Tourism is Kenya's leading
foreign exchange earner. It
government revenues and
contributes to employment.
This article examines the level
and magnitude of employment
in tourism in Kenya. Further,
in Tourism in
the paper assesses the
relationship between training
and employment in tourism.
With a caveat on the
incompleteness of the data,
the results show that
tourism's share of total
employment in Kenya is
rather marginal. Most of the
jobs occupied by Kenyans are
seasonal, rather low paying Isaac Sindiga
and tend to be servile.
Management positions are
foreign-dominated. This is
because most tourism
enterprises in Kenya (hotels,
tour operators and travel Introduction
agencies) are foreign owned,
controlled or managed. In Jafari (1990) noted that tourism means different things to
addition, these international different people. To governments which create policies and provide
tour operators are paid enabling environments for conducting the business, tourism means
abroad and retain most of the employment for the citizens. For the Kenya government, tourism
foreign exchange there. This means the maximisation and sustenance of high foreign exchange
denies Kenya the full benefits earnings, tax revenues and creation of employment (Kenya, 1994, p.
of its tourism and curtails the 194). The latter is particularly important not just in terms of the
expansion of employment. numbers of jobs which are generated but also because of its
Greater Kenyan participation implications for the socio-economic development of the country and
in the ownership and hence the well-being of the people. Also, employment is a significant
management of various factor to focus upon for at least three reasons:
subsectors of tourism could
lead to more income and 1. employment is a means of participating in ordered economic
expand jobs. However, activity with dignity and in a productive way (Kenya, 1986, p.9),
indigenisation must proceed
while maintaining standards 2. unemployment is a persistent problem in Kenya (Kenya, 1983,
and quality of services. The 1994),
paper argues that this can
only be accomplished through 3. tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner for the country;
a program of training and however, little is known about its employment capacity.
extension services. Already,
Kenya has done rather well This paper examines the level and magnitude of employment in
with middle level training tourism in Kenya. A second purpose is to assess the relationship
especially for the hotel between training and employment in tourism. Training is important
subsector. Training for high because international tourism has become a complex industry
level management of tourism requiring specialised skills. Whenever the required skills cannot be
enterprises has begun as well. supplied, the implementation of certain projects become hampered
even in instances where substantial additional employment
opportunities could be generated (Kenya, 1983). Training is the
Isaac Sindiga is Associate transition between formal education and the needs of occupation and
Professor and Head of Department employment. It "equips individuals with specific skills, attitudes and
of Tourism at Moi University, work habits which enhance their productive output and job
Eldoret, Kenya. satisfaction" (Kenya, 1983, p. 65).
THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94 45
Tourism is particularly million in 1972 to K£83 million in sector have invested in the
susceptible to the sensitivities 1980, to K£349 million in 1988, to industry. Available data from a
and characteristics of the K£713 million in 1992 (Kenya, decade ago reflects the varying
personnel who handle travellers. 1994). levels of g overnment invest-
Indeed, the growth of demand for ment in tourism (Table 1). Most
tourism itself reflects tastes and Government revenue fr om of the investments are made
trends in personal consumption, tourism includes customs and through the Kenya Tourist
factors which the employees of excise duties, airport tax, sales Development Corporation
tourism enterprises should be tax, accommodation tax, training (KTDC), a quasi-governmental
sensitised to. levy, entry fees to national parks organisation. KTDC was
and reserves, concessional or established in 1965 and makes
Tourism in the Kenyan rental fees paid by game lodges direct investments by providing
economy and campsites and company financial support and loans for
taxes (Nyeki, 1992). Employees projects. The data in Table 1
Kenya is a popular tourist des- of tourism enterprises, of course, may have changed because of on-
tination and attracts some six per pay income tax. going Kenya government - World
cent of the overseas visitors to Bank - International Monetary
the African continent (Kenya, Given the significance of tourism Fund efforts at divesting public
1994). The country, set in the in foreign exchange earnings, investments in certain
tropics, offers a reasonably broad both government and the private businesses. Nevertheless, the
tourism product which is more
d ev el op e d th a n m an y of it s
Table 1: Government Investment in the Tourism Industry, 1982.
neighbours in eastern and Proportion of
southern Africa (Economist Body public ownership Remarks
Intelligence Unit, 1991). The (per cent)
tourism infrastructure is
relatively well developed. 1. Bomas of Kenya 100.0
2. Kenya National Travel Bureau 100.0
Of the 500 hotels and resorts 3. African Tours and Hotels 52.5 KTDC
listed in Safara magazine's select 4. Kenya Hotels Properties 53.3 KTDC
(Intercontinental Hotel 10.0 Kenya Airways
directory of fine hotels covering
5. Homa Bay Hotel Limited 99.16 KTDC
45 African countries, 61 (or 12 6. Mt. Elgon Lodge 64.3 KTDC
per cent) were Kenya's hotels 7. Sunset Hotel, Kisumu 95.49 KTDC
(1994). This number is a fraction 8. Meru Mulika Lodge 91.6 KTDC
of over 1,200 registered hotels in 9. Marsabit Lodge 89.9 KTDC
the country. Given S a f a r a' s 10. Tea Hotel, Kericho 60.0 KTDC
extensive international brief on 11. The Ark 27.14 KTDC
travel and tourism in Africa, this 12. Embu Hotels 38.8 KTDC
reported enterprise development 13. International Hotels 33.1 KTDC
14. Mountain Lodge 39.7 KTDC
points to the importance that
15. Robinson Hotel 10.10 KTDC
Kenya attaches to tourism. Some 16. Safari Lodge Properties 33.3 KTDC
of the facilities in these hotels 17. Block Hotels 31.8 KTDC
include suites, air conditioning, 18. South Coast Hotels ? KTDC
swimming pools, shops and 19. Mnarani Club 49.0 KTDC
sports. The exclusive ones have 20. Panafric Hotels 50.0 DFCK
casino and golf. 22.73 KTDC
21. Buffalo Spring Lodge 7.6 IDB
Tourism improved as Kenya's 22. Milimani Hotels 50.0 KTDC
23. Lions Hill Camp 49.0 KTDC
invisible export and is now the
24. Pollman's Tours and Safari 49.0 KTDC
leading foreign exchange earner. 25. Maralal Safari Lodge 37.0 KTDC
The increasing prominence of 26. NAS Airport Services 26.6 ICDC
tourism in Kenya's economy is 27. Kulia Investments Company 3.6 ICDC
related to the increase in the 28. Tourism Promotion Services 11.9 KTDC
number of international tourists 29. KTDC Utalii Investment 100.0 KTDC
from 65,000 in 1963 to 340,000 in 30. Zimmermans (Domant) 51.0 KTDC
1972, to 800,000 in 1992 (Kenya, 31. Kenya Safari Lodge 63.42 KTDC
1994). The target is to reach one
Key to acronyms
million tourists by 2000 (Kenya,
DFCK Development Finance Company of Kenya.
1989). Parallel to this growth in ICDC Industrial and Commercial Development Corporation.
tour ist numbers has been the IDB Industrial Development Bank.
increase in foreign exchange KTDC Kenya Tourist Development Corporation.
earnings. These grew from K£ 27 Source: Kenya, 1983b, p.97.
46 THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94
data indic ate government Table 2: Employment in Tourism.
interest in and support for
tourism. Year Number Source
Employment in tourism
1977 28,000 Bachmann, 1988
1979 32,000 Kenya, 1979
Jobs in tourism are available in 1982 40,000 Kenya, 1983
hotels, restaurants, bars, trans- 1984 45,000 Kenya, 1979
port, tourist offices, tour guiding, 1988 110,000 Economist Intelligence Unit 1991; Sinclair, 1990
game viewing, trophies and
souvenirs and in other services
and recreational activities.
However, tourism indirectly Table 3: Permanent Employment in Tourism 1977.
supports employment in other
areas such as agriculture, craft Subsector Number
industry, music industry, the
arts, money and banking, and the Hotels, lodges, camps 15,650
construction sector. Restaurants (high class) 2,100
Tour operation 1,760
Domestic aviation 700
It is difficult to obtain a specific Car hire 400
figure of tourism-r elated Shops 3,750
employment in the country. Marine recreation 700
However, some data are available Ministry of tourism and wildlife 2,950
indicating direct employment in
tourism over the years (Table 2). TOTAL 28,000
These data may not be com-
Source: Bachmann, 1988, p.186.
parable because not all the sub-
sectors of to urism may be
included in any one year. For
examp le the breakdown per Table 4: Employment in Tourism 1988.
subsector for 1977 was as shown
on Table 3. This differs some- Subsector Number
what from the data for 1988,
Accommodation establishments 67,200
reflecting varying levels of Tour operators 18,000
disaggregation (Table 4). The Travel agents 6,500
categories for data collection Restaurants, transport, curio shops,
over the years are not identical entertainments
thereby hindering meaningful Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife 6,300
comparisons. It is not clear, for
example, whether the number TOTAL 110,000
o f workers listed in the Ministry
Total wage employment in Kenya 1,327,000
of Tourism and Wildlife includes
those of the parastatals within Tourism employment as a percentage
the Ministry, namely, Kenya of total wage employment 8.3
Wildlife Service, Kenya Tourism
Development Corporation, Kenya Sources: Sinclair, 1990, p.10; Economist Intelligence Unit, 1991, p.53.
Utalii College, and Catering Levy
Table5: Employment Creation in Kenya.
In order to appreciate the (Thousands of workers)
employment effect of tourism, it 1984 1994a
is estimated that there were
about 136, 180 jobs in tourism in 1. Labour force 7,500 10,050
1994. Taking 1984 as the base 2. Employmentb 6,520 8.737
year for calculation, the tourism (a) Modern wage sector 1,150 1,541
contribution of 45,000 workers to (b) Non-wage agriculture 3,860 5,172
modern wage sector employment (c) Rural non-farm 1,310 1,755
represented only 3.9 per cent (or (d) Urban informal sector 200 268
0.6 per cent of the total labour
force of 7.5 million) in that year
a. Calculated upon the base of the 1984 figure assuming an annual growth
(Table 5). rate of 3.4 per cent (Kenya, 1986:8).
b. This figure includes self employment.
For purpose of computation, a Source: Kenya, 1986, p.8.
THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94 47
growth rate of 3.4 per cent per Table 6: Licensed Hotels, Lodged and Tented Camps by Area, 1990.
year of modern wage sector No. of No. of
employment over the period 1984 establishments beds
to 1994 was assumed following
Nairobi 144 9,703
Kenya (1986). Thus, in 1994,
Coast 288 18,514
tourism represented some 8.8 per National parks and reserves 42 3,051
cent of the modern wage sector Other areas 249 7,764
employment in the country. This Tented Camps 22 853
is only a small increase from 8.3
per cent reported for 1988 (Table TOTAL 745 39,885
4). When all Kenyan workers are
considered in the calculation, Source: Sinclair, 1990.
tourism employment appears
quite marginal. In this case, only income effects of tourism are Employment in the
about 1.36 per cent of the rather small in the Malindi accommodation sector
country's estimated labour force area. About 20% to 25% of the
in Kenya in 1994 was engaged in population of Malindi Town Most of the jobs created in
the tourism sector. receives a more or less regular tourism are in the accom-
income from the tourist modation sector (Table 4). The
About a decade ago, it was industry. In Malindi division hotels, lodges, camp sites and
estimated that half of the some 9% to 10% gets a regular guest houses tend to be concen-
contribution of tourism to income from tourism as does trated in the Coast and Nairobi
emp loyment in Kenya was about 5% of the population in (Table 6). In fact, the number of
"through its direct impact on the whole of Kilifi District hotel beds at the coast including
other sectors of the economy" (p.281). guest houses, apartments, villas,
(Kenya, 1983, p. 141). However, cot tages and private hou ses
data on employment and the This conclusion challenges earlier may have increased to about
number of jobs created are observations that tourism was 21,000 in 1994 (Muthamia, 1994).
unreliable. Green (1979) the most important activity in This is a response to the demand
estimated that for East Africa, Malindi (Martin, 1973, p.248). of most tourists who come to
ther e wer e two to three Thus, tourism has not necessarily Kenya for holiday tourism on the
employees per hotel bed; in led to the economic improve- beach. In general, Kenya's
addition, each j ob created in m e n t of the local people who still tourism is spatially concentrated
tourism indirectly generated suffer high unemployment. at the Coast, in Nairobi, and in
another one job in other sectors certain upcountry national parks
(cited in Bachmann, 1988). The statistics outlined above and national reserves.
Earlier, Mitchell (1971) had mask a number of features Europeans accounted for 74 per
estimated that in Kenya each including wage levels and the cent of the total bednights in
new hotel job generated three quality of employment. Most jobs 1992; and most of them prefer
additional jobs, namely, 1.3 in tourism are menial and low holidaying on the coastal
additional jobs in the tourism level for unskilled hands. Such beaches. In fact, some 68.9 per
sector and 1.7 jobs in agriculture, are the jobs for labourers, cent of the total bed o c c u p a n c y
curio making and trading and so gardeners, house keepers, in 1992 was at the Coast (Kenya,
on (cited in Bachmann, 1988, porters, drivers and waiters 1993). In contrast, North
p.66). For Malindi, Bachmann (Bachmann, 1988, pp. 66-67); in Americans go to Nairobi and
(1988) estimated that to each contrast, skilled and manage- upcountry hotels and lodges. The
hotel job created, 0.6 additional ment positions tend to be held by net effect of spatial aggregation is
jobs were gene rated in the expatriates. Local people get a that employment in tourism also
tourism sector including informal tiny proportion of the tourism tends to be regionally concen-
occupations such as accom- pie. Many of the low level jobs trated. This means that the rest
panying tourists and prostitution. tend to be servile and hotel of the country may not enjoy
Along the coastal beaches, workers are under pressure to much in terms of employment
freelance tour operators, some- conform to strange attitudes, opportunities in tourism.
times called tour guides, beach prac tices and requirements
operators or "beach boys" are a (Bachmann, 1988). Indeed, one Also, holiday tourism in Kenya is
permanent presence (Tapeta, school of thought on global highly seasonal. Between April
1994). In addition one job was tourism in general sees tourism to June every year, the volume of
indirectly created in agriculture, as generating mostly seasonal tourist flow is very small. This
trade and handicrafts. and unskilled employment, and affects accommodation establish-
Bachmann (1988) concluded that: that it benefits only tourism ments as they cannot be utilised
firms and transnational to capacity. As a result,
generally, the employment and corporations (Jafari, 1990). permanent employment cannot
48 THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94
be guaranteed. This factor alone generate other jobs in other areas
may discourage employment of of the economy.
people from distant regions of the
country in favour of local people Tour operations and travel
who are available to be hired agencies
when demand exists and be laid
off when they are not required. This is the second largest area of
employment generation. The
In order to assure permanent tour operators and travel agents
employment in tourism during arrange travel, transport and
the off peak seasons, domestic hotel bookings. They also
tourism is being encouraged organise tour packages. They
(Kenya, 1994). However, employ tour guides, clerks and
accommodation facilities and drivers.
other infrastructure need to be
decongested and spread more Most of Kenya' tourism bookings
evenly across Kenya's territorial is handled by overseas tour
space. When this is done, several operators and travel age nts.
multiplier effects includ ing They market holidays in Kenya
employment will accrue to local for a commission and seldom
communities (Kenya, 1983). have direct linkages with Kenyan
tourism enterprises (Sinclair,
The 1970-74 Kenya national 1990). Foreign tour operators
development plan outlined tend to make block room
policies to develop tourist
attractions in the rural areas
especially in traditional villages Participation by Kenyans in international tour
and cultural centres (Kenya, operations is needed, together with more direct
1970). This was followed by the Government controls, to increase foreign exchange
International Labour Office retention and boost employment.
report on employment and
incomes in Kenya in 1972.
Although hidden in a footnote,
the report noted that
bookings in advance and obtain
It may even be worth large concessions due to their
examining the feasibility of bar gaining power (Sinclair,
building small to medium- 1990). According to Sinclair
sized hotels and tourist (1990) such tour operators "are
dwelling units, demand for able to obtain extremely low
which may grow in future with prices for accommodation",
the rise in the number of sometimes up to 30% less than
Kenyan tourists. the price charged to individual
(ILO, 1972, p.211) clients. The reduced prices are
on average between 20% and 50%
This recommendation was less than the normal prices in
followed roughly two decades Kenya shillings. The foreign tour
later and could become the basis operator also takes advantage of
of domestic tourism in Kenya the depreciation of the Kenya
(UNDP, 1993). Small and shilling to pay less. Thus, Kenya
medium sized hotels, in contrast loses a lot of revenue through
to current tourist establishments inclusive tours pre-paid to tour
could be competitively priced to operators overseas (Sinclair,
attract local tourists of all socio- 1990, p.41). Further, a large
economic classes. proportion of the money paid
abroad never reaches Kenya
The dispersion of small and (Sinclair, 1992, p. 557).
medium sized hotels will support
expansion in other sectors of the The concessions that overseas
economy as well. As shown tour operators give to their
above, employment in the clients appear to be costs passed
accommodation sector could on to the Kenyan taxpayer. In a
THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94 49
sense, Kenyans subsidise tour in this sub-sector of tourism will started in 1969 at the Kenya
operating companies. Contrary increase foreign exchange Polytechnic. Students were
to the view that government "has retention within the country and admitted into a four-year hotel
paid little attention to the generate employment as well. management course. This
pr oblem of low earnings per program was transferred to the
tourist" (Sinclair, 1992, p.555), Indigenisation and training Utalii College on its inception.
the true position is different. in tourism
Utalii College has a total capacity
The fees and taxes levied on Kenyans are beginning to of 600 students who take courses
foreign tourists are heavily participate in tourism through leading to certificate or diploma
subsidised and do not reflect obtaining some level of ownership awards. The full time courses
the true cost to the Kenyan tax of tourist hotel accommodation; include hotel management, food
payer of developing and however, the management of production, travel operations and
preserving tourist attractions. many tourism enterprises is still tour guiding (Table 7). So far,
In 1987 for example, the in the hands of foreign personnel KUC has trained over 11,000
average spending per tourist and management groups (Kenya, Kenyans (Kenya, 1994) and
per day was KShs.630 which is 1989, p.187; Dieke, 1991; Kenya, several hundred students from 40
(sic) hardly adequate to sustain 1983). In fact, about 50 per cent different countries including
even a local tourist. of the hotel enterprises are under Ethiopia, Botswana, Mauritius,
(Kenya, 1989, p.187.) foreign ownership, control and Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda,
management (Dieke, 1991). As Nigeria, India, Senegal and
The government therefore already noted above, the Grenada.
planned to intensify the control of indigenisation of tourism
tour operations, travel agencies enterprises is expected to trigger In addition, KUC offers seminars
and tourism-related enterprises off higher employment. Thus, to and refresher courses for workers
in order to insure inter alia that proceed with indigenisation while in the hotel industry (KUC,
correct levels of earnings are maintaining hotel standards and 1991). Training expenses at
realised (Kenya, 1989). Govern- quality of services there should Utalii are funded from a 2 per
ment should now translate its be a program of training and cent levy charged on the gross
policy statements into program- extension services of people incomes of hotels and
matic action in increasing already serving in the industry restaurants. This fund is
earnings from tourism which will and those intending to join. It is administered by the Catering
in turn lead to higher expected that capacity-building Levy Trustees. These training
employment. through training will lead to the programs have contributed
expansion of the participation, significantly to capacity-building
The Presidential committee on management and eventual in the hotel accommodation
unemployment, over a decade ownership of tourism enterprises sector (Kenya, 1993).
ago, recognised that international by Kenyans (Kenya, 1994, p.195).
tour operators retain foreign One of the criticisms of the
exchange from Kenya's tourism Training institutions Kenya Utalii College is that it
abroad thereby denying the provides training in tourist hotel
country the employment oppor- The Kenya Utalii College (KUC) management and ignores
tunities which could be generated was established in 1973 to manpower in small budget hotels
by the resources (Kenya, 1983). provide trained manpower in (Kenya, 1983, p.145). Yet it is
The committee argued that tourism. However, formal hotel the small and medium sized
greater participation of Kenyans and tourism training in Kenya hotels which offer the greatest
promise in employment
expansion. To some extent, KUC
Table 7: Tourism courses at Kenya Utalii College.
has met with part of this
Course Duration Award challenge by organising short
term courses and seminars to
1. Hotel management 4 years Diploma improve the skills of workers in
2. Food production 2 years Certificate the tourist industry.
3. Food and beverages serves
and sales (basic) 1 year Certificate For a long time, KUC was the
4. Food and beverages service and only institution in the country
sales (advanced) 1 year Certificate
producing manpower for tourism.
5. Front office operations 2 years Certificate
6. House-keeping and laundry 2 years Certificate Its output did not appear to meet
7. Travel operations 2 years Associate Diploma the demands of the industry.
8. Tour guide 2 years Associate Diploma This was particularly so because
of the relatively rapid develop-
Source: Kenya Utalii College, 1991. ment of tourism leading to a
50 THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94
large increase in the number of market in 1996. They are unskilled jobs which are
overseas visitors to Kenya. expected to obtain placement in available only seasonally.
all areas of the tourism industry.
Consequently, in the early 1990s Their training emphasises The low level positions occupied
diploma and certificate courses practical work, fieldwork and by local people pay very low
were formulated by the Kenya fi eld att achmen t in keepi ng wages. The management
Institute of Education for other w i th the Moi University mission positions are usually occupied by
colleges (Kenya, 1991). An early of producing practical, develop- expatriates. Expatriate
starter was the Coast Institute of ment-conscious, and extension- executives tend to hire foreign
Technology at V oi. Other oriented graduates. This supply staff ostensibly because of their
institutions will likely follow suit of highly trained personnel in belief that a large number of
and establish preservice tourism tourism will fill management expatriate staff assures higher
training courses. positions in tourism enterprises. quality service (Dieke, 1993).
Ultimately, expatriate staff will This view is fallacious; none-
Despite these achievements in be phased out. theless, it is a misperception
training, the graduates of these which denies management jobs
middle level colleges lack skills in Discussion and conclusion to indigenous people. Thus,
management especially in Dieke's (1993) characterisation of
finance and economics. These This study has shown that tourism employment in the
graduates tend to have a narrow touris m is a very important Gambia: seasonality, low wages
world view, usually restricted to aspect of the Kenyan economy and foreign domination applies to
hotel operations. It is in the especially in terms of government Kenya.
backdrop of these limitations that revenues and foreign exchange
Moi University introduced a 4- earnings. Tourism also Part of the reason for foreign
year B.Sc. program in tourism in contributes to employment. domination in the management of
1991. This degree course is Accurate data on tourism's tourism enterprises in Kenya is
intended to further upgrade contribution to employment are lack of skills. Kenya has done
training in tourism in Kenya. It unavailable. This is because rather well in producing middle
will equip graduates with tourism generates many jobs level tourism operatives
appropriate skills to plan, design, indirectly in other sectors of the especially in the hotel and
implement and manage touristic economy such as agriculture, restaurant sub-sector through
resources in ways that enhance construction and handicrafts. training at the Kenya Utalii
sustainability. However, the paper has not College. Utalii is now being
emphasised certain informal joined in this task by other
The Moi University B.Sc. activities which are associated colleges in training for similar
program in tourism aims at with tourism such as "following cadres of employment.
producing highly but broadly the tourists (prostitution,
trained individuals in the 'professional friendship' and To provide higher level
sciences; planning, management begging" (Dieke, 1993, p.76). management skills in tourism,
and administration; and Moi University started a B.Sc.
sensitised to the variety of the On average, tourism's proportion program. Graduates of this
ecological and cultural habitats of of employment in Kenya is rather program, perhaps the only one of
the world, the basis of tourism. small. It accounts for only 8.8 its kind in eastern Africa, are
The main features of the per cent of the modern wage expected to indigenise the
curriculum are exposure to the sector employment in the management tourism enter-
basic sciences including ecology country. However, tourism's prises. They will offer
and geography; an additional proportion of employment is a competitive skills which will
foreign language; sk ills in meagre 1.36 per cent of the total render expatriate managers
computing, quantification and estimated labour force of some 10 unnecessary. It is also expected
map analysis; tourism studies; million people in Kenya in 1994. that these people will utilise their
economics and finance; and skills in starting and running
management. During the final A char acteristic of Kenya's indigenous tour and travel
year of study, students specialise tourism industry is that it is operations and agencies thereby
in tourism promotion and at least spatially concentrated in the minimising current "leakages" of
one of the following options: Coast and Nairobi. This means foreign exchange earnings from
tourism management systems, that whatever jobs are available tourism and obtaining the full
hospitality and recreation in the tourism enterprises are not payments for Kenya of the
services management, and travel well spread around the country. services rendered to tourists.
and transport management. Consequently, large areas may Ultimately, employment in
not benefit from employment in tourism will expand.
The first Moi University tourism tourism. This is also because
graduates will be in the job touris m largely generates
THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94 51
Bachman, P. (1988). Tourism in Kenya: A basic need for whom?
Berne: Peter Lang.
Dieke, P.U.C. (1991). Policies for tourism development in Kenya.
Annals of Tourism Research, 9, 69-90.
Dieke, P.U.C. (1993). Tourism policy and employment in the Gambia.
Employee Relations, 15(2), 71-80.
Economist Intelligence Unit. (1991). Kenya. EIU International
Tourism Reports, 2, 49-67.
International Labour Office (ILO). (1972). Employment, incomes and
equality: A strategy for increasing productive employment in
Kenya. Geneva: ILO.
Jafari, J. (1990). Research and scholarship: The basis of tourism
education. Journal of Tourism Studies, 1(1), 33-41.
Kenya, Republic of (1970). Development plan 1970-1974. Nairobi:
Kenya, Republic of (1979). Development plan for the period 1979 to
1983 Part one. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kenya, Republic of (1983). Report of the Presidential Committee on
Unemployment 1982/83 (Chairman: Maina Wanjigi). Nairobi:
Kenya, Republic of (1983b). Working party on government
expenditures: Report and recommendations of the working party
(Chairman: Philip Ndegwa). Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kenya, Republic of (1986). Economic management for renewed
growth: Sessional paper No. 1. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kenya, Republic of (1989). National development plan for the period
1989 to 1993. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kenya, Republic of (1991). Technical education programmes:
Tourism management course, syllabi and regulations draft.
Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Education.
Kenya, Republic of (1993). Economic survey 1993. N a i r o b i :
Kenya, Republic of (1994). National development plan for the period
1994 to 1996. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kenya Utalii College (KUC). (1991). General information on Kenya
Utalii College. Nairobi: KUC.
Martin, E.B. (1973). The history of Malindi: A geographical analysis
of an east African coastal town from the Portuguese period to the
present. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.
Muthamia, J.M. (1994). Hotel infrastructure for tourists in Kenya.
Paper presented at Workshop on Tourism and Environment in
Kenya, May 2-5, Kakamega (Golf Hotel): Moi University.
Nyeki, D.M. (1992). Wildlife conservation and tourism in Kenya.
Nairobi: Jacaranda Designs.
Safara. (1994). Safara magazine select directory of 500 fine African
hotels and resorts. Safara: Review of Leisure and Business in
Africa (January-March), 46-55.
Sinclair, M.T. (1990). Tourism development in Kenya. Nairobi: World
Sinclair, M.T. (1992). Tour operators and policies in Kenya. Annals
of Tourism Research, 19, 555-561.
Tapata, B.B. (1994). The objectives, accomplishments and
constraints of the Beach Boys Association. Paper presented at
Workshop on Tourism and Environment in Kenya, May 2-5,
Kakamega (Golf Hotel): Moi University.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (1993). National
Tourism Development Planning Programme for Kenya.
Nairobi: UNDP and World Tourism Organization.
52 THE JOURNAL OF TOURISM STUDIES Vol. 5, No. 2, DEC.'94