"How We Learn"
How We Learn 5% Lecture 10% Reading 20% Audio-Visual 30% Demonstration 50% Discussion Group 75% Practice by Doing 90% Teach Others Student Centered Learning Strategies • Case studies • Debates • Problem-based assignments • Simulations • Concept mapping • Games • Writing • Role playing • Brainstorming • Story telling • Peer teaching Get their attention! • Learn students names, even if you have to use tent cards. • Ask students to refer to each other by name. • Use icebreakers or team building activities. • Begin the class with an activity: a writing , quote, poem, puzzle, silly or serious quiz or song. • Call on students. Don’t wait for volunteers. • Use examples, language, metaphors that they can relate to. • Show enthusiasm for the subject. • Teach in chunks. Intersperse the lecture/presentation with questions, activity, games. • When showing a graph, chart, maps, etc., ask students what they see before telling them what is there. • Recognize effort. Everyone likes positive feedback. “Great question, Erin.” “Terry, thanks for that comment.” Silent Start Objective: Apply critical thinking skills and prepare for discussion. Materials: Paper, pen • Start the class with a brief writing assignment by putting 2-3 questions on the board. • Give students 5 minutes to write responses. • Group students in pairs or triads for discussion. Allow 6-8 minutes. • Facilitate discussion. Compare and contrast responses. Summarize and bring to closure. Examples: - In what ways have RIT faculty and students influenced the growth and development of Upstate New York? - What is feminism? Are you a feminist? Why/why not? - Why is understanding our mental models important? Silent Dialogue Objective: Apply critical thinking skills, practice writing, dialogue. Materials: A “dialogue notebook” (spiral bound or journal) • This exercise is initiated by a question(s) you pose to students at the conclusion of a class. The question should be tied in with the class content you have recently covered and/or assigned readings. Advise students that what they write will be read by another student. • At the beginning of the next class, pair them up and tell them this is a silent exercise. They cannot talk with their partner. • Partners are to exchange papers, read the answer. Then they are to write one question on the partner’s paper to clarify understanding or provoke deeper understanding of the topic. • Exchange papers, read the question and write an answer. Exchange. • Depending on the time you intend to allocate for this activity, students could l exchange several questions and answers. Traffic Light for a lecture-type class At the beginning of the semester, or class, distribute three cards…one green, one yellow, one red. Instructs students to: • Keep the green card visible if you are following what is being communicated by the professor or a fellow student. • Display the yellow card if you are confused, getting lost. • Flash the red card if you are disagreeing with or objecting to what is being said. Traffic Light Objective: Assess progress/understanding Regularly or periodically, assess what is “working” for students in terms of active learning. Use an assessment sheet, like the one below, or post one on a flip chart size for students to write on. What we need to STOP What we need to KEEP What we need to START doing: doing: doing: In and Out Objective: Stay focused Research indicates that most they people are only fully engaged for the first 18-30 seconds someone is speaking to them before they begin to have distracting thoughts. It is suggested that if people “process” the distracting, or "out" thought, they can quickly come back “in”. Suggest to students that they keep two columns going in their note taking. The “in” thoughts are concepts, ideas, information that is important. Any "out" thoughts can be written down in the "out" column. Once a student acknowledges "out" thoughts she can leave them because she knows they are written down and can go back to them later. This technique can be helpful when trying to get students to focus attention on their "in" thoughts and dispense "out" thoughts. In Out Beginnings of RIT 1829 – Nathaniel Rochester – call Dana Athenaeum. Started as a reading society; $5. To attend lecture. Brought in Emerson, Holmes,…. Meet Erin Mechanics Institute 1885 - businessmen developed as free evening school for industrial trades, i.e., drawing. Store: Chicken Mechanics Institute merged in 1891 with Rochester soda Athenaeum to form the Rochester Athenaeum and Mechanics Institute (RAMI). Post Note Objective: Provide opportunity for students to post questions to instructor or the class or communicate an idea or concern Materials: Sticky notes • Communicate to students that their comments, questions, concerns are important to you. They may think of questions or concerns before or after class. Suggest they capture those questions/ideas on a sticky note and post it in a designated area. • Supply sticky notes or have students bring their own. • Designate a place in the room for students to post notes. This may be a section of the blackboard, part of a wall, inside the door. • Advise students to post notes before class or during break (if a lengthy class). • Address content of sticky notes at the same time, i.e., end of class, one day a week. Concept Maps Objective: To create a visual representation of structures and relationships Materials: Paper, pen, pencils. Can be created with concept mapping software. Begin your class inviting students to take notes using the concept mapping technique. Stop the presentation from time to time and ask students to spend 5 minutes collaboratively drawing a concept map of the topics covered so far. Continue with your presentation and repeat the concept- mapping interludes. Use maps for: • Presentation • Creative writing • Note taking • Summarize reading • Creating an outline • Planning • Essay/paper writing • Organizing RIT HISTORY Named RIT 1944 Concept map Use for lecture presentation / note taking Concept map of student’s knowledge Use for review and study relationships Concept map – two approaches How to do a Map “Concept-Mapping" is a typically a non-linear tool used for thinking and learning. However, it can be created in a linear fashion. The following guidelines are offered for ease of creating a map. However, don’t get locked into “rules” that hinder learning. • Use unlined paper, if possible, to support the non-linear process of mapping. If you must use lined paper, turn it so the lines are vertical. • Color coding may be helpful. Use colored pencils, ink or highlighters. • Begin with the main idea in the middle of the page. This may be a word, a phrase, a symbol, or a drawing. • Each new concept, theory, or idea is placed on a “spoke” or “branch” that stems from the main idea. • A concept may “branch” several times to include closely related information. • If several branches are closely related, group them together by drawing a circle around them. • Connect all words, phrases, pictures or lists with lines, to the center (main idea) or to other "branches." • Create the map without concern over where things should go. Analyzing and ordering are linear activities that may hinder the Mapping process. • Write down everything you can think of without editing. Partner Progress Objective: Compare information and share ideas. • Depending on the nature and time frame of the class, ask students to turn to one another and compare notes or exchange any questions or concerns about the class content. • Give them 3-5 minutes. • After this activity ask what they learned about the content or another person’s perspective. • Ask what questions they have as a result of the partner exchange. Types of Questioning Use a variety of question types. Teach toward the type of questions you want students to ask. Convergent thinking represents analysis and integration of remembered or given information. How, Why, In what ways…. “What countries were involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis?” Divergent thinking brings out interpretation or explanation. If, then…Suppose, “What are some local effects of the Enron scandal?” Evaluative questions deal with values, judgment, and choice. Justify, Defend, What do you think… “Should capital punishment be abolished?” Open-ended questions encourage involvement. “How would you research this problem?” Closed-ended questions usually ask for answers requiring simple recall or memorization. “What are the three principles of….?” Blooms Taxonomy: Levels of Questioning Benjamin Bloom created a taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize teaching and test questions. Lower level questions are those at the knowledge, comprehension, and simple application levels of the taxonomy. Higher-level questions are those requiring complex application: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation skills. If you want to develop higher order thinking, ask higher order questions. KNOWLEDGE - Recall; verbatim information; memorization with no evidence of understanding. • remembering; • memorizing; • recognizing; • recalling identification and • recall of information • Who, what, when, where, how ...? • Describe COMPREHENSION – Restatement in your own words; summarize. • translating from one medium to another; • describing in one's own words; • organization and selection of facts and ideas • Retell... APPLICATION - Use of information to solve problems; transfer of abstract or theoretical ideas to practical situations. • problem solving; • applying information to produce some result; • use of facts, rules and principles • How is...an example of...? • How is...related to...? • Why is...significant? ANALYSIS – Identification of component parts; determination of arrangement, logic, semantics. • subdividing something to show how it is put together; • finding the underlying structure of a communication; • identifying motives; • separation of a whole into component parts • What are the parts or features of...? • Classify...according to... • Outline/diagram... • How does...compare/contrast with...? • What evidence can you list for...? SYNTHESIS – Combining information to form a unique product; requires creativity and originality. • creating a unique, original product that may be in verbal form or may be a physical object; • combination of ideas to form a new whole • What would you predict/infer from...? • What ideas can you add to...? • How would you create/design a new...? • What might happen if you combined...? • What solutions would you suggest for...? EVALUATION – Judgment; the ability to make decisions and support views; requires understanding of values. • making value decisions about issues; • resolving controversies or differences of opinion; • development of opinions, judgments or decisions • Do you agree...? • What do you think about...? • What is the most important...? • Place the following in order of priority... • How would you decide about...? • What criteria would you use to assess...? Jeopardy Objective: Review, work in teams, and have fun. At the beginning of the semester advise students that you will be playing Jeopardy as review for mid-term or final exams. Each student is to submit 1 question in each pre-determined category. Award students points for each submitted. , i.e., 5 or 1 pt. These points will accumulate toward the final grade. RIT History RIT Facts RIT Photography RIT Art 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 40 60 60 60 60 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 Jeopardy Directions Assign students into two teams. 1. Teams select a name and someone whose responsibility it is to reveal the answers that the team agrees upon. 2. Advise students that if any team member calls out an answer without the team consensus, this will be considered the team’s answer, whether it is correct or incorrect. 3. You, the instructor, will keep score. Record scores on a flipchart or chalk board. 4. Roll dice or flip a coin to determine which team goes first. 5. The first team chooses a category and a point value. (For example, in the sample above the choice might be “RIT Art” 40 Points.”) 6. After the team decides on the category and point value, read a question from the category. Students discuss and decide on an answer. 7. The team captain calls out the answer for the team. 8. If correct, the team wins the appropriate points. (In this case, they will get 40 points.) 9. If this team did not correctly answer the question, the other team has the opportunity to answer the same question. Or the other team may choose a different category and point value. Pair Share Objective: To stimulate short discussion between pairs of students. Materials: Class notes, paper, pen • Stop the presentation and give the students a question. • Students each formulate an answer. Give them 3-5 minutes. • Students share answers with partner. • Partner listens to answer. • Switch. • Create a new answer synthesizing both perspectives. • Call on students to read the “new” question. Role Play the Concepts Objective: To strengthen learning by acting out the concept Physically acting out a concept may be a more effective and engaging for students than simply reading or hearing about the concept. The example below was used in a research methods class. It can be adapted to many different concepts and learning environments. Learning objective: Distinguish between independent and dependent variables. Identify possible antecedent and intervening variables. 1) Have the entire class stand in a group. 2) Pose the following research question: What is the correlation between sex of the driver and being stopped for speeding? 3) Advise the students to first identify the independent variable (sex of the driver), the attributes of that variable (male/female), and the dependent variable (stopped for speeding). 4) Next, tell the students that they need to actually show how we would research this by moving around the room. Ask, “What would you do first?” Here the students need to divide into the two attributes, male and female. 5) State, “Now that you are in two groups, what is the question?” ( Who has been stopped for speeding?) 6) This activity can go on as you ask students to identify possible antecedent and intervening variables. 7) Ask if correlation implies causation. Props Objective: Learn an abstract with a tangible Materials: Miscellaneous props • Roll dice or flip a coin to teach probability. Have students work in pairs or small groups with dice to experience this first-hand. • Use candy to show measures of central tendency. Jelly beans or M&M’s work well with this activity. Give pairs or groups of students candy and “data.” They are to use the candy to depict a bar chart, histogram, polygon, etc. You may make this competitive. • A human histogram or scatter gram can be created by asking students to position themselves in the room as if each person was data. Problem based learning Objectives: To promote higher-order thinking, problem-solving, communication and critical analysis- Apply “real world” problems to acquire and integrate knowledge, or use hypothetical problems. • Precede assignment with discussion on group dynamics and group roles: facilitator, recorder, etc. • Identify and assign actual or hypothetical problems. • Establish guidelines and a timeframe to solve the problem. • Schedule presentation of “team” solutions. • Ask class to discuss and evaluate effectiveness of each solution. Interval Quiz Objective: To assess learning at intervals in the class period Materials: Paper and pen Interval Quiz involves alternating lecture/presentation with quizzes. You may create the quizzes or students may learn more if they create the quizzes. Set a period of time to lecture, say 8-12 minutes, (set a timer if you need to). Then stop the lecture. • Instruct students to group together into teams of 3-5 people (depending on size of class). Next, ask them to select a representative who will later share with the entire class. • The task is to compare their notes and come up with three substantial questions based on what they heard in this portion of the lecture. Advise them of the amount of time for this activity, say 7 minutes. They will need to get right to work on to task and not be chatting. • When the activity time has elapsed, select one team at random and invite the representative to read a question and to select an individual member of any other team to answer it. Continue to do this until all teams have posed a question. • Consider using some of the questions for review or on an exam. Summary Swap Objective: Summarize a segment of content and identify key learning points. Materials: Index cards or student’s paper • After a period of time, roughly 10 minutes, in class or lab, ask students to summarize the key learnings from that segment of the class. • On an index card, or sheet of paper, they are to put their name at the top. Use only one side to record the summary. About 2 minutes for this. • Ask everyone to stand up and exchange the card with someone. The person who received the card will read it over and add anything they think is important that the card “owner” may have left out. • Exchange cards 2-3 times with different students. • Direct everyone to return the card to the “owner.” • Ask for a volunteer to read their summary and what was added to the card. • The cards make a great tool for review. Teach & learn Objective: To reinforce learning by teaching to a peer • Advise students that they are to select one concept, formula, etc., from what has been covered today, to teach to a classmate. • Allow about 3-4 minutes for preparation. The teaching should only take one and a half to two minutes for each person. • Pair students for the “teach/learn” activity. They may select their own partner or you may ask them to pair with someone they don’t know, or haven’t paired with previously. • Give then some directions to begin, i.e., the person whose first name begins first in the alphabet. Tell them they have 5 minutes total for both students to teach and ask questions. Advise them when half of the time has elapsed. • Ask how the teaching reinforced the learning. When we teach, we learn References Danserau, D.F. and Newborn, D. (1997) Using knowledge maps to enhance teaching. In W.E. Campbell and K.A. Smith (Eds.), New paradigms for college teaching (pp. 127-147). Edina, MN: Interaction. Novak, J.D. and Gowin, D.G. (1984) Learning how to learn. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Paul, K. (1996) Study smarter not harder. Vancouver : Self-Counsel Press. PBL Insight (a problem based learning publication) is published quarterly by Samford University, and distributed for free. www.samford.edu. www.inspiration.com - free trial software with concept mapping applications http://home.capecod.net - education resources for all disciplines http://www.vta.spcomm.uiuc.edu - nine modules for developing team work among students