that promote gender equality for both contribute to those realities. boys and girls. USAID/Jamaica proposed five primary TECHNICAL TEAM research areas to frame the research approach. The five-person technical assistance team, These included: selected for its technical expertise and gender Factors contributing to gender inequality in balance, included two local gender experts, one education; male and one female. The principal team members were three researchers and Teaching methods and practices in schools practitioners with extensive experience and that have impacts on gender stereotypes; qualifications in participatory research and Measures to mitigate gender inequalities; facilitation methods. A logistician/researcher and an additional research assistant supported Measures to prepare at-risk students; and them during the initial stages of the assessment. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM INTRODUCTION 1 ASSESSMENT and differences in attitudes and perceptions in METHODOLOGY the rearing and education of boys and girls. The researchers combined participatory Focus groups were also held with directors learning and action (PLA) research methods2 who implemented NGO programs for at-risk with traditional quantitative analysis. boys and girls who had dropped out of the Secondary research and qualitative analysis of formal school settings. These programs primary and secondary data was carried out. focused on children’s participation, The fieldwork, conducted through a number encouraged student-led initiatives, and of focus groups, enabled the researchers to included strong peer counseling. listen and capture the experiences and recommendations of students, parents, In addition, two larger focus-group breakfast teachers, principals, policymakers and other meetings were held. The first involved gender The fieldwork, important stakeholders. experts and donors, while participants at the second included senior educators and officers conducted through a of the Ministry of Education, Youth, and number of focus FOCUS GROUP PROCEDURES Culture; representatives of other government The principal researchers carefully designed groups, enabled the open-ended focus-group questions based on agencies, such as the Planning Institute of Jamaica; and other interested stakeholders. researchers to listen the primary questions to be addressed as per Both meetings lasted for approximately two and capture the the SOW. Focus groups were convened in six hours. The first group identified critical issues schools from October 4th through 13th with experiences and contributing to the gender equality picture in students, teachers, and parents; each recommendations of Jamaica and made suggestions as to how and discussion lasted for approximately 35 to 45 by whom these issues might be addressed. The students, parents, minutes. The researches observed classrooms second group identified positive indicators in teachers, principals, and took notes on teaching methods and the education of boys and girls in Jamaica, practices, paying particular attention to policymakers and interactions among and between males and critical and challenging issues in the education system that relate to gender and gender other important females. equality, and recommended ways to address stakeholders. The focus groups in schools brought together these challenges and issues. randomly selected groups of participants, This qualitative study reports on the including teachers, students, and parents. observations and the words of focus group Researchers met with male and female participants to understand and describe the students with separately, each group facilitated gender dynamics in schools, at home, and in by a male and female researcher, respectively. society. Questions drew forth discussions by participants about gender norms; expectations for girls and boys at home and school, COMPOSITION OF FOCUS GROUPS including education and school performance; Student Focus Groups: A total of eight their ways of supporting boys and girls; and student focus-group discussions were held, their methods of disciplining boys and girls. comprising students from one informal and These questions sought to unearth similarities seven formal at-risk programs. Researchers 2. PLA is an approach for learning about and engaging with communities.The approach can be used in identifying needs, planning, monitoring. or evaluating projects and programs.While being a powerful consultation tool, it also offers the opportunity to go beyond mere consultation and promote the active participation of communities in the issues and interventions that shape their lives. PLA tools combine the sharing of insights with analysis and, as such, provide a catalyst for communities themselves to identify their own needs and create action plans. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 2 INTRODUCTION OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM visited seven schools, including one primary Educators Focus Group: Eight educators (4 and one junior high; three high schools (one male and 4 female) from government and in a rural setting); one all-age rural school; non-governmental organizations were and one at-risk school program. Students in represented in this group. these schools ranged in age from 9 to 22. Gender Experts & Donor Focus Groups: Ranging in age from 10 to 18, a total of 251 Fifteen representatives (12 female and 3 male) randomly selected students—122 boys and from donor agencies and the government, 129 girls—participated in the focus groups, including the Ministry of Education, Youth & which were conducted in a circle-style, Culture (MOEY&C) were included within informal discussion-group format over five this group. days. The team opted to separate the girls and boys to create a safe environment and encourage open and candid discussion. STUDY LIMITATIONS It is important to note that all students in the The short time span for this assessment focus groups came from low-income families.3 limited the breadth of the sample, both numerically and geographically. Short notice This qualitative study Teacher Focus Groups: Forty teachers (11 to potential participants had an impact on the reports on the male and 29 female) participated in focus- number of persons attending focus-group observations and the group discussions, which were held in the sessions. This was especially a problem for the same settings as the student focus groups. The words of focus group parent focus groups. researchers posed questions that drew on participants to teachers’ perceptions, teaching methods, understand and methods of discipline, gender roles and ORGANIZATION OF THE describe the gender expectations, and messages related to gender. REPORT Three chapters follow this introduction and dynamics in schools, at Parent Focus Groups: Seventeen individuals contain the: home, and in society. (13 females and 4 males) participated in parent focus-group discussions. This category Situation analysis included mothers and fathers, single parents, Findings stepmothers and stepfathers, grandmothers, guardians, and other caregivers. Recommendations and Conclusions Individual Principal Interviews: Six principals (4 female and 2 male) from the same schools as teachers and students participated. These principals had between 8 and 30 years of experience. Directors of At-Risk Programs Interviews: This group included 4 participants, all of whom were female. 3. All participants and existing research on the education system make note that boys and girls in private preparatory schools are faring better than those in public schools. Research on poverty and class indicate that these two factors have a huge impact on educational outcomes for boys and girls. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM INTRODUCTION 3 A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SITUATION ANALYSIS COUNTRY OVERVIEW impact on the economy, these disasters often W ith an area of 11,244 square disrupt children’s education for weeks, as kilometers, Jamaica is the third- schools are flooded and/or otherwise damaged largest island in the Caribbean or are in use as designated shelters. after Cuba and Hispaniola. The population at Additionally, like most small-island economies the end of 2003, estimated at 2,641,600, of the Caribbean, Jamaica’s economy reflects a constant annual rate of growth of A trend over the past continues to be characterized as open, 0.6 percent since 1999, except for 2002 when dependent, and vulnerable. It depends largely three decades—the it grew by 0.5 percent.4 on tourism, bauxite mining, agriculture, light population’s changing A trend over the past three decades—the manufacturing and a growing service sector profile—could have a population’s changing profile—could have a for its mainstay. This vulnerability was positive spread effect positive spread effect on the education system reflected in negative growth with high through increased opportunity for investment inflation rates during the 1990s (up to 81 on the education and a lower teacher-pupil ratio. The percent in 1991). However, the economy grew system through population of children under the age of 18 over the past five years with an increase in increased opportunity years fell from 53 percent in 1975 to 39 Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 2.1 percent6 in 2003. Notwithstanding the for investment and a percent in 2000. This downward movement is expected to continue into the year 2020 when economic growth, the debt stock according to lower teacher-pupil the proportion of this same-age cohort in the the 2003 Economic and Social Survey of ratio.The population of population is projected to be 30 percent.5 Jamaica (ESSJ) was at J$671,970 million at children under the age December 2003 compared with J$572,696.7 However, the prospect of increased investment million at December 2002.7 This requires a of 18 years fell from 53 in education could remain just that, given the debt-service payment of a staggering 62 percent in 1975 to 39 island’s vulnerability to natural disasters, such percent8 of total expenditure and imposes a as earthquakes and hurricanes that damage percent in 2000. serious limitation on funds available for infrastructure and crops and disrupt various education and other sectors of the economy. productive activities. Besides having a negative 4. The Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2003, Economic and Social Survey of Jamaica (ESSJ), ch. 20. amaican 5. UNICEF 2000, Jamaican Children and Their Families, p. 22. 6. ESSJ, 2003, ch3. 7. ESSJ, 2003, ch3. 8. UNICEF 2000, Jamaican Children and Their Families, p23. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SITUATION ANALYSIS 5 OVERVIEW OF THE Second Stage of Tertiary Education. EDUCATION SYSTEM Students may attend the University of the Jamaica’s formal public education system West Indies at the undergraduate and comprises the following seven levels,9 each of postgraduate levels or the University of which vary widely as to types of schools, the Technology with some courses coordinated quality of instruction, and physical facilities. and in collaboration with the HEART/NTA Vocational Training and Development Early Childhood Education. Three- to six- Institute in technical and vocational skills. A year-old children may enter the educational growing number of overseas universities have system in kindergarten; basic and nursery established linkages in Jamaica and offer schools; and in the infant departments of under- and post-graduate courses in areas such some primary, all-age, and junior high as business administration, computer studies, schools. teaching, and banking. Primary Education. Young children from six Special Education. This includes programs to eleven years old enter in grades 1 to 6 of across the country in various locations and Jamaica’s formal primary, all-age, primary, and junior high and institutions for blind, deaf and hearing- preparatory schools. impaired, mentally handicapped, multiple- public education handicapped, physically handicapped, system comprises Secondary Education. Youths from 12 to 16 learning-disabled and gifted students. may progress for five years in grades 7 to 11 seven levels, each of in secondary, technical high, and The HEART/NTA. This program offers a which vary widely as comprehensive high schools. There are junior wide selection of technical and vocational to types of schools, the high, all-age and primary and junior high training in a number of locations nationwide quality of instruction, schools with grades 7 through 9 only. Youths for youth 17 and over. 17 to 18 years old in grades 12 and 13 may and physical facilities. attend agricultural schools, with three years of According to the Planning Institute of Jamaica upper secondary education and with some (PIOJ), the education system in 2001 had a schools offering two years beyond upper total of 127 early childhood institutions, 573 secondary. primary-level schools, and 595-secondary level institutions along with 161 private First Stage of Tertiary Education. Students preparatory schools and 59 private secondary may attend teacher-training colleges, high schools. In addition, some 1,700 community colleges, the school of visual and recognized basic schools offer early childhood performing arts, and the Human Employment education.10 and Resource Training Trust/National Training Agency (HEART/NTA). The University Council of Jamaica offers STUDENT PLACEMENT accreditation to first-stage tertiary education Most very young children are registered in in specific subject areas to a number of private cost-free infant and basic schools that are a institutions in fields such as theology, “stone’s throw” away from their homes. insurance, and management training. Kindergartens, most often fee-paying private preparatory schools, are costly and out of the 9. See Figure 1 in the Annex for an illustration of the system. 10. PIOJ, The Jamaican Child (2002), p28. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 6 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM reach of poor families. From these early cover the cost of projects funded from the childhood institutions, children move to GOJ’s budget, which is called the “Capital A primary schools, which are usually free and Budget.” For example, Capital expenses provide universal enrollment. Student totaled J$868.5 million in the GOJ’s placement at the lower secondary levels is 2002–2003 budget, of which Capital A governed by their scores in the Grade Six programs undertaken by the GOJ amounted Achievement Test (GSAT), which replaced the to J$274.5 million. Common Entrance Examination that lasted The GOJ introduced a cost-sharing scheme in for over 30 years. The Grade Nine secondary schools in 1994–1995, with the Achievement Test and the Junior High School students’ share covering school operations less Certificate place children in the upper salaries. Fees ranged from a low of J$4,000 to secondary level. The General Certificate in a high of J$8,000 per student per year, and Education (GCE) and the Caribbean some schools charged an additional amount Examination Council (CXC), which is for registration. Some J$990.5 million was phasing out the GCE, place students at the Poor student collected through the scheme in the tertiary level of the education system.11 2002–2003 financial year (ESSJ, 2003). The performance on scheme also operated a financial assistance both internal and FUNDING EDUCATION plan for students unable to pay their portion external examinations The Government of Jamaica (GOJ) is the of cost sharing. The MOEY&C paid J$387.7 principal source of education financing in the million, Members of Parliament J$8.9 has generated country, with an annual allocation of million, and other sources J$3.1 million to increased stakeholder education funds ranging from 10.57 percent assist 122,335 students in the 2002–2003 attention to to 16.43 percent of the total budget since school year. “The Cost Sharing Scheme is 1978 (except 1994/95). These allocations are scheduled to be phased out by the educational virtually double the amount provided for Government over the next three years” (PIOJ, development and health and housing over the same period. 2003, sec. 22.3). reform. However, allocations have declined over the The MOEY&C operates a policy of free last two financial years (FYs). For FY primary education. Nevertheless, many 2003–2004 the allocation of J$23.1 billion— primary schools charge students a fee, and 8.8 percent of total budget—reflects a decline some families are faced with the challenge of of J$0.2 billion over revised estimates for FY paying for school uniforms, some textbooks, 2002–2003.12 The allocation for 2002–2003 pencils, paper, transportation, and lunches. was J$23.2 billion—10.4 percent of the GOJ’s Budget and 6.1 percent of the GDP.13 Poor student performance on both internal and external examinations has generated Funds from multilateral and bilateral agencies, increased stakeholder attention to educational non-government organizations, the private development and reform over the past few sector and students augment the GOJ’s months. Early childhood education has budgetary allocation to education; such become a priority focus area for more projects are handled through what is called resources for two reasons: Low performance the “Capital B Budget.” Taxation revenues can be detected and addressed at an early 11. See Figure 2 in the Annex for an illustration of the flow chart. 12. Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ), Economic and Social Survey of Jamaica (ESSJ), 2003. 13. Ministry of Education,Youth and Culture (MOEY&C), Estimate of Expenditure for March 31, 2004 (as presented). A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SITUATION ANALYSIS 7 stage, and the Government has paid more requires an incremental injection of attention to other levels of the system over the approximately $22 billion in capital years. Thus, early childhood education expenditure and $16 billion in recurrent received an increase of 19.3 percent14 in GOJ expenditure over the next two years (fiscal budget allocations for FY 2003–2004. An years 2005 and 2006). Over ten fiscal Early Childhood Commission was also years, 2005–2014, the total capital established to set standards and to regulate expenditure…is projected at approximately and monitor the operations of early childhood $65 billion. 16 institution nationwide. The Government and the Opposition also EXISTING PROGRAMS IN agreed on a parliamentary resolution EDUCATION The Government and committing them to a five-year education This study reviewed existing programs to plan, which included increased expenditure in the Opposition agreed advise USAID of where best to make its the education sector, improvement in teacher intervention. Most of the existing programs on a parliamentary quality, and shifting resources to the lower listed in the Appendices will end in 2005, resolution committing tiers of the education system. The except for those related to the curriculum them to a five-year Government recently presented the report and reform process—Reform of Secondary recommendations of the Task Force on Education (ROSE) 2 and the Primary education plan, which Educational Reform (TFER), which indicates Education Support Project (PESP), which included increased that, with respect to financing the education continue to 2006–2007. Many of these expenditure in the system, the: programs focused on a select number of education sector, Government of Jamaica allocated 10 institutions with few components being expanded and sustained nationwide. improvement in percent of the 2003–04 budget to Education. The Parliamentary Resolution teacher quality, and Apart from the programs listed, other committed the Government of Jamaica to programs target poverty-related difficulties of shifting resources to increasing the expenditure allocation to the access and inequity in the system. The the lower tiers of the MOEY&C…until its allocation amounts Program for Advancement in Education and education system. to 15 percent of the national budget…it Health (PATH), funded by the Inter- was therefore expected that of a total of American Development Bank (IDB) and the $328 billion in the 2004–05 budget, GOJ, provide social support to poor families education would have been allocated 11 with a requirement that the children in these percent or $36.1 billion. Instead only families attend school regularly and visit $30.1 billion or 9.2 percent was so clinics for health checks. The MOEY&C allocated. 15 operates the School Feeding Program, which The Report notes further that: provides a meal per day to augment the nutrition received by children in need. Based on the recommendations by the Task Force, it is estimated that the…system 14. ESSJ, sec 22.2. 15. Task Force on Educational Reform; Report, 2004, pg. 139. 16. Ibid. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 8 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM THE PERFORMANCE OF THE Grade 4 Literacy Test (GFLT)—taken at EDUCATION SYSTEM the end of primary grade 4 to determine The performance of boys, girls, and youth at promotion or repetition. Students who the early childhood, primary and secondary perform poorly can take summer remedial educational levels is a good indicator of the classes to improve their likelihood of being education system’s quality and effectiveness. promoted. Illustrated and reported below are the forms Grade 6 Achievement Test (GSAT)— of students’ assessment, results, and taken at the end of primary grade 6, helps employment of the results at the three levels, determine placement of students in various which mirror the efficacy of the education types of secondary schools. system. Assessment results show that both boys and girls performed below expectation. However, EARLY CHILDHOOD AND girls outperformed boys on all the tests. This PRIMARY LEVELS is not the case for the tests at the secondary In the late 1980s, the GOJ/IDB Primary Assessment results level. Education Improvement Project introduced assessment of student performance at the show that both boys primary level. The resultant curriculum-based PRIMARY-LEVEL OUTCOMES and girls performed National Assessment Program (NAP) allows Throughout the primary level of the below expectation. for informed decisions about instructional education system, upwards of 40 percent to However, girls methods and students’ progress for primary 50 percent of students have not achieved education, grades 1 through 6. The NAP mastery of basic literacy and numeracy skills. outperformed boys on tests, piloted in a sample of schools since From as early as grade 1, the 2003 national all the tests, except 1987, were formally integrated in the system assessment results reflect generally low levels for those at the during the late 1990s. The test and of student readiness. Failure to address this inventories are reported below with current problem in grades 2 and 3 result in high secondary level. results. illiteracy levels in grade 4, as indicated by grade 4 literacy test results. Grade 1 Reading Readiness Inventory (GRI)—taken by children upon their entry GRI results for 200317 revealed national into primary school from early childhood mastery scores of 86.3 percent for visual institutions, provides diagnostic motor coordination, 54.4 percent for visual information on the preparedness of perception, 57.1 percent for auditory primary-school entrants to participate discrimination, and 68.7 percent for number effectively. and letter recognition. This indicates that, except for visual-motor coordination, about Grade 3 Diagnostic Test (GTDT)— 40 percent of the students assessed needed taken at the end of primary grade 3 to remedial intervention. In contrast, private diagnose levels of mastery and weakness in preparatory school scores exceeded those of reading and mathematics as a basis for the public basic and infant schools in every remedial work. inventory. 17. MOEY&C Assessment Unit, 2003. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SITUATION ANALYSIS 9 GTDT18 results for 2003 appear even more At every grade level, students of better discouraging than the GRI. In language arts, resourced preparatory schools generally only 13.6 percent mastered five skill areas and achieve at much higher levels than their 11.9 percent mastered four skill areas. For counterparts in public schools. On the 2003 mathematics, only 3.8 percent mastered five GSAT, in mathematics, the mean score for skill areas and 4.9 percent mastered four skill private preparatory schools was 74 percent areas. By grade 4, the problem of compared to 47.8 percent for primary schools. underachievement is even more acute. In language arts, scores were 78.8 percent for private preparatory schools compared to 52 The caption in The Daily Gleaner of October percent for primary schools. 12, 2004, “Disturbing Trend: Henry-Wilson [Minister of Education, Youth and Culture] not happy with grade four reading results,” OUTCOMES AT THE indicates that the problem is a major concern SECONDARY LEVEL for the country. The Daily Gleaner reported The CXC examination and the Caribbean that, of the 52,910 students who completed Advanced Proficiency Examination measure At every grade level, the GFLT, 29 percent attained near mastery student performance at the secondary level. level, 57 percent mastered all three sections of Four or more subject passes at CXC for grades students of better- the test, and more than 13 percent were at the 1 to 11, including mathematics and English, resourced preparatory non-mastery level. In 2003, 57.7 percent of meet the minimum entry requirement for schools generally students mastered all three sections of the test, most tertiary programs. Six or more subjects achieve at much 23 percent were at the near mastery level, and are required to pursue the Cambridge GCE 18.4 percent were at the non-mastery level. A-level courses and are needed for higher levels than their matriculation to the island’s three universities. The Daily Gleaner quoted the Minister as counterparts in indicating that the problem of inadequate (ESSJ, 2003 sec. 22.12). public schools. specialist teachers to detect and address Notably, 77 percent of the cohort of students remedial needs among students from as early in the terminal school grade who should have as grade 1 continued to impact negatively on been eligible to sit the examination did so in the literacy scores of grade 4 students. 2003, compared to 70.8 percent in 2002. GSAT 2003 composite scores for the core However, only 55.8 percent of the cohort sat subjects are shown in Table 1. English language, while 46.1 percent did mathematics in 2003. “Compared to 2002, Table 1: National Level Grade Six Achievement Test there was a 13.7 percentage point decline [in Results, 2003 2003] to 45.0 percent passes in English language, while pass rate for mathematics Subject Area Composite Scores (%) remained at 36.0 percent” (ESSJ, 2003). Mathematics 47.7 These outcomes varied dramatically Language Arts 52 depending on the type of secondary school that students attended. Consistently, students Science 47.6 with the lowest GSAT scores are placed in the Social Studies 54.2 non-traditional secondary, all-age, and junior high schools, and they do poorly on 18. Task Force on Educational Reform: Final Report, 2004. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 10 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM secondary-level examinations. The analysis while still others are in tranquil rural settings depicted in Table 2 of the 2001 to 2003 CXC or relatively crime- and violence-free middle- results gives an indication of the situation. to high-income communities. The national policy environment also has a GENDER ANALYSIS OF significant impact on, and provides the backdrop for, the educational process and its EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES outcomes. Among changes taking place in Many and varied reasons account for students’ curriculum reform and student assessment in underachievement. Students—boys and girls— Jamaica, new measures to achieve are not a homogenous group. All learners come accountability on the part of teachers and to school with influences, knowledge, attitudes, school administrators are being vigorously behaviors, and values influenced by the discussed.19 Continuous strategies to expand environments in which they live. These access and enrollment accompany various differences occur not only between the two measures being instituted to address school Among changes taking groups of children but also within the groups. discipline. However, in relation to such goals Factors such as family socio-economic status, place in curriculum as Education for All, significant policy gaps family formation, and the quality of family reform and student preclude a clear mandate with respect to interaction; religious beliefs and practices; and children with special needs and clear guidelines assessment in Jamaica, the extent of adherence to traditional or non- on gender equality. While changes are taking new measures to traditional child-rearing practices all serve to place to make schools more child- centered, create inter- and intra- group differences. achieve accountability they are still, for the most part, curriculum- Schools in Jamaica vary widely as to quality, centered, and teachers feel hard- on the part of including those falling within a similar pressed to tailor their instructional activities to teachers and school category such as early childhood, the needs and abilities of students. administrators are primary/elementary, or secondary. Variations One must keep these and other factors in mind being vigorously relate to their physical, social and resource in any attempt to explain the educational results (human, financial, instructional) environments discussed. of Jamaica’s schools in general and for males or and to the effectiveness of their leadership. females in particular. These factors must also be Further, school location affects the atmosphere considered when formulating decisions about in which learning takes place. Some schools are appropriate interventions to support a goal of situated in disaster-prone areas. Others are in gender equity/equality in educational outcomes communities with constant and extreme for all students. outbreaks of violence, Table 2: 2001 and 2003 CXC Test Results 2001 2003 2001 2003 2001 2003 Secondary High Schools Upgraded High Schools Technical High Schools Mathematics 40.0% 51.0% 11.0% 17.0% 26% 27.00% English Language 74.0% 65.0% 38.0% 27.0% 40% 30.0% 19. Measures being discussed include contracts for principals and teachers and evaluating teachers and schools on the basis of students’ performance. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM S 11ITUATION ANALYSIS ENROLLMENT male enrollment in the faculties of law While male and female enrollment numbers at (17% the early childhood level are nearly equal, shifts male, 83% female) and medical sciences occur later in the system. The primary level has (37.2% male, 62.8% female), though significantly more male than female students, but the gender gap was small in the pure fewer boys than girls are enrolled at the and applied sciences (48.2% male, secondary level and even fewer at post-secondary. 51.8% female).20 See Table 2 in the Table 3 shows that the gap widens in favor of Annex for a breakdown of enrollment female students the further up the educational data by tertiary institution ladder one looks. (2002–2003). Where male students do dominate enrollment at While looking at university enrollment, post-secondary levels is usually in technical note that only a small percentage of the Post- population is represented in tertiary subjects, sports, or other fields of study secondary education. On the other hand, for traditional to them. Post-secondary enrollment enrollment enrollment in HEART/NTA programs reflects both changing patterns in the reflects both where a far greater percentage of the male/female division of occupational/ career changing national youth population accesses post- choices as well as the extent to which gender patterns in the secondary training, gender stereotypes in stereotypes persist and strongly influence what male/female course selection abound.21 male and female students do division of and strive for. Enrollment data for 2000–2001 occupational/ for the University of the West Indies indicate ATTENDANCE career choices that, overall, far more females than males in the Some 14 to 20 percent of males and as well as the student body. Female enrollment surpasses females have poor school attendance. extent to which gender One article provides data indicating stereotypes that, in 2002, at the infant school level, persist and the average male daily attendance rate strongly was 78.9 percent compared influence what TABLE 3: Comparison of Male/Female Enrollment from Early Childhood to Tertiary Level (2002) male and female students Enrollment Levels/ Male, Female,Total Male Female Total do and strive Early Childhood for. Unrecognized Basic Schools 3, 017 3,149 6,166 Recognized Basic Schools 59,711 59,480 119,191 Total 62,728 62,629 125,357 Primar y Schools (Grades 1–6) 160,550 153,510 314,060 Secondary Schools (Grades 7–13) Grades 7–9 72,627 71,678 144,305 Grades 10–13 39,072 43,175 82,247 Total Secondary Schools 111,699 114,853 226,552 Non-formal Training Programs 13,853 19,196 33,049 Tertiary Institutions 13,568 25,564 39,132 Total 362,398 375,752 738,150 Source: JA People; Newsletter, Social and Manpower Division, PIOJ;Vol. 9 No 1; page 21 20. Jamaica Education Statistics 2000-2001, MOEY&C, Kingston, Jamaica. 21. See Table 3 in Annex for breakdown of enrollment data by subject/field (2002/3). A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 12 SITUATION ANALYSIS with 81.3 percent for females. At the primary The attendance data suggest that students level, the rates were 82.6 percent and 84.5 with lowest levels of academic achievement percent respectively. The disparity widens at have the poorest attendance rates through the the secondary level with male student all-age, primary and junior high, and newly attendance averaging 82.1 percent compared upgraded secondary schools. Of this group, with 86.4 percent for female.22 boys have lower levels of attendance than girls do. The article notes, however, that attendance rates varied according to school type, with all- age and primary and junior high schools ACHIEVEMENT having lower rates of and narrower gender Gender achievement differences are evident differences in attendance. It states that “the from the earliest years of school life in average daily attendance at all-age schools was Jamaica. According to one report, “An analysis 70.0 percent with males averaging 70.5 of results for the four areas of the 1998 Grade percent and females, 69.2 percent. In the 1 Readiness Test … showed that, at the time, primary and junior high school type, the girls performed better than boys in all four average attendance rate was 77.7 percent with areas and that the difference was statistically males averaging 76.3 percent and females 79.6 significant in three of the areas: visual and percent.” auditory perception, number and letter Gender achievement knowledge.”23 Data supplied by the MOEY&C data for attendance at secondary differences are evident MOEY&C indicates a similar pattern for the levels by school type show that the lowest results of the 2003 assessment.24 from the earliest years attendance rates occur in grades 7 through 9 of school life in of all-age and primary and junior high As children progress towards the grade 6 level, significant numbers of all students fall behind Jamaica. schools. Secondary schools that have grades 7 through 11/12 have attendance rates in the academically. Results for the Grade 3 high 80 percent range for both male and Language Diagnostic Test administered in female students, and technical high schools 200225 show that some 40 percent of students have the highest rates of attendance. See Table who took the exam fell below the mastery 4 below. level for phonics, 63.4 percent were below the Table 4: Attendance by School Type Year/ Technical All Age (7-9) Primary Junior High Secondary Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female 2000–01 70.3 75.7 75.6 80.9 86.8 89.9 89.1 89.0 2001–02 70.5 69.2 76.3 79.6 84.6 88.3 88.3 90.2 2002–03 63.1 68.1 64.0 68.7 79.2 82.5 83.1 84.3 Source: Planning Institute of Jamaica, July 2004. 22. JA People;Vol.9. No 1; Males in Focus: A Newsletter of the Social and Manpower Planning Division. 23. Bailey, Barbara, Gender-Sensitive Educational Policy and Practice:The Case of Jamaica. Centre for Gender and Development Studies, UWI, Mona, April 2003. 24. See Table 5 in Annex. 25. MOEY&C statistics. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT � OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SITUATION ANALYSIS 13� mastery level for structure mechanics, 60.5 academic and vocational programs. In the exit percent scored below mastery level for examination for the students at these schools, vocabulary, 59.4 percent were below mastery the CXC, performance is highly correlated to for study skills, and 62.2 percent of the all the the type of school, their available resources children who took the test scored below the and the academic level of students at entry. mastery level on reading and listening Again, at the secondary level there are gender comprehension. On this latter subtest, 36.7 differences in courses of study and in percent of the students performed at the level achievement. Analyses conducted by Barbara of near mastery and 25.5 percent Bailey (2003) on the sex differences in demonstrated non-mastery. preparation for and performance in the CXC Examination for the 2000–2001 academic The data imply the need for concern that year show that: most children are underachieving and for special attention to address the fact that the In 2000–2001, the (CXC) examination was problem is most pronounced among primary- taken by approximately 15.2 percent (5,538) level boys. The 2001–2003 data showed that of the grade 11 cohort with females The data imply the girls significantly outperformed boys on each accounting for 52.6 percent of entries for the need for concern that of the subtests of the GLDT. The trend Basic Proficiency and 68.5 percent of entries most children are continues up to the grade 6 level, with girls for the General and Technical Proficiencies. underachieving and for generally out-performing boys on all subtests General and Technical Proficiency subject of the Grade 4 Literacy Test and the Grade 6 offerings can be grouped into three tracks: the special attention to Achievement Test.26 first comprised of 17 “academic” subjects, the address the fact that second with two visual and performing arts Among students who progress to secondary the problem is most subjects, and the third with 15 technical- school, those who attend all-age and primary vocational subjects. In the academic grouping, pronounced among and junior high schools usually have low the only subject for which there were more primary-level boys. GSAT scores For students in these schools, male than female entries was physics, and the exit point is at grade 9 where they sit the entries for Visual Arts were male dominated. Grade 9 Achievement Test for placement in In the technical vocational areas, however, secondary or technical high schools for grades there was a clear gender divide with males 10 through 12/13. In 2000–2001, of 2,084 clustered in the technical crafts and females in male students who sat the exam, 1,203 business studies and the domestic crafts.28 (57.7%) were awarded places. Of the 1,244 females who sat the exam, 896 (72.0 %) were In relation to student performance in the placed.27 2000–2001 examinations, she notes that “… the academic subject grouping achievement After the GSAT, students are placed in gaps favored females in 13 of the 17 subjects upgraded secondary schools and traditional examined…the gap favored males in four of “grammar” high schools that have grades 7 the 10 science-related subjects including through 12/13 and where students follow mathematics and in biology … In the two either a mainly academic program (as in the visual and performing arts subjects, case of grammar schools) or a combination of achievement gaps favored girls …”29 26. See Table 6 in Annex. 27. Jamaica Education Statistics 2000–2001. 28. Bailey, Barbara, Gender-Sensitive Educational Policy and Practices:The Case of Jamaica. 2003, p30. 29. Ibid. p35. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 14 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Although in numeric terms female enrollment more females than males in Significantly (at upper secondary and post-secondary levels), the teaching profession, especially at the attendance and achievement rates are usually primary level (88.0%)31 with more females higher than that for males, “when the situation represented at the MOEY&C policymaking is examined from a qualitative perspective, these levels; and same females because of where they are Higher male representation among positioned in the … curriculum actually have principals at the secondary level and among less of a competitive advantage than their male heads, lecturers, senior lecturers, and heads counterparts beyond school.”30 This will be of faculties in the University of the West explored in more detail in the following section. Indies and other institutions at the For this review, the gender situation in university level. education can be summarized as showing: More males than females enrolled in pre- BEYOND SCHOOL: primary, primary and lower secondary LABOR MARKET TRENDS (grades 7-9) levels and more girls than boys FOR MEN AND WOMEN enrolled in upper secondary, tertiary and The fact that females are doing better than Men have greater other post-secondary level institutions; males in particular aspects of the education system does not guarantee them a better life advantage in the labor Lower attendance rates for male than female students, especially in primary and outcome beyond school, especially in force despite lower junior high schools but also in secondary employment and income. The Jamaican labor levels of academic and technical high schools; force consistently shows significantly higher achievement than rates of employment for males than for females. High attendance levels for both male and While female unemployment is higher, women women. female students in the traditional high and have a significantly higher job-seeking rate than technical high schools compared to other do men—more women than men look for types of schools at the secondary level; work but more men than women find work. Higher levels of achievement among girls in Men have greater advantage in the labor force all subject areas at the pre-primary and despite lower levels of academic achievement primary levels; than women. Additionally, perhaps because of the higher levels of technical skills men are able Gender stereotypes exist in subject selection to acquire, the array of occupational choices and courses of study at the secondary level; considered to be “men’s work” is wide. See Table 5 for a breakdown of employment, Female students have higher levels of unemployment, and job-seeking rates. achievement in academic subjects, particularly those in arts and languages, As demonstrated in Table 6, in almost all business subjects, theatre arts, food and categories of work, men earn more than nutrition, and home economics, but male women in the private sector. students outperform female ones in mathematics, integrated sciences, information In keeping with the gender stereotypes in technology, and the traditionally male- subject and vocational choices of males and dominated vocational-technical subjects; females in the educational system, the labor 30. Ibid. p37. 31. Economic and Social Survey of Jamaica, 2003; Planning Institute of Jamaica. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT � OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SITUATION ANALYSIS 15� Table 5: Labor Force Participation, Employment and RESEARCH ON GENDER Unemployment Rate by Sex (April 2001-April 2003) DIFFERENCES IN Male-Female/Year April April April EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES 2001 2002 2003 Some argue that male and female students Males Males perform differently in education because of Labor force as a % sex differences in maturation rates and of population 48.6 48.6 47.4 learning styles. While males and females have Employment Rate 89.7 89.5 90.2 Unemployment Rate 10.3 10.5 9.8 innate differences, influencing factors from Job-Seeking Rate 3.8 5.0 4.8 children’s social environments likely have a more profound impact on their life outcomes Females Females Labor Force as a % than do biological and cognitive differences. of Total Population 36.4 38.1 36.1 Employment Rate 79.5 79.8 82.9 According to a UK Department for Unemployment Rate 20.5 20.2 17.1 International Development (DFID) report, Job-Seeking Rate 8.5 8.2 7.8 “within recent years, explorations into sex and While males and gender differences in academic achievement females have innate market reflects a very traditional division of have become more frequent. Explanations for differences, influencing occupations. Data from the Labor Force … differences between boys and girls have factors from children’s Survey of 2002 indicate that males dominate moved away from biological theories into the labor force in the following industry areas: psycho-social insights concerning patterns of social environments agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining, socialization and differential experiences likely have a more quarrying and refining, manufacturing, offered to males and females, especially the profound impact on electricity, gas and water; construction and experiences offered by the family home and their life outcomes installation, transport, storage and the organization/interactions at the school.”34 communications. Females dominate in than do biological and wholesale and retail; hotels and restaurant Errol Miller’s theory of male marginalization35 cognitive differences. has had a strong influence on the debate services; financing, insurance, real estate and about male underachievement in education. business services; and community, social, and Chevannes36 traces the development in Miller’s personal services. Table 6: Salary Distribution by Sex In Private Sector These deeply entrenched gender stereotypes Organizations (1995) act as incentives and disincentives to boys and girls. Clearly, they have an impact on their Salaries (in JMD)32 Female (%) Male (%) expectations, choices, actions, and results. Less than $150,000 80 20 150,000–250,000 72 28 32. At the time of this writing, 1USD=61.843301JMD. 251,000–350,000 52 48 33. This may reflect a ‘middle management’ level which is 351,000–450,000 33 67 increasingly dominated by females. 34. Gender and School Achievement in the Caribbean; Peter 451,000–550,000 32 68 Kutnick,Vena Jules and Anthony Layne; Department For International Development (DFID) Education Research, Serial 551,000–750,000 5233 48 No. 21, November 1997. 751,000–1,000,000 33 67 35. Errol Miller. Marginalization of the Black Jamaican Male; Kingston Publishers 1986 and Men At Risk; Kingston; Jamaica Publishing House Ltd. 1991. 1, 001, 000–1, 500,000 21 79 36. What We Sow and What We Reap; Problems in the Cultivation 1, 501,000–2,000,000 12 88 of Male Identity in Jamaica; Grace Kennedy Foundation Lecture Series 1999. Over 2,000,000 0 100 A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 16 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM theory. He identifies the feminization of the impacts on male underachievement. His teaching profession as a deliberate policy on findings, reinforced by research activity the part of the colonial administration and the through the results of focus-group discussions, white elite to “clip the wings” of black men field inquiry, and a literature review, can be and prevent them from posing a challenge to summarized as follows: white rule. They suggest that one’s place in Earlychildhood socialization better society is determined by attributes such as prepares girls for the type of schooling race, class, gender, age, and the like and that common in the Caribbean. Girls are more those who hold the central places of power in confined to the house, under greater adult the post-colonial Caribbean states distribute supervision, given more responsibility, the rest of the population in a queue as a way expected to be disciplined, taught to please of holding on to power. Women have been others, and involved in doing uninteresting moved up the queue both as a concession to and repetitive tasks; their demands and as a buffer between the ruling elite and the majority of black males. The match between female gender identities and the educational system has Yet, both Chevannes and, to a greater extent, Social scientists have grown while the mismatch between male Figueroa37 identify the root cause of male identified the root gender identities and the educational underachievement as being related to unintended outcomes of male socialization system has grown. The loss of rural male cause of male chores has not been replaced by a underachievement as and gender privileging. Figueroa states as his comparable involvement in domesticity. premise that “historically, the male gender has There is a persistently strong view that men being related to been privileged in Caribbean Society…. The should discipline boys despite the fact that unintended outcomes male gender has occupied a wider social space, controlled more resources, maintained a 42 percent of households are headed by of male socialization women and that women dominate in higher social position, and exercised greater and gender privileging. teaching. Further, while outside, boys are power.” less subject to community control; thus, the This historic privileging, Figueroa suggests, skills they acquire and the role models they has “constructed maleness as dominant, meet on the street and in the media are appropriate to the public sphere, different from those required for school technologically capable, strong, and hard. success; Femaleness has been constructed as The expectation that boys will be “bad” submissive, appropriate to the private sphere, results in their facing negative sensitive, caring, and in need of protection.” reinforcement at home and school. This These values, he says, “are not only expectation, along with that of their being internalized by children themselves, but also “tough,” results in their being punished structure their worlds of home, school, more severely and more often; community, and work.” The “hard” male image contributes to Figueroa draws on the work of other resistance to school, particularly those researchers and writers on the subject (W. aspects seen as girlish (including the use of Bailey, B. Bailey, Brown and Chevannes, English versus Creole and slang) and which Evans, Parry, Lindsay, and Leo-Rhynie) to call sexual orientation into question; outline a comprehensive set of issues having 37. Making Sense of Male Experience;The Case of Academic Underachievement in the English-Speaking Caribbean; Mark Figueroa; IDS Bulletin Vol 31. No. 2 2000; University of East Anglia, UK. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT � OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SITUATION ANALYSIS 17� are expected to apply themselves to Girls even with limited education. Men also have schoolwork more than boys. They receive greater access to informal and illegal sources more positive encouragement and help with of income. Since male identity is in large homework and more admonition to “take part tied to the ability to be a “provider,” up their books”; there is a stronger social demand on males for earning an income, which doesn’t Streaming in the school system creates a necessarily require an education. kind of homogenization of achievement levels across the various types of schools. As The factors outlined above in the research, as boys fall behind, they become over- well as those related to data gleaned from represented in the lower streams. Such schools, including variations in schools’ streaming has had a negative effect on all resources, socio-economic status of families and students; communities, the impact of school leadership, the nature of the curricula, teaching methods There is a class bias in the system, with and teacher competencies—were all echoed in higher expectations of performance among the findings of this fieldwork. students of the upper classes who typically One national journal attend traditional high schools. Among this posits,“With the group, high achievement is consistent with SUMMARY OF CHALLENGES exception of all-age a traditional male image. Boys who do well, IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM especially in the male-oriented subjects, are This snapshot of the Jamaican educational schools, the current not as vulnerable to this bias. These boys system and the available data indicate major enrollment exceeds usually start their education in preparatory challenges and find significant weaknesses in schools where gender achievement is less quality, equity, and access that will continue capacity at all skewed; to prevent boys, in particular, from achieving, school types.” The ideology of differences in male and and all boys and girls from attaining female roles, responsibilities, and acceptable performance and outcomes, unless occupational choices is deeply entrenched. they are addressed soon. Six major challenges The research indicates that, even at a young have been identified in the research, the data age, students have clear views on what types from the education system, and this study. of subjects are appropriate for their sex and which careers they can pursue. Girls more ENROLLMENT EXCEEDING easily break out of the gender stereotypes SCHOOL CAPACITY than do boys, as “male” occupations have This issue alone imposes serious limitations higher status than traditionally “female” ones. and consequences on the quality of education Additionally, male sexual identity is more in schools and results in problems of likely to be questioned when a boy chooses a discipline, frustration among teachers and non-traditional course of study; and students, stressful or lacking instructional arrangements, and difficult classroom Females’ upward social mobility is more management—certainly it is among the closely tied to educational attainment than factors contributing to violence in some that of males’. For males, schooling is less Jamaican schools. One national journal posits, significant in terms of increasing their “With the exception of all-age schools, the earning power, as there are more current enrollment exceeds capacity at all opportunities for men to find employment school types.”38 Primary school enrollment 38. PIOJ, The Jamaican Child, 2002, p32. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 18 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM exceeds capacity by 23 percent; technical and VERY LOW PERFORMANCE RATE IN secondary schools exceed their capacity by 50 UPGRADED SECONDARY SCHOOLS percent; primary and junior high school The pass rate in mathematics in traditional enrollment exceeds their capacity by 55 high schools is 51 percent compared to 17 percent; and infant schools exceed their percent for the upgraded secondary schools capacity by 25 percent. This calls into and in English language is 65 percent question the adequacy of the GOJs’ 2003 compared to 27 percent. The pattern is the school building project of 16 new schools. same for prior years. This is similar to the World Bank’s observation,39 which categorized secondary high schools in Jamaica from the LOW LITERACY RATE NATIONALLY most to the least prestigious. The most Nationwide, a low literacy rate continues, prestigious are the secondary high schools, with the problem being more pronounced for which emphasize academic subjects; followed boys at the primary level. Currently, illiteracy by the technical highs, comprehensives (mixed is identified at grade 4, and attempts to Student performance academic and vocational); the new secondary correct the problem at such a high level seem (pre-vocational); primary; and junior highs correlates to the to be acting “after the horse has gone through and all-age schools (which offer grades 7 quality of instruction the gate.” The outcomes of Grade 1 Readiness through 9 in their secondary sections). Inventory and the Grade 3 Diagnostic in schools—better Assessment indicate the reasons for this grave teachers mean higher- concern, and the country lacks comprehensive LACK OF ADEQUATE TEACHER strategies to address this issue. However, in TRAINING achieving students, so 2004, the GOJ began placing greater Schools continue to have too many teachers one means to develop emphasis on early childhood education (3 to 5 who are pre-trained or untrained.40 Student and maintain quality years). This is strategically an effective performance correlates to the quality of instruction in schools—better teachers mean education is to have measure, as the data and research have shown that the investment pays off in the long run. higher-achieving students, so one means to well-trained and develop and maintain quality education is to qualified teachers. have well-trained and qualified teachers. There TOO FEW STUDENTS ENROLLING was a 17 percent decline in the number of AND ACHIEVING IN THE CXC EXAM untrained teachers and a 22 percent increase Too few male and female students enroll and in the number of graduates in primary and achieve in the CXC exam. Only 34.6 percent secondary schools in 2003 (ESSJ). However, of students in secondary school terminal 2003 saw 13 percent untrained teachers in grades sat four or more CXC subjects in primary schools in 2003 and 21 percent pre- 2003. Overall, 77 percent of the cohort sat trained or untrained teachers in secondary the examination in 2003 compared to 70.8 schools. Overseas employment of Jamaican percent in 2002. In the 2003 sitting, some teachers has an impact on the situation, with 46.1 percent of the cohort sat mathematics some 2,000 teachers being employed in the and 55.8 percent sat English Language. This United Kingdom and the United States over low sitting occurred despite the fact that GOJ the past three years. Nonetheless, efforts of the covered the cost of the examination. 39. World Bank. (1998). A Study of Secondary Education in Jamaica: Improving Quality and Expanding Access. World Bank,Washington D.C. 40. See ESSJ, sec. 22.11 for definitions of pre-trained and untrained teachers.The untrained teacher has a Secondary School Certificate only; the pre-trained has a degree but not a teaching certification. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT � OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SITUATION ANALYSIS 19� MOEY&C and the Jamaica Teachers progressively through secondary and junior Association to improve the quality of teachers high schools to a high of 32 percent in all-age seem to be reaping benefits as the number of schools. Boys have the lowest rate of 16.9 trained university graduates in the system percent absence in technical high schools and grew by 16 percent in 2003 (ESSJ, 2003). increases similar to that of girls to a high of 37.1 percent in all-age schools. HIGH RATE OF ABSENTEEISM The major reason students gave for being The system continues to be plagued by an absent from school over the years and in 2002 exceedingly high rate of absenteeism in were “money problems” (JSLC, sec. 3.7), and school. The average daily absence for schools this study echoes that finding. Money in Jamaica is 21.75 percent (ESSJ, sec 22.7). problems occur disproportionately with the The absence rate for primary schools is 19.8 poor, and their access to the system is thus percent, for all-age schools is 25 percent, and similarly skewed. The JSLC reports (2002) for junior high schools is 23.1 percent. Girls that 38.6 percent of the poorest quintile in Girls have a lower have a lower rate of absence than do boys in their survey stayed away from school because rate of absence all schools types. This has been the pattern for of financial hardship, compared to only 6.9 than do boys in all years with limited fluctuations either ways. percent of the wealthiest quintile. schools types. Absenteeism in secondary schools is at an average daily rate of 22.6 percent, with the lowest rate of (15.7%) being for girls in technical high schools. This rate increases A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 20 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FINDINGS� T he findings presented in this section Theintroduction of universal secondary are drawn from the nine focus-group education with the exodus of the Common discussions, the research on gender Entrance Examination and the advent of and education, and the data reviewed. the Grade Six Achievement Test; The Task Force on Additionally, the discussion takes account of Initiation of the Grade Four Literacy Test Education Reform was the findings and recommendations from the to stem the practice of automatically appointed by the Prime TFER. The TFER was appointed by the promoting children with very low literacy Prime Minister of Jamaica in February 2004 Minister of Jamaica in skills to the higher grades; to propose reforms to the Jamaican education February 2004 to system that were consistent with “a vision for of a wider range of technical Provision propose reforms to the the creation of a world-class education system opportunities, especially through the which will generate the human capital and HEART/NTA; Jamaican education produce the skills necessary for the Jamaican system that were Increased partnership with the private citizen to compete in the global economy.” sector, which, according to the TFER, consistent with “a The Task Force completed its report in September 2004 and its findings became resulted in “a capital investment in vision for the creation education worth over 200-billion dollars at available to the public in December 2004. of a world-class replacement value;” The findings are discussed under the broad education system Convergence of the ruling and opposition headings: (i) Positive Accomplishments in the which will generate the parties in the House of Representatives in Education System, (ii) Overall Issues in the human capital and October 2003 in a unanimous System; (iii) Gender-Related Issues in the commitment to increase significantly the produce the skills Teaching and Learning Environment; and (iv) allocations to public education over the necessary for the Effects of Gender Roles on Boys and Girls. next five years; Jamaican citizen to The establishment of a shared Vision for compete in the global POSITIVE Education in Jamaica in 2004 through a ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE economy.” process of nationwide consultation, which EDUCATION SYSTEM states that: Some positive things have taken place in the Jamaican Education System over the decade of “Each learner will maximize his/her the nineties, as enunciated by the education potential in an enriching, learner- and donor/lender focus groups and carried in centered education environment with the report of the TFER. These include: maximum use of learning technologies supported by committed, qualified, Revised curricula and national assessment competent, effective, and professional programs at the primary and secondary educators and staff.” levels of the education system; A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT � OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FINDINGS 21� “The education system will be equitable OVERALL ISSUES and accessible with full attendance to IN THE SYSTEM Grade 11. Accountability, transparency and performance are the hallmarks of a LOW LEVELS OF ACADEMIC system that is excellent, self-sustaining ACHIEVEMENT and resourced and welcomes full The study shows an education system that has stakeholder participation. The system been failing across all groups irrespective of produces full literacy and numeracy, a school type. This is reflected in an globally competitive, quality workforce, unacceptably low level of academic and a disciplined, culturally aware and achievement among both boys and girls at ethical Jamaican citizenry.” various grade levels in all types of schools. The TFER report supports this finding with the The establishment of an all-embracing submission that “…the most pressing issue is Education Goal that promises: “an the chronic underachievement of the system education which facilitates life-long According to the learning and acquisition of social and life in terms of the large number of students performing below their grade level.” In this TFER report, “…the skills for all.” context, the consensus among all concerned is most pressing issue is that the abysmally low level of literacy, which the chronic AT -RISK PROGRAMS persists throughout primary schools and into In addition to the positive happenings noted the secondary levels of the system, is the underachievement above, the principals, teachers, and students number-one issue to be addressed. Describing of the system involved in the New Horizon for Primary this phenomenon, the TFER states: “The fact in terms of the large School and the Uplifting Adolescent Projects that about one in every two primary school number of students had high praise for both. These programs were leavers is considered illiterate is alarming.” designed and developed with the perspective performing below that students and parents were integral to, and their grade level.” WEAKNESSES IN TEACHING key participants in, both the design and OF READING implementation of the programs. These One major issue relating to literacy, which programs were based on the needs of the kept recurring in the teachers’ focus groups whole person: Children were involved in the and in discussions with school principals, is focus and the communication sessions, and that teachers find it difficult to teach reading the students expressed their views on subjects under the new integrated primary school and course content. Counseling and curriculum. Additionally, the schools have relationship building between students and limited facilities/provisions for undertaking adults were key components to the success of remedial reading and have difficulty these programs. In the two at-risks programs convincing the MOEY&C of the need for observed, participants reported that neither additional resources in this respect. boys nor girls were beaten or treated harshly. Key to these programs was a focus on learning rather than teaching. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 22 FINDINGS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM MULTIPLE PROBLEMS IMPACTING masculinized culture all contribute to THE EDUCATION SYSTEM children’s perceptions of themselves, to their Apart from the low literacy levels, the study life prospects and goals, and to sustaining also indicated five major challenges (at item 7 gender inequalities. in the body of the report) that have negative impacts on the education system and compromise both the ability of teachers to GENDER-RELATED ISSUES teach and the potential of boys and girls to IN THE TEACHING AND learn. These include: LEARNING SITUATION Enrollment exceeding school capacity at all INSENSITIVITY IN THE CLASSROOM levels of the system (except for all-age ENVIRONMENT schools) from a low of 23 percent to a high Many of the children, especially those from of 55 percent. A related issue here is the inner-city communities, described a large class sizes, which are much higher humiliating environment in which children The focus group than that of many other countries in the are stigmatized based on the poor, violence- participants—both Caribbean; ridden communities in which they live and on teachers and Verylimited numbers of the eligible cohort their inability to read. They reported insensitive remarks by teachers who delivered educational experts— (34.6% of the terminal grade) being enrolled and achieving in the CXC telling blows to children’s egos and reported that teachers examinations; contributed to their lack of energy and had limited enthusiasm to participate in and attend Extremelylow performance of upgraded understanding, school. secondary schools compared to traditional knowledge, and high schools; training related to LIMITED TEACHER Too many pre-trained or untrained teachers UNDERSTANDING OF boys’ and girls’ in the education system, that is, GENDER ISSUES emotional needs. approximately 13 percent at the primary The study found that teachers had limited and 21 percent at the secondary level; and understanding of the impact of gender dynamics on educational achievement and High rates of absenteeism from school with outcomes. The focus group participants— increasingly higher rates for boys at the both teachers and educational experts— higher levels of the system. reported that teachers had limited understanding, knowledge, and training VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS related to boys’ and girls’ emotional needs. According to feedback from members of the various focus groups, violence in schools and REPRESENTATION OF BOYS households and communities is a serious issue AND GIRLS for education. Educators lamented the many The data shows that, while boys and girls have cases of students carrying weapons to school low achievement and attendance levels, boys either to attack other students or to defend lag behind girls in almost all areas. There is a themselves. They also expressed concern at the very disproportionate representation of boys level of physical attacks of students on compared to girls among children who teachers. They expressed strong concern that perform below grade levels in almost all the pervasiveness of violence in society, the school types and examinations. The exception home, and the media and the overall A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT � OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FINDINGS 23� where boys perform better than girls is at the educational achievement. Some discussants CXC examination in mathematics and science said that girls perform more favorably in and in certain vocational areas. prevailing (traditional) classrooms because they are conditioned to follow directions, sit nicely Girls outstrip boys in school attendance at all in their chairs, and listen to the teachers. Boys, levels of the system, and the presence of boys on the other hand, are expected to misbehave, diminishes disproportionately to that of girls are severely reprimanded and humiliated, skip as children move from primary school to school or drop out completely, and have low higher levels of the system. Given that being self-esteem. present is a pre-requisite to access, boys’ absenteeism places them at a serious disadvantage relative to the benefits of the BOYS education system. The responses from parents and teachers and the children themselves showed clear gender The question was posed to focus groups as to messages and expectations for boys. Overall, The study found that why boys in particular drop out of school. the view was that boys had to be tough, Participant responses included the following: parents, teachers and should have more freedom, and were not shifting households, the challenges in the expected to have high academic achievements. children hold strong, formal education system, literacy problems, traditional, gender- the pull of get-rich-quick images as portrayed The boys themselves internalized and accepted by popular “heroes” and other males in their that certain roles and treatment were in stereotypical ideas of environment. They also pointed to the keeping with them being boys. They the roles, differential expectations and treatment of boys responded to the question of what it meant to responsibilities, and girls in the homes and schools, playing be a boy with answers such as: “being hard choices, and life into stereotypes as described in the following and strong,” “being a hero,” “being tough.” section. In response to poverty-related issues and “having more responsibility.” outcomes for males of lack of school uniforms, books, and the like and females. We will recall that Figueroa indicated in his and in the context of societal expectation that findings that being labeled as “bad” meant males are to be providers/breadwinners, boys negative reinforcement for boys at home and are absent from school or drop-out in search at school, just as being labeled as “tough” of income and employment. meant, “being punished more severely and more often.” EFFECT OF GENDER ROLES Boys in the focus groups reported being on ON BOYS AND GIRLS the receiving end of harsh physical and verbal The study found that parents, teachers and treatment by parents, teachers, and other children hold strong, traditional, gender- adults. A consensus among the focus groups stereotypical ideas of the roles, responsibilities, was that boys were usually punished more choices, and life outcomes for males and often and harder than were girls. However, females. These ideas inform child-rearing boys definitely do not like this part of being a patterns, expectations of and responses to boys boy. According to some of the boys, “teachers and girls in the teaching and learning look down on us and treat us like we are bad.” environment, and become “self-fulfilling From other boys we heard statements like: prophecies” that are reinforced and “teachers make us kneel in the sun” and perpetuated. The concern lies in that these “kneel and get licks.” “Society treats you traditional gender-socialization messages tough like we don’t have emotions,” remarked contribute negatively to boys’ and girls’ a young boy in a rural school. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 24 FINDINGS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM All focus groups, including the boys than the boys by parents and teachers”; and themselves, reported that boys wear the label “girls are not expected to be breadwinners.” of being lazy and not attentive to study. They All focus-group participants reported that girls indicate that this results in low self-esteem, get more encouragement, support, and help low academic achievement, dismal test results, with homework. At first glance, it would seem low literacy levels, being streamed into that conditions for girls were more or less remedial classes, and continuing to fall behind better than for the boys. However, as Figueroa girls academically. suggests, girls are prepared and expected to conform to a culture that restricts them to the GIRLS private sphere. A student focus groups The study also found clear stereotypical reported that girls have significantly more gender socialization patterns and expectations household responsibilities from an early age for females. Study findings correlate positively than do their male counterparts. Further, girls Boys in the focus with Figueroa’s notion of “male privileging” reported being more restricted in their groups reported being where females are seen and treated as “weak, movements than boys are. Also, all girls’ focus on the receiving end of submissive, suited to the private sphere, groups shared the persistent complaint of sensitive, caring, and in need of protection.” male harassment and of not feeling safe on the harsh physical and Gender expectations and roles, echoed streets. Comments included: “girls fit better,” verbal treatment by throughout the focus groups, were expressed “girls are inside cleaning house,” “girls are parents, teachers, and in such messages as: “girls know they are held tight,” “girls are given more special”; “girls have more self-esteem”; “more other adults.A responsibility,” “girls do more homework,” is expected from girls”; “girls take up their and “girls have babies.” consensus among the books”; “girls are dainty”; “girls are sensitive, focus groups was that respectful, and kind”; “girls are treated better boys were usually punished more often and harder than were girls. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT � OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FINDINGS 25� A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS MAINSTREAM GENDER IN USAID STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES T he following recommendations are FOR EDUCATION Mechanisms are needed to mainstream gender specific analysis and interventions into geared toward maximizing resources USAID/Jamaica’s Strategic Objectives to move and avoiding overlap by building on toward addressing the particular concerns of prior and current achievements in Jamaica’s both boys and girls in education. Much concern education sector and creating synergies with is being expressed in various quarters in Jamaica, other efforts in the sector. In this vein, we about the education system in general and male endorse the recommendations of the TFER The findings of this under the headings of Government and underachievement in particular. One possible Management, Curriculum, Teaching and outcome of the discussions is a move towards assessment suggest that Learning Support, Stakeholder Participation, interventions that improve the performance of achieving “best and Finance, along with TFER’s males and ignore the needs of females. The practice” will depend recommendation for the promotion of findings of this assessment suggest that synergies. on a strategy that is achieving “best practice” will depend on a The following specific recommendations strategy that is informed by analyses of, and informed by analyses emerged from the assessment. interventions to meet, the needs of both groups of, and interventions to of learners. USAID/Jamaica should position meet, the needs of both We strongly recommend, based on the findings itself to play of the research, that USAID should continue to boys and girls. a leadership role in addressing boys’ needs, develop and implement programs in the without compromising the educational needs of education sector under SO 4 and with the IRs girls, by recognizing and taking a gender- indicated below, but with adjustments to focus equality approach to its planned interventions. on the specific needs of boys and girls as outlined below. The new strategy should emphasize community partnerships and linkages as well as synergies Strategic Objective 4 (SO 4): Increasing with other strategic interventions. A set of Literacy and Numeracy among Targeted gender-mainstreaming strategies should be Jamaican Youth developed for inclusion in the design of z IR: 1 Improved Quality of Teaching programs in SO 12 of USAID/Jamaica’s new strategy 2005–2009 z IR2: Increased School Attendance (532-012). Moreover, the language and design of the Education Results Framework should z IR3: Improved Management of Schools incorporate a gender-equality perspective. In z IR4.4: Number of NGOs Delivering particular, USAID/Jamaica may wish to Services to At-Risk Youth consider the inclusion of a gender-specific Intermediate Result with supporting A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 27 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS indicators. This would entail including based on traditional gender stereotypes; and objectives, outputs, and activities that focus improve gender relations among students expressly on the promotion of gender equality and enable them to learn and express in the design of USAID/Jamaica’s education themselves in both single-sex and co projects. The design would also present educational settings. appropriate indicators to measure progress and impact in the implementation of these BUILD CAPACITY OF EDUCATORS gender-based activities. TO CREATE CHILD-CENTERED CLASSROOMS DEVELOP AND/OR SUPPORT This study recommends building schools’ IMPLEMENTATION OF GENDER capacity to encourage and implement child- TRAINING MODULES centered classrooms. While too-large class This study found that parents, teachers, sizes often compromise an optimal learning While too-large principals, and students hold traditional views environment, teachers also need help in class sizes often on the roles, expected behaviors, and identifying and implementing strategies to compromise an responsibilities of males and females and that meet students’ needs and enliven the learning these views influence their actions, experience. During this research, the team optimal learning interactions, and relationships in ways that visited schools, such as the St. Peter Claver environment, teachers perpetuate inequitable, gender-specific Primary School, that are working toward this also need help in outcomes. Therefore, a major goal despite difficult social and environmental identifying and recommendation is for an intervention that circumstances. The efforts of such schools can: need to be documented, supported, implementing publicized, and generalized with appropriate Provide information on gender socialization strategies to meet adaptations to suit different contexts. and its impact on males and females and students’ needs and thus increase awareness of gender dynamics enliven the learning among parents, teachers, principals, and EXPAND INTERVENTIONS WITH A experience. students; FOCUS ON LITERACY The USAID/Jamaica-funded project, New Sensitizeparents and educators to the need Horizons for Primary Schools, and the for and strategies to achieve equitable and recently completed DFID-funded Jamaica All- fair treatment of boys and girls in both Age Schools Project, have strong literacy home and school settings; strategies that need to be more widely Provide technical assistance to schools to disseminated among teachers. This study enable them to incorporate gender analysis indicates the critical need to continue the in their School Development Planning focus on improving literacy, with greater process and to develop strategies that emphasis on the early childhood years and address the confidence and self-esteem of primary grades 1 through 4. This focus, both boys and girls and improve their linked to the gender training module, would achievement in traditional and non- emphasize the importance of reading and traditional subjects; and literacy as a life skill for both boys and girls. Given the existing low levels of literacy, Sensitizestudents to gender issues through USAID may wish to support the the schools’ life skills curricula and other recommendation of the TFER for the existing programs; provide students with an implementation of a remedial literacy opportunity to make choices that are not program. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 28 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM BUILD ON SUCCESSFUL SUPPORT PROGRAMS TO AT -RISK PROGRAMS STRENGTHEN STAKEHOLDER The study recommends continuing support INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOLS for at-risk programs. Two programs, the New The MOEY&C has implemented projects Horizons for Primary Schools Project and the aimed at increasing community involvement Uplifting Adolescents Project, have existing in the development of schools, however these mechanisms of counseling, group discussion, projects do not seem to have extended beyond and decision-making. They address the needs the pilot phase despite demonstrated of poor-performing students, youths at risk of effectiveness. USAID should assist the dropping out of school, and others who have MOEY&C to review those models (such as With the publication already dropped out of school. These the SCOPE project, the Adopt-A-School and presentation to programs should incorporate modules for Programme, and the like) with a view to gender equality training, aimed at fostering reintroducing and/or expanding the relevant, the Parliament of the positive and supportive relationships, into successful components throughout the findings and their HIV/AIDS, health and/or family life education system. recommendations of education curricula. the TFER, an SUPPORT GENDER-SENSITIVE important next step SUPPORT NATIONAL FORA CURRICULUM REVIEW/REFORM With the publication and presentation to the The MOEY&C has ongoing programs for will be the facilitation Parliament of the findings and curriculum reform, and the HEART/NTA of public education recommendations of the TFER, an important takes part in strengthening technical high and discussion on the next step will be the facilitation of public school curricula. USAID could add value to education and discussion on the these efforts by providing support for activities recommendations that recommendations that are advocating a radical aimed at achieving gender-balanced curricula, are advocating a overhaul of the system. Gender equity in with strategies for achieving equitable radical overhaul of the education is a necessary and important representation of boys and girls in all areas. system. Gender equity component of such an overhaul. How this is This goal would necessitate targeted outreach to be achieved is a matter of debate currently to students to increase enrollment in non- in education is a in Jamaica, but is not explicitly addressed in traditional courses of study. necessary and the report of the Task Force. USAID could important component therefore make a valuable contribution to the PROMOTE TRANSFORMATIONAL of such an overhaul. national discussion and decision-making by LEADERSHIP TRAINING supporting national fora of stakeholders to: On visits to schools, the researchers observed Become informed about the that a critical factor in the performance of recommendations of the Task Force, and, in principals and teachers was their vision and that context, the analysis, findings, and sense of mission. Collaboration among recommendations of this report; and principals and teachers to create a challenging and supportive learning environment; clear, Discuss,debate, and form understanding fair, and consistently applied rules; and a and consensus on the best strategies for pattern of including all stakeholders— achieving gender equality in education as educators, students, and parents—in the part of the recommended overhaul of the decision-making process and holding them system. accountable for “doing their part” consistently resulted in better student outcomes. This held true even when compared to other schools in A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 29 similar settings with poor outcomes. This need for more male teachers and role models, study recommends transformational they were adamant that their recruitment leadership training—not to be confused with should not be on a basis that creates inequities management training—for principals and in remuneration and other conditions of work other staff members. Research reveals that for male and female teachers. One strategy to effective leadership is key to change and help increase the number of male teachers reform in schools. Further, the far-reaching without compromising equity in the recommendations of the Task Force on profession would be a targeted Education will demand a new, visionary type promotional/publicity campaign highlighting of school leadership to be implemented the benefits of teaching as a career option for successfully. As part of the process of males. USAID should consider hosting transforming leadership and the culture of consultations with the MOEY&C and schools, we recommend giving support to relevant stakeholders to examine the feasibility One strategy to help sustaining and expanding the “Change from of a publicity campaign aimed at sensitizing increase the number Within” Programme so that it has system- males to the impact they could have on wide implementation. children’s future as positive role models. of male teachers Current male teachers could be highlighted without compromising and used as spokespersons. Such a campaign STRENGTHEN OVERALL equity in the TEACHER TRAINING would contribute to a positive step forward in dispelling myths that education is not profession would be a We propose the development and “macho” and may help make schooling more targeted promotional/ strengthening of pre-service and in-service attractive for male learners. training curricula that address child-centered publicity campaign learning environments, teaching of reading in highlighting the the integrated curriculum at the primary level, SUPPORT A NATIONAL benefits of teaching as and gender sensitization. This could be MENTORSHIP FOR STUDENTS achieved in collaboration with activities PROGRAM a career option already underway, for example, with teachers Existing USAID partners, such as Youth for males. participating in the CETT program. In Opportunities Unlimited, have a strong track particular, existing USAID projects should record in the implementation of mentoring integrate gender sensitization training programs. A special thrust to recruit male modules into all teacher-training activities and mentors and to provide both male and female should support the efforts of the Centre for mentors with gender-sensitivity training could Gender and Development Studies, University have positive impacts on boys’ and girls’ self- of West Indies , to develop and implement esteem, motivation, and performance. such modules for use in teachers’ colleges. STRENGTHEN USAID’S SUPPORT MOEY&C EFFORTS EVALUATION PROCEDURES TO RECRUIT AND TRAIN As in the current SO, USAID should MALE TEACHERS continue to focus on developing and To respond directly to the dearth of male strengthening evaluation mechanisms in order teachers and role models across the education to gauge what works and what should be system, we recommend that the MOEY&C improved with respect to gender-related and implement special measures for recruiting other indicators in education. more male teachers. Our field research found that, while female teachers agreed with the A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 30 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FOSTER COLLABORATION at the expense of boys, the findings of this BETWEEN NATIONAL AND study indicate that a high proportion of male COMMUNITY LEVELS and female students fail to meet or exceed Building on existing national networks and academic expectations. In many ways, expertise, opportunities for district- and therefore, the debate about whether boys or community-level educators and administrators girls are most disadvantaged in Jamaican should be created. Further, support for schools masks the reality that most schools collaboration between NGOs and other provide poor education for both. implementers at the community level would These findings beg an immediate response. contribute to building local capacity. USAID/Jamaica can play a key role in helping to redress the negative gender dynamics in CONCLUSION schooling so that boys and girls have equal This study finds that: opportunity to achieve their fullest potential. Gender stereotypes influence teaching The ultimate objective of educational reform The ultimate objective methods, curricular content, and classroom in Jamaica should be to improve the quality of of educational reform interactions among students and between the education system and raise the bar for all students and teachers, and students—to the benefit of all learners, both in Jamaica should be male and female. The findings of this study, to improve the quality Gender dynamics significantly drive and with respect to gender equality in the influence expectations and outcomes for of the education education system in Jamaica, suggest the need boys and girls at home, the school, and the for interventions that can produce a teaching- system and raise the workplace. learning environment that meets the needs of bar for all students— The research reviewed, conducted, and all male and female children, including at-risk to the benefit of all youths. Interventions should also broadly analyzed for this study clearly shows that boys learners, both male will more likely experience educational failure mobilize stakeholders at every level, but especially in the school communities, to build and female. than girls will, but that a significant percentage of girls do not fare much better. a critical mass of support and leadership for Contrary to popular belief that girls succeed change in education. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 31 A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM REFERENCES Bailey, B. (2003). Gender-Sensitive Educational Policy and Dunn, L.(2002). Jamaica Situation of Children in Practice: The Case of Jamaica—Education for All Report. Prostitution: A Rapid Assessment: International Programme International Bureau of Education, United Nations on the Elimination of Child Labour Investigating the Worst Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Forms of Child Labour. International Labour Organization (UNESCO), Geneva, Switzerland. (ILO). Bailey. B. (2000). Issues of Gender and Education in Evans, H. (1999). Gender and Achievement in Secondary Jamaica: What about the Boys? UNESCO, Kingston, Education in Jamaica. Working Paper No. 2, Policy Jamaica. Development Unit Planning Institute of Jamaica. Bailey, B. & Brown, M. (1997). “Reengineering the Evans, H. (2003). Assessment of the Institutional Capacity of Primary Curriculum in Jamaica: Improving the Jamaican Primary Education System. USAID, Effectiveness.” Caribbean Journal of Education 19 Vol. 2: Kingston, Jamaica. 147–161 UWI, Mona. Figueroa, M. (2000). Making Sense of Male Experience: The Barriteau, V. E. (2000). Re-examining Issues of Male Case of Academic Underachievement in the English- Marginalization and Masculinity In the Caribbean: The Speaking Caribbean. IDS Bulletin, Vol. 31, No 2 Need for a New Policy. Working Paper No. 4, Centre for University of East Anglia, UK. Gender and Development Studies, UWI, Mona. Grieshaber, S. (2004). Issues Paper on Inclusion of Gender Bryan, B. & Mitchell, I. (1999). Inter-Agency National Perspectives in Family Education. UNESCO. Centre for Literacy Improvement Initiative. Education Resource Applied Studies in Early Childhood, Queensland Centre, School of Education, UWI, Mona. University of Technology, Victoria Park Road. Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059, Australia. Bryan, B. & Mitchell, I. (1999). Literacy Development in http://www.unescobkk.org/gender/gender/documents/rep Jamaica, Background Paper for Department for ort2004/GenderPerspective.pdf International Development (DFID). School of Education, UWI, Mona. IDS Bulletin. (2000). Masculinities and Development, Politics, Policies and Practice. Vol. 31, No 2. Patrick Caribbean Group for Cooperation in Economic Warwick Co. Ltd., London SEI, UK. Development. (2002). Youth Development in the Caribbean. Discussion Draft Report No. 24163-LAC Insights Education. (2000). “Jamaican Boys Behaving Caribbean Country Management Unit Latin America Badly: Changing Schools to Change Male Behaviour— and the Caribbean Region. The World Bank. Community Development Research,” Insights Education, Issue No. 2. Kingston, Jamaica. Chevannes, B. (1999). What We Sow and What We Reap: Problems in the Cultivation of Male Identity in Jamaica. Jamaica Employers Federation. (1995). Optimizing the Grace Kennedy Foundation Lecture Series. Contribution of Women to the Jamaican Workplace. Report on the Symposium JEF, Kingston. Davis, R. (2004). Task Force on Educational Reform Jamaica. A Transformed Education System. 2004 Report King, R. & Morrissey, M. (1998). Images in Print: Bias Presented to the Most Hon. P. J, Patterson, ON, PC, and Prejudice in Caribbean Textbooks. Institute of Social QC, MP. & Economic Research (ISER), UWI, Mona. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM REFERENCES 33 Kutnick, P., Jules, V & Layne, A. (1997). Gender and Planning Institute of Jamaica, Canadian Development School Achievement in the Caribbean. Department for Agency & United Nations Development Program. International Development Serial # 21. (2000). The Construction of Gender Development Indicators for Jamaica. Planning Institute of Jamaica. Miller, E. (2000). “Retaining Boys in School—Developing a Model of Intervention,” Institute of Education, Vol.3. Planning Institute of Jamaica. (2002). The Jamaican UWI, Mona. Child—A Report of the Social Indicators Monitoring System. Policy Research Unit PIOJ, National Library of Miller, E. (1998). Education Reform in Independent Jamaica. Jamaica: Themes in Education Reform in the Populist Era. UWI, Mona Planning Institute of Jamaica & Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN). (2003). Jamaica Survey of Living Miller, E. (1991). Men at Risk. Jamaica Publishing House, Conditions 2002, PIOJ & STATIN. Kingston Jamaica Planning Institute of Jamaica. (2004). Economic and Social Miller, E. (1986). Marginalization of the Black Jamaican Survey Jamaica 2003, PIOJ. Male. Kingston Publishers, Jamaica Planning Institute of Jamaica. (2004). JA People—Males in Ministry of Education Youth & Culture. (2000). Directory Focus: A Newsletter of the Social & Manpower Division. Vol. of Projects of the Ministry of Education Youth and Culture. 9 No. 1 PIOJ Programming and Evaluation Unit, MOEY&C. United States Agency for International Development Ministry of Education Youth & Culture. (2003). Jamaica (USAID/Jamaica). (1995). Baseline Project for Uplifting Education Statistics 2000–2003 Statistics Section, Adolescents Demographic and Ethnographic Analyses. Planning and Development Division, MOEY&C. USAID/Jamaica. National Centre for Youth Development. (2002). Youth in United States Agency for International Development. Jamaica: Meeting Their DevelopmentNeeds: Focus on Young (2004). Achieving Equality in Education: Situation Adults Program, Pathfinder International. MOEY&C Analysis Identifying and Building Programs to Promote Policy II Project. USAID Programming for Achieving Equally in Basic Noibe, W. & Chu, J., eds. (2004). Adolescent Boys Education. USAID. Exploring Diverse Cultures of Boyhood. New York United States Agency for International Development University Press. (Kingston). Annual Report. Strategic Objective No. 4 Pantin, D. (2000). Revisiting the Challenge of Youth Education Results Framework, pp. 33–40, USAID, Employment in the Caribbean. Revised Study for the Kingston. International Labour Office (ILO), Caribbean Office. World Bank. (1998). A Study of Secondary Education in Parry, O. (2000). Male Underachievement in High School Jamaica: Improving Quality and Expanding Access. World Education in Jamaica, Barbados and St. Vincent and the Bank, Washington D.C. Grenadines. Canoe Press, UWI, Mona. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 34 REFERENCES OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ANNEX I:THE FORMAL PUBLIC EDUCATION SYSTEM IN JAMAICA: ORGANIZATION CHART AGE BY SINGLE YEAR Notes: Classification of level of education provided in each type of institution indicated by number preceding type, using U.N.E.S.C.O’s International Standard Classification of Education (I.S.C.E.D): 0 Pre-primary Education 1 First Stage of Basic Education (Primary) 2 Secondary Stage of Basic Education (Lower Secondary) 3 Upper Secondary Education 4 Post-secondary non-tertiary Education 5 First Stage of Tertiary Education 6 Second Stage of Tertiary Education Source: “Jamaica Education Statistics 2001 – 2002, Annual Statistical Review” Ministry of Education and Culture, Kingston, Jamaica, Page 6. A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ANNEX 1 35 ANNEX II: FLOW CHART OF THE FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM UWI & UTECH PRE-PRIMARY, PRIMARY, SECONDARY,ANDTERTIARY LEVELS Early Childhood Level U.W.I. & Infant, Basic & Kindergarten Tertiary Level UTECH Primary Level C.A.S.E 1 2 3 4 5 6 Primary, All Age, Primary & Jnr High, Preparatory Teachers’ College Secondary Level G.C. Foster C.P.E. & S E. Manley 7 8 9 10 11 ? 12 13 ; C.V. & P.A. Multi-Disciplinary Secondary High Secondary High College Community College 7 8 9 Ο ` Agricultural High Junior High, All Age Primary & Junior High 10 11 12 7 8 11 9 10 Technical High φPrincipal’s Discretion Ο Grade Six Achievement Test (G.S.A.T. 11+) •Grade 9 Achievement Test (G.N.A.T: 13+) / Junior High School Certificate Exam �Common Entrance Examination (C.E.E. 13+) ? G.C.E “O” Level φ Secondary School Certificate (S.S.C) Caribbean Examinations Council (C.X.C) ;G.C.E. “A” Levels / C.A.P.E. `Vocational Examination Free Flow A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 36 ANNEX II OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ANNEX III:EDUCATION SECTOR PROGRAMS (1993–2007) Programs Target Group Focus Funding Level Funding Agency Duration Primary Education Grades 1 to 6 Language Arts Curriculum Improvement Project Primary & All- Age review, National Assessment US$28.0M. NDF, OPEC,USAID, Sept 1993 to (PEIP) schools Programme development, GOJ Sept 1999 Schools Library & Civil Works Income Generating Primary & Income Generation as Project Secondary revolving fund; equipment J$11.0 M MOEY&C Ongoing Schools purchase or refurbishing Technical & Vocational Education Jose Marti Curriculum revision, Improved J$37,940,000 Japan Intern. Corp. May 1997 to & Training Technical High Machinery and equipment for Agency & GOJ June 2002 (5 Rationalization Project (Pilot) practical training Computer years) Aided Design (CAD) Develop profiles for 16 Technical High School Secondary schools Recommend school US$5.6 M MOEY&C and Oct. 1997 To Development Project Schools Grades clusters Optimal mix of HEART/NTA Oct. 2001 (3 10 & 11 vocational subjects per school years) & cost estimates for tools and equipment Child Health TMRU U.W.I. Education & 440 Primary Infusion of healthy living Not known UNICEF Italian 1979 to 1989 Development Project schools Grades 1 lessons in primary school Health Corp. Mother (CHED) to 6 all parishes curriculum & Child Health Ongoing Programme Curriculum development, Reform of Secondary Secondary Teacher Training, Student Education (ROSE) Schools 7-9 Assessment, Civil Works J$38 M World Bank and 1993 to 2000 Project (Refurbish 28 schools, build 3 MOEY&C 10 & 11 Pilot new ones) Guidance and 2001 – 2003 – Counseling, Text Books 2007 provision, Resource and Technology and Evaluation UNESCO, UNICEF & Competency Shelter Primary and All- Remedial work with J$1,510,000 MOEY&C Ongoing Project Age Schools underachievers Integration of Day Nurseries, basic Integration of Early Childhood GOJ, UNICEF & Sept 1997 To Care & Early schools, infant care and Education J$6.8 M Bernard Van Leer 2000 Childhood Education schools & infant Nationwide starting with pilot Foundation departments, in St. Catherine and kindergarten Clarendon Provide computers, internet EDUNET 104 schools of all access and computer literacy J$47 M HEART/NTA August 1997 types training in schools, develop MOEY&C to 1998 intranet linkages A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ANNEX III 37 Programs Target Group Focus Funding Level Funding Agency Duration Family Life Education Curriculum Primary & All- Integrating Health & Family Life in Sept. 1996 To Development Sub- Ages schools the Curriculum US$323,735 USAID & MOEY&C Feb. 1999 Project All children Provide safe, reliable 1997/98 & School Bus Project nationwide transportation for school children J$2.3 M GOJ Ongoing Curriculum development, New Horizon For 72 poor Materials supply, teacher Primary Schools performing training, school management, US$14 M USAID & MOEY&C August 1997 Project Primary schools technology use in school, To May 1995 Parenting Education Teacher training, curriculum Primary Education implementation, materials supply IADB & MOEY&C Dec 2002 to Support Project Primary schools use of technology in school, use March 2006 (PESP) of school administrative software, principals diploma programmed, civil works Enhancement of Basic Training of Early Child hood Caribbean Schools Project Practitioners, parenting US$15.8 M Development Bank & 2002 to 2005 education, teacher certification MOEY&C Improved School Community Jamaica All-Age Primary and All- relations; improved School DFID & MOEY&C School Project Age Schools management, teacher training A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 38 ANNEX III ANNEX IV: GENDER EQUALITY PLANNING MODEL Policies and Gender Quality Education Capacity Procedures Recommendations For All • Collaboration at all Infrastructure levels Communication Tools • Capacity building and Collaboration Resources & • Policy development on Gender Rewards and teacher Gender certification Analysis Public Will & • Database of research Leadership and practice Motivation • A Guiding Manual Outcomes • Gender equality • Literacy for all • Child Centered Environment Implementation Benchmarks of Evaluation of Gender Plan Gender Equality Gender Equality • Capacity Building Modules with discreet • Opportunities • Leadership Training activities or initiatives • Resources • Analysis of Gaps for boys and girls. • Rewards • Baseline Data Facilitated by trained school staff and parents A GENDER ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE JAMAICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ANNEX IV 39 U.S. Agency for International Development 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20523 Tel: (202) 712-0000 Fax: (202) 216-3524 www.usaid.gov