Employment and Training in Tourism in Kenya

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Employment and Training in Tourism in Kenya Powered By Docstoc
					Abstract
Tourism is Kenya's leading
                                           Employment
foreign exchange earner. It
generates significant
government revenues and
contributes to employment.
                                           and Training
This article examines the level
and magnitude of employment
in tourism in Kenya. Further,
                                           in Tourism in
the paper assesses the
relationship between training
and employment in tourism.
With a caveat on the
                                               Kenya
incompleteness of the data,
the results show that
tourism's share of total
employment in Kenya is
rather marginal. Most of the
jobs occupied by Kenyans are
seasonal, rather low paying                                 Isaac Sindiga
and tend to be servile.
Management positions are
foreign-dominated. This is
because most tourism
enterprises in Kenya (hotels,
tour operators and travel          Introduction
agencies) are foreign owned,
controlled or managed. In                 Jafari (1990) noted that tourism means different things to
addition, these international      different people. To governments which create policies and provide
tour operators are paid            enabling environments for conducting the business, tourism means
abroad and retain most of the      employment for the citizens. For the Kenya government, tourism
foreign exchange there. This       means the maximisation and sustenance of high foreign exchange
denies Kenya the full benefits     earnings, tax revenues and creation of employment (Kenya, 1994, p.
of its tourism and curtails the    194). The latter is particularly important not just in terms of the
expansion of employment.           numbers of jobs which are generated but also because of its
Greater Kenyan participation       implications for the socio-economic development of the country and
in the ownership and               hence the well-being of the people. Also, employment is a significant
management of various              factor to focus upon for at least three reasons:
subsectors of tourism could
lead to more income and            1.    employment is a means of participating in ordered economic
expand jobs. However,                    activity with dignity and in a productive way (Kenya, 1986, p.9),
indigenisation must proceed
while maintaining standards        2.    unemployment is a persistent problem in Kenya (Kenya, 1983,
and quality of services. The             1994),
paper argues that this can
only be accomplished through       3.    tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner for the country;
a program of training and                however, little is known about its employment capacity.
extension services. Already,
Kenya has done rather well                This paper examines the level and magnitude of employment in
with middle level training         tourism in Kenya. A second purpose is to assess the relationship
especially for the hotel           between training and employment in tourism. Training is important
subsector. Training for high       because international tourism has become a complex industry
level management of tourism        requiring specialised skills. Whenever the required skills cannot be
enterprises has begun as well.     supplied, the implementation of certain projects become hampered
                                   even in instances where substantial additional employment
                                   opportunities could be generated (Kenya, 1983). Training is the
Isaac Sindiga is Associate         transition between formal education and the needs of occupation and
Professor and Head of Department   employment. It "equips individuals with specific skills, attitudes and
of Tourism at Moi University,      work habits which enhance their productive output and job
Eldoret, Kenya.                    satisfaction" (Kenya, 1983, p. 65).


                                        THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94            45
 Tourism        is    particularly      million in 1972 to K£83 million in   sector have invested in the
 susceptible to the sensitivities       1980, to K£349 million in 1988, to   industry. Available data from a
 and characteristics of the             K£713 million in 1992 (Kenya,        decade ago reflects the varying
 personnel who handle travellers.       1994).                               levels of g overnment invest-
 Indeed, the growth of demand for                                            ment in tourism (Table 1). Most
 tourism itself reflects tastes and     Government revenue fr om             of the investments are made
 trends in personal consumption,        tourism includes customs and         through the Kenya Tourist
 factors which the employees of         excise duties, airport tax, sales    Development        Corporation
 tourism enterprises should be          tax, accommodation tax, training     (KTDC), a quasi-governmental
 sensitised to.                         levy, entry fees to national parks   organisation.      KTDC was
                                        and reserves, concessional or        established in 1965 and makes
 Tourism in the Kenyan                  rental fees paid by game lodges      direct investments by providing
 economy                                and campsites and company            financial support and loans for
                                        taxes (Nyeki, 1992). Employees       projects. The data in Table 1
 Kenya is a popular tourist des-        of tourism enterprises, of course,   may have changed because of on-
 tination and attracts some six per     pay income tax.                      going Kenya government - World
 cent of the overseas visitors to                                            Bank - International Monetary
 the African continent (Kenya,          Given the significance of tourism    Fund efforts at divesting public
 1994). The country, set in the         in foreign exchange earnings,        investments       in    certain
 tropics, offers a reasonably broad     both government and the private      businesses. Nevertheless, the
 tourism product which is more
 d ev el op e d th a n m an y of it s
                                        Table 1: Government Investment in the Tourism Industry, 1982.
 neighbours in eastern and                                                   Proportion of
 southern Africa (Economist                Body                            public ownership       Remarks
 Intelligence Unit, 1991). The                                                 (per cent)
 tourism       infrastructure     is
 relatively well developed.             1.    Bomas of Kenya                     100.0
                                        2.    Kenya National Travel Bureau       100.0
 Of the 500 hotels and resorts          3.    African Tours and Hotels            52.5          KTDC
 listed in Safara magazine's select     4.    Kenya Hotels Properties             53.3          KTDC
                                              (Intercontinental Hotel             10.0          Kenya Airways
 directory of fine hotels covering
                                        5.    Homa Bay Hotel Limited              99.16         KTDC
 45 African countries, 61 (or 12        6.    Mt. Elgon Lodge                     64.3          KTDC
 per cent) were Kenya's hotels          7.    Sunset Hotel, Kisumu                95.49         KTDC
 (1994). This number is a fraction      8.    Meru Mulika Lodge                   91.6          KTDC
 of over 1,200 registered hotels in     9.    Marsabit Lodge                      89.9          KTDC
 the country. Given S a f a r a' s      10.   Tea Hotel, Kericho                  60.0          KTDC
 extensive international brief on       11.   The Ark                             27.14         KTDC
 travel and tourism in Africa, this     12.   Embu Hotels                         38.8          KTDC
 reported enterprise development        13.   International Hotels                33.1          KTDC
                                        14.   Mountain Lodge                      39.7          KTDC
 points to the importance that
                                        15.   Robinson Hotel                      10.10         KTDC
 Kenya attaches to tourism. Some        16.   Safari Lodge Properties             33.3          KTDC
 of the facilities in these hotels      17.   Block Hotels                        31.8          KTDC
 include suites, air conditioning,      18.   South Coast Hotels                   ?            KTDC
 swimming pools, shops and              19.   Mnarani Club                        49.0          KTDC
 sports. The exclusive ones have        20.   Panafric Hotels                     50.0          DFCK
 casino and golf.                                                                 22.73         KTDC
                                        21.   Buffalo Spring Lodge                 7.6          IDB
 Tourism improved as Kenya's            22.   Milimani Hotels                     50.0          KTDC
                                        23.   Lions Hill Camp                     49.0          KTDC
 invisible export and is now the
                                        24.   Pollman's Tours and Safari          49.0          KTDC
 leading foreign exchange earner.       25.   Maralal Safari Lodge                37.0          KTDC
 The increasing prominence of           26.   NAS Airport Services                26.6          ICDC
 tourism in Kenya's economy is          27.   Kulia Investments Company            3.6          ICDC
 related to the increase in the         28.   Tourism Promotion Services          11.9          KTDC
 number of international tourists       29.   KTDC Utalii Investment             100.0          KTDC
 from 65,000 in 1963 to 340,000 in      30.   Zimmermans (Domant)                 51.0          KTDC
 1972, to 800,000 in 1992 (Kenya,       31.   Kenya Safari Lodge                  63.42         KTDC
 1994). The target is to reach one
                                        Key to acronyms
 million tourists by 2000 (Kenya,
                                        DFCK Development Finance Company of Kenya.
 1989). Parallel to this growth in      ICDC Industrial and Commercial Development Corporation.
 tour ist numbers has been the          IDB    Industrial Development Bank.
 increase in foreign exchange           KTDC Kenya Tourist Development Corporation.
 earnings. These grew from K£ 27                                                    Source: Kenya, 1983b, p.97.



46   THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94
data indic ate government              Table 2: Employment in Tourism.
interest in and support for
tourism.                               Year       Number        Source
Employment in tourism
                                       1977        28,000       Bachmann, 1988
                                       1979        32,000       Kenya, 1979
Jobs in tourism are available in       1982        40,000       Kenya, 1983
hotels, restaurants, bars, trans-      1984        45,000       Kenya, 1979
port, tourist offices, tour guiding,   1988       110,000       Economist Intelligence Unit 1991; Sinclair, 1990
game viewing, trophies and
souvenirs and in other services
and recreational activities.
However, tourism indirectly            Table 3: Permanent Employment in Tourism 1977.
supports employment in other
areas such as agriculture, craft       Subsector                                       Number
industry, music industry, the
arts, money and banking, and the       Hotels, lodges, camps                             15,650
construction sector.                   Restaurants (high class)                           2,100
                                       Tour operation                                     1,760
                                       Domestic aviation                                    700
It is difficult to obtain a specific   Car hire                                             400
figure      of    tourism-r elated     Shops                                              3,750
employment in the country.             Marine recreation                                    700
However, some data are available       Ministry of tourism and wildlife                   2,950
indicating direct employment in
tourism over the years (Table 2).                     TOTAL                              28,000
These data may not be com-
                                                                                        Source: Bachmann, 1988, p.186.
parable because not all the sub-
sectors of to urism may be
included in any one year. For
examp le the breakdown per             Table 4: Employment in Tourism 1988.
subsector for 1977 was as shown
on Table 3. This differs some-         Subsector                                       Number
what from the data for 1988,
                                       Accommodation establishments                      67,200
reflecting varying levels of           Tour operators                                    18,000
disaggregation (Table 4). The          Travel agents                                      6,500
categories for data collection         Restaurants, transport, curio shops,
over the years are not identical             entertainments
thereby hindering meaningful           Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife                   6,300
comparisons. It is not clear, for
example, whether the number                           TOTAL                             110,000
o f workers listed in the Ministry
                                       Total wage employment in Kenya                 1,327,000
of Tourism and Wildlife includes
those of the parastatals within        Tourism employment as a percentage
the Ministry, namely, Kenya                  of total wage employment                         8.3
Wildlife Service, Kenya Tourism
Development Corporation, Kenya                    Sources: Sinclair, 1990, p.10; Economist Intelligence Unit, 1991, p.53.
Utalii College, and Catering Levy
Trustees.
                                       Table5: Employment Creation in Kenya.
In order to appreciate the                                      (Thousands of workers)
employment effect of tourism, it                                                       1984            1994a
is estimated that there were
about 136, 180 jobs in tourism in      1.   Labour force                              7,500            10,050
1994. Taking 1984 as the base          2.   Employmentb                               6,520             8.737
year for calculation, the tourism           (a)    Modern wage sector                 1,150             1,541
contribution of 45,000 workers to           (b)    Non-wage agriculture               3,860             5,172
modern wage sector employment               (c)    Rural non-farm                     1,310             1,755
represented only 3.9 per cent (or           (d)    Urban informal sector                200               268
0.6 per cent of the total labour
                                       Notes:
force of 7.5 million) in that year
                                       a. Calculated upon the base of the 1984 figure assuming an annual growth
(Table 5).                                rate of 3.4 per cent (Kenya, 1986:8).
                                       b. This figure includes self employment.
For purpose of computation, a                                                              Source: Kenya, 1986, p.8.



                                              THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94                     47
 growth rate of 3.4 per cent per       Table 6: Licensed Hotels, Lodged and Tented Camps by Area, 1990.
 year of modern wage sector                                                  No. of               No. of
 employment over the period 1984                                         establishments            beds
 to 1994 was assumed following
                                       Nairobi                                 144                   9,703
 Kenya (1986). Thus, in 1994,
                                       Coast                                   288                  18,514
 tourism represented some 8.8 per      National parks and reserves              42                   3,051
 cent of the modern wage sector        Other areas                             249                   7,764
 employment in the country. This       Tented Camps                             22                     853
 is only a small increase from 8.3
 per cent reported for 1988 (Table           TOTAL                             745                  39,885
 4). When all Kenyan workers are
 considered in the calculation,                                                               Source: Sinclair, 1990.
 tourism employment appears
 quite marginal. In this case, only      income effects of tourism are         Employment in the
 about 1.36 per cent of the              rather small in the Malindi           accommodation sector
 country's estimated labour force        area. About 20% to 25% of the
 in Kenya in 1994 was engaged in         population of Malindi Town            Most of the jobs created in
 the tourism sector.                     receives a more or less regular       tourism are in the accom-
                                         income from the tourist               modation sector (Table 4). The
 About a decade ago, it was              industry. In Malindi division         hotels, lodges, camp sites and
 estimated that half of the              some 9% to 10% gets a regular         guest houses tend to be concen-
 contribution of tourism to              income from tourism as does           trated in the Coast and Nairobi
 emp loyment in Kenya was                about 5% of the population in         (Table 6). In fact, the number of
 "through its direct impact on           the whole of Kilifi District          hotel beds at the coast including
 other sectors of the economy"                                     (p.281).    guest houses, apartments, villas,
 (Kenya, 1983, p. 141). However,                                               cot tages and private hou ses
 data on employment and the            This conclusion challenges earlier      may have increased to about
 number of jobs created are            observations that tourism was           21,000 in 1994 (Muthamia, 1994).
 unreliable.       Green (1979)        the most important activity in          This is a response to the demand
 estimated that for East Africa,       Malindi (Martin, 1973, p.248).          of most tourists who come to
 ther e wer e two to three             Thus, tourism has not necessarily       Kenya for holiday tourism on the
 employees per hotel bed; in           led to the economic improve-            beach. In general, Kenya's
 addition, each j ob created in        m e n t of the local people who still   tourism is spatially concentrated
 tourism indirectly generated          suffer high unemployment.               at the Coast, in Nairobi, and in
 another one job in other sectors                                              certain upcountry national parks
 (cited in Bachmann, 1988).            The statistics outlined above           and       national       reserves.
 Earlier, Mitchell (1971) had          mask a number of features               Europeans accounted for 74 per
 estimated that in Kenya each          including wage levels and the           cent of the total bednights in
 new hotel job generated three         quality of employment. Most jobs        1992; and most of them prefer
 additional jobs, namely, 1.3          in tourism are menial and low           holidaying on the coastal
 additional jobs in the tourism        level for unskilled hands. Such         beaches. In fact, some 68.9 per
 sector and 1.7 jobs in agriculture,   are the jobs for labourers,             cent of the total bed o c c u p a n c y
 curio making and trading and so       gardeners, house keepers,               in 1992 was at the Coast (Kenya,
 on (cited in Bachmann, 1988,          porters, drivers and waiters            1993).      In contrast, North
 p.66). For Malindi, Bachmann          (Bachmann, 1988, pp. 66-67); in         Americans go to Nairobi and
 (1988) estimated that to each         contrast, skilled and manage-           upcountry hotels and lodges. The
 hotel job created, 0.6 additional     ment positions tend to be held by       net effect of spatial aggregation is
 jobs were gene rated in the           expatriates. Local people get a         that employment in tourism also
 tourism sector including informal     tiny proportion of the tourism          tends to be regionally concen-
 occupations such as accom-            pie. Many of the low level jobs         trated. This means that the rest
 panying tourists and prostitution.    tend to be servile and hotel            of the country may not enjoy
 Along the coastal beaches,            workers are under pressure to           much in terms of employment
 freelance tour operators, some-       conform to strange attitudes,           opportunities in tourism.
 times called tour guides, beach       prac tices and requirements
 operators or "beach boys" are a       (Bachmann, 1988). Indeed, one           Also, holiday tourism in Kenya is
 permanent presence (Tapeta,           school of thought on global             highly seasonal. Between April
 1994). In addition one job was        tourism in general sees tourism         to June every year, the volume of
 indirectly created in agriculture,    as generating mostly seasonal           tourist flow is very small. This
 trade      and       handicrafts.     and unskilled employment, and           affects accommodation establish-
 Bachmann (1988) concluded that:       that it benefits only tourism           ments as they cannot be utilised
                                       firms      and    transnational         to capacity.       As a result,
     generally, the employment and     corporations (Jafari, 1990).            permanent employment cannot



48    THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94
be guaranteed. This factor alone       generate other jobs in other areas
may discourage employment of           of the economy.
people from distant regions of the
country in favour of local people      Tour operations and travel
who are available to be hired          agencies
when demand exists and be laid
off when they are not required.        This is the second largest area of
                                       employment generation. The
In order to assure permanent           tour operators and travel agents
employment in tourism during           arrange travel, transport and
the off peak seasons, domestic         hotel bookings.       They also
tourism is being encouraged            organise tour packages. They
(Kenya, 1994).        However,         employ tour guides, clerks and
accommodation facilities and           drivers.
other infrastructure need to be
decongested and spread more            Most of Kenya' tourism bookings
evenly across Kenya's territorial      is handled by overseas tour
space. When this is done, several      operators and travel age nts.
multiplier effects includ ing          They market holidays in Kenya
employment will accrue to local        for a commission and seldom
communities (Kenya, 1983).             have direct linkages with Kenyan
                                       tourism enterprises (Sinclair,
The 1970-74 Kenya national             1990). Foreign tour operators
development plan outlined              tend to make block room
policies to develop tourist
attractions in the rural areas
especially in traditional villages      Participation by Kenyans in international tour
and cultural centres (Kenya,            operations is needed, together with more direct
1970). This was followed by the         Government controls, to increase foreign exchange
International Labour Office             retention and boost employment.
report on employment and
incomes in Kenya in 1972.
Although hidden in a footnote,
the report noted that
                                       bookings in advance and obtain
  It may even be worth                 large concessions due to their
  examining the feasibility of         bar gaining power (Sinclair,
  building small to medium-            1990). According to Sinclair
  sized hotels and tourist             (1990) such tour operators "are
  dwelling units, demand for           able to obtain extremely low
  which may grow in future with        prices for accommodation",
  the rise in the number of            sometimes up to 30% less than
  Kenyan tourists.                     the price charged to individual
              (ILO, 1972, p.211)       clients. The reduced prices are
                                       on average between 20% and 50%
This recommendation was                less than the normal prices in
followed roughly two decades           Kenya shillings. The foreign tour
later and could become the basis       operator also takes advantage of
of domestic tourism in Kenya           the depreciation of the Kenya
(UNDP, 1993).         Small and        shilling to pay less. Thus, Kenya
medium sized hotels, in contrast       loses a lot of revenue through
to current tourist establishments      inclusive tours pre-paid to tour
could be competitively priced to       operators overseas (Sinclair,
attract local tourists of all socio-   1990, p.41). Further, a large
economic classes.                      proportion of the money paid
                                       abroad never reaches Kenya
The dispersion of small and            (Sinclair, 1992, p. 557).
medium sized hotels will support
expansion in other sectors of the      The concessions that overseas
economy as well. As shown              tour operators give to their
above, employment in the               clients appear to be costs passed
accommodation sector could             on to the Kenyan taxpayer. In a



                                           THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94   49
 sense, Kenyans subsidise tour            in this sub-sector of tourism will      started in 1969 at the Kenya
 operating companies. Contrary            increase foreign exchange               Polytechnic. Students were
 to the view that government "has         retention within the country and        admitted into a four-year hotel
 paid little attention to the             generate employment as well.            management course.            This
 pr oblem of low earnings per                                                     program was transferred to the
 tourist" (Sinclair, 1992, p.555),        Indigenisation and training             Utalii College on its inception.
 the true position is different.          in tourism
                                                                                  Utalii College has a total capacity
      The fees and taxes levied on        Kenyans are beginning to                of 600 students who take courses
      foreign tourists are heavily        participate in tourism through          leading to certificate or diploma
      subsidised and do not reflect       obtaining some level of ownership       awards. The full time courses
      the true cost to the Kenyan tax     of tourist hotel accommodation;         include hotel management, food
      payer of developing and             however, the management of              production, travel operations and
      preserving tourist attractions.     many tourism enterprises is still       tour guiding (Table 7). So far,
      In 1987 for example, the            in the hands of foreign personnel       KUC has trained over 11,000
      average spending per tourist        and management groups (Kenya,           Kenyans (Kenya, 1994) and
      per day was KShs.630 which is       1989, p.187; Dieke, 1991; Kenya,        several hundred students from 40
      (sic) hardly adequate to sustain    1983). In fact, about 50 per cent       different countries including
      even a local tourist.               of the hotel enterprises are under      Ethiopia, Botswana, Mauritius,
                 (Kenya, 1989, p.187.)    foreign ownership, control and          Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda,
                                          management (Dieke, 1991). As            Nigeria, India, Senegal and
 The government therefore                 already noted above, the                Grenada.
 planned to intensify the control of      indigenisation of tourism
 tour operations, travel agencies         enterprises is expected to trigger      In addition, KUC offers seminars
 and tourism-related enterprises          off higher employment. Thus, to         and refresher courses for workers
 in order to insure inter alia that       proceed with indigenisation while       in the hotel industry (KUC,
 correct levels of earnings are           maintaining hotel standards and         1991). Training expenses at
 realised (Kenya, 1989). Govern-          quality of services there should        Utalii are funded from a 2 per
 ment should now translate its            be a program of training and            cent levy charged on the gross
 policy statements into program-          extension services of people            incomes      of     hotels    and
 matic action in increasing               already serving in the industry         restaurants.       This fund is
 earnings from tourism which will         and those intending to join. It is      administered by the Catering
 in turn lead to higher                   expected that capacity-building         Levy Trustees. These training
 employment.                              through training will lead to the       programs have contributed
                                          expansion of the participation,         significantly to capacity-building
 The Presidential committee on            management and eventual                 in the hotel accommodation
 unemployment, over a decade              ownership of tourism enterprises        sector (Kenya, 1993).
 ago, recognised that international       by Kenyans (Kenya, 1994, p.195).
 tour operators retain foreign                                                    One of the criticisms of the
 exchange from Kenya's tourism            Training institutions                   Kenya Utalii College is that it
 abroad thereby denying the                                                       provides training in tourist hotel
 country the employment oppor-            The Kenya Utalii College (KUC)          management        and    ignores
 tunities which could be generated        was established in 1973 to              manpower in small budget hotels
 by the resources (Kenya, 1983).          provide trained manpower in             (Kenya, 1983, p.145). Yet it is
 The committee argued that                tourism. However, formal hotel          the small and medium sized
 greater participation of Kenyans         and tourism training in Kenya           hotels which offer the greatest
                                                                                  promise       in    employment
                                                                                  expansion. To some extent, KUC
 Table 7: Tourism courses at Kenya Utalii College.
                                                                                  has met with part of this
       Course                            Duration         Award                   challenge by organising short
                                                                                  term courses and seminars to
 1.    Hotel management                  4 years          Diploma                 improve the skills of workers in
 2.    Food production                   2 years          Certificate             the tourist industry.
 3.    Food and beverages serves
        and sales (basic)                1 year           Certificate             For a long time, KUC was the
 4.    Food and beverages service and                                             only institution in the country
        sales (advanced)                 1 year           Certificate
                                                                                  producing manpower for tourism.
 5.    Front office operations           2 years          Certificate
 6.    House-keeping and laundry         2 years          Certificate             Its output did not appear to meet
 7.    Travel operations                 2 years          Associate Diploma       the demands of the industry.
 8.    Tour guide                        2 years          Associate Diploma       This was particularly so because
                                                                                  of the relatively rapid develop-
                                            Source: Kenya Utalii College, 1991.   ment of tourism leading to a



50     THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94
large increase in the number of        market in 1996.         They are     unskilled jobs which            are
overseas visitors to Kenya.            expected to obtain placement in      available only seasonally.
                                       all areas of the tourism industry.
Consequently, in the early 1990s       Their training emphasises            The low level positions occupied
diploma and certificate courses        practical work, fieldwork and        by local people pay very low
were formulated by the Kenya           fi eld att achmen t in keepi ng      wages.       The management
Institute of Education for other       w i th the Moi University mission    positions are usually occupied by
colleges (Kenya, 1991). An early       of producing practical, develop-     expatriates.         Expatriate
starter was the Coast Institute of     ment-conscious, and extension-       executives tend to hire foreign
Technology at V oi.           Other    oriented graduates. This supply      staff ostensibly because of their
institutions will likely follow suit   of highly trained personnel in       belief that a large number of
and establish preservice tourism       tourism will fill management         expatriate staff assures higher
training courses.                      positions in tourism enterprises.    quality service (Dieke, 1993).
                                       Ultimately, expatriate staff will    This view is fallacious; none-
Despite these achievements in          be phased out.                       theless, it is a misperception
training, the graduates of these                                            which denies management jobs
middle level colleges lack skills in   Discussion and conclusion            to indigenous people. Thus,
management especially in                                                    Dieke's (1993) characterisation of
finance and economics. These           This study has shown that            tourism employment in the
graduates tend to have a narrow        touris m is a very important         Gambia: seasonality, low wages
world view, usually restricted to      aspect of the Kenyan economy         and foreign domination applies to
hotel operations. It is in the         especially in terms of government    Kenya.
backdrop of these limitations that     revenues and foreign exchange
Moi University introduced a 4-         earnings.         Tourism also       Part of the reason for foreign
year B.Sc. program in tourism in       contributes to employment.           domination in the management of
1991. This degree course is            Accurate data on tourism's           tourism enterprises in Kenya is
intended to further upgrade            contribution to employment are       lack of skills. Kenya has done
training in tourism in Kenya. It       unavailable. This is because         rather well in producing middle
will equip graduates with              tourism generates many jobs          level     tourism    operatives
appropriate skills to plan, design,    indirectly in other sectors of the   especially in the hotel and
implement and manage touristic         economy such as agriculture,         restaurant sub-sector through
resources in ways that enhance         construction and handicrafts.        training at the Kenya Utalii
sustainability.                        However, the paper has not           College. Utalii is now being
                                       emphasised certain informal          joined in this task by other
The Moi University B.Sc.               activities which are associated      colleges in training for similar
program in tourism aims at             with tourism such as "following      cadres of employment.
producing highly but broadly           the tourists (prostitution,
trained individuals in the             'professional friendship' and        To    provide     higher      level
sciences; planning, management         begging" (Dieke, 1993, p.76).        management skills in tourism,
and     administration;       and                                           Moi University started a B.Sc.
sensitised to the variety of the       On average, tourism's proportion     program. Graduates of this
ecological and cultural habitats of    of employment in Kenya is rather     program, perhaps the only one of
the world, the basis of tourism.       small. It accounts for only 8.8      its kind in eastern Africa, are
The main features of the               per cent of the modern wage          expected to indigenise the
curriculum are exposure to the         sector employment in the             management tourism enter-
basic sciences including ecology       country. However, tourism's          prises.      They will offer
and geography; an additional           proportion of employment is a        competitive skills which will
foreign language; sk ills in           meagre 1.36 per cent of the total    render expatriate managers
computing, quantification and          estimated labour force of some 10    unnecessary. It is also expected
map analysis; tourism studies;         million people in Kenya in 1994.     that these people will utilise their
economics and finance; and                                                  skills in starting and running
management. During the final           A char acteristic of Kenya's         indigenous tour and travel
year of study, students specialise     tourism industry is that it is       operations and agencies thereby
in tourism promotion and at least      spatially concentrated in the        minimising current "leakages" of
one of the following options:          Coast and Nairobi. This means        foreign exchange earnings from
tourism management systems,            that whatever jobs are available     tourism and obtaining the full
hospitality and recreation             in the tourism enterprises are not   payments for Kenya of the
services management, and travel        well spread around the country.      services rendered to tourists.
and transport management.              Consequently, large areas may        Ultimately, employment in
                                       not benefit from employment in       tourism will expand.
The first Moi University tourism       tourism. This is also because
graduates will be in the job           touris m largely generates



                                           THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94               51
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