Welcome to Reading to Learn In Science Presenter Deborah Brendel Science Consultant Region 10 Education Service Center Deborah.Brendel@region10.org (972) 348-1512 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor Readers Successful Readers Have a relatively See themselves as low self-esteem agents able to actualize their potential. “Once a student leaves high school, 90% of his reading will be informational reading. Only 10% of his reading will be for pleasure.” —Willard Daggett Lexlie Chart w/Jobs Average high school graduate is 1150L Job Reading Requirement Surveyor 1370L Farmer 1210L Hotel Manager 1230L Housekeeper 910L Mechanic 1010L What‘s the best way to improve reading performance? Teach reading through Content Areas Students read rather than teacher lecture Challenge all readers (even the best) by: expose to new vocabulary and difficult syntax; expose to challenging literary features; monitor CONSTANTLY! Where do you fit? Experience Know and Could teach with reading strategies Never heard Know a few teach my peers of reading reading several about Years in Education strategies. strategies. reading reading strategies. strategies. Hot Off the Press (1-5 years) Armed and Experienced (6-19 years) Experienced Veteran (20 + years) Average Retention Rate Audio-Visual Demonstration Discussion groups Lecture Practice by doing Reading Teaching others Lecture Reading Audio-Visual Demonstration Discussion groups Practice by doing Teaching others Goals – because students are reading the wrong stuff and they don‘t understand it… today we will… Provide background basic to teaching reading in science. Facilitate hands-on experience with reading strategies (vocabulary, organizational, active, and reflection). What are your goals? Today‘s Agenda Introduction Background Information Framework for Lesson Planning Hands-on Experience with Strategies Evaluation Think-Pair-Share Consider a situation in which you are obligated to read and comprehend something that you may not initially want to read. Brainstorm a list of strategies that you use to help you focus and complete your reading. HO, p. 17 Let‘s try: The Batsmen were merciless against the Bowlers. The Bowlers placed their men in slips and covers. But to no avail. The Batsmen hit one four after another along with an occassional six. Not once did their balls hit their stumps or get caught. Here is the kicker! Prior knowledge is the MAIN determinant of comprehension and what is reading in science? COMPREHENSION! Effective readers… Locate key information. Distinguish between main ideas and supporting details. Modify reading behaviors when faced with difficulties. Construct meaning as they read. Students struggle with… Organizing ideas as they read. Making meaningful connections. Persevering through reading material. Science Tackling vocabulary. Decoding symbols. Reading at the text level. Understanding text organization. Why me? You‘re already doing it! You know the content. Fine tuning and/or adding to your collection of strategies can help all students reach high standards. What are your goals for your students? Understand the content. Become independent learners. The key is to… Integrate reading instruction in ways that support teaching and learning in science! Activate Your Schema Complete HO, p. 18 Guiding Principles Basic to Teaching Reading in the Content Areas Billmeyer and Barton. 1998 Schema Theory Prior Knowledge Metacognition Reading and Writing Collaboration Schema Theory Prior Knowledge Metacognition Learning is not developed from the OUTSIDE-IN, but from the INSIDE-OUT. Reading and Writing Generate ideas, organize, Read. draft, and revise. Collaboration Learning increases when students collaborate in the learning process. Before Reading Activating background knowledge Investigating Text Structure Setting a Purpose for Reading Predicting Text Content Reviewing and Clarifying Vocabulary Activating Prior Knowledge Myth vs. Fact Anticipation Guides Cloze Directions Word Walls Semantic Webs and Word Sorts Partner Finds Content vocabulary instruction is designed to… Increase reading comprehension. Develop knowledge of new terms and concepts. Develop deeper understanding of familiar terms and concepts. Improve range and specificity in writing. Help students communicate more effectively. Vocabulary Strategies Pages Strategy HO TRIS from… Concept Definition Mapping pp. 50 & 52 pp. 19 pp. 50–52 pp. 53, 54, & Frayer Model pp. 20–21 pp. 53–56 56 Semantic Feature Analysis pp. 58 & 60 p. 22 pp. 58–60 Student VOC Strategy pp. 64 & 65 p. 23 pp. 64–65 Sticky Word Sort pp. 67 & 68 pp. 69–71 Notes Vocabulary Jigsaw Expert Groups Home Groups Become an expert on Explain your assigned your assigned strategy. Share with strategy. Develop at the rest of the group least one example, at least one example and discuss how the and discuss possible strategy could support benefits of learning in science. incorporating the strategy. Visualization ―Visualizing is a comprehension strategy that allows readers to make the words real, like playing a movie of the text inside your head.‖ Keene and Zimmermann, 1997 ―Visualization is a key strategy used by proficient readers.‖ Pressley, et. al., 1989 Let‘s see When readers visualize, they are actually constructing meaning by creating mental images. Good readers become ‗wordstruck‘ by the movie they watch in their mind. Harvey & Goudvis, 2007 Will the visuals help you remember the 10 KEY social studies vocabulary words? Number a sheet of paper from 1 to 10. As you see each picture appear, write the vocabulary word that goes with it. Reflection “After talking about visualization, I’m thinking….” or “A new thought I have about visualizing is ...” Reflective Pause How can these vocabulary strategies… Address the demands of No Child Left Behind ? Address the needs of struggling readers, students with special needs, and/or English language learners? Be shared with parents so they have tools to support their children? HO, p. 24 Vocabulary Quiz Complete HO, p. 25 Research on Text Structure Dickson, Simmon, & Kameenui. 1995. Well presented physical text assists in reading comprehension. Student awareness of text structure is highly related to reading comprehension. Explicit instruction in text presentation and text structure aids in reading comprehension. Organizational strategy instruction is designed to… Develop an understanding of text presentation. Develop an understanding of organizational patterns. Help students to locate, organize, and recall important information. Help students to make connections. Text Presentation Organizational Patterns Informational Text Billmeyer and Barton. 1998. Chronological Sequence Comparison/Contrast Concept/Definition Description Episode Generalization/Principle Process/Cause-Effect HO, p. 26 What‘s the pattern? Handout, pp. 27–33 During Reading Establish purpose for each part of the reading Self-Monitoring Visualizing Summarizing Confirming, rejecting predictions Identifying and clarifying key ideas Questioning self Create a Graphic Organizer HO, p. 34 Student Example Cold-blooded Turtles vertebrate Lizards Lungs & dry skin Snakes 4 Groups Reptiles Scales Crocodiles Alligators Live on land & Tough lay eggs covering Graphic Organizers & Patterns Body Temperature Structure Control Breathe Body Reproduce Covering Groups Habitat Graphic Organizers & Patterns Cold-blooded Vertebrate Lungs Body Temperature Structure Control Breathe Scales Most lay eggs Reptiles Body Reproduce Covering Some born alive Dry skin Groups Habitat Turtles Alligators & Land crocodiles Lizards Snakes Windshield Check Clear, let‘s cruise! It‘s raining, let‘s slow down. Pull over, a truck just went by! Learning Log What did you learn? How can you apply what you have learned to your instruction? HO, p. 35 Active reading instruction is designed to… Help students strategically interact with text. Develop metacognitive skills. Help students construct meaning as they read. Anticipation Guide Fill in the ―Me‖ column on p. 40. Triad: Each person should read one of the three readings (pp. 41–49) and fill in the ―Text‖ column on p. 40. Discuss your answers in your triad. Activity Draw a picture of the moon as seen in next slide. Hands-on Activity Turn out the lights! We need volunteers! SQ3R Complete the SQ3R chart on p. 37 while reading pp. 38–39. K-W-L Use the information from the hands-on activity and information from any of the readings to complete the K-W-L chart on p. 50. Other Active Reading Strategies DR/TA (p. 51) Group Summarizing (p. 52) Pairs Read (p. 53) Reciprocal Teaching (p. 53) Problematic Situation (p. 53) Proposition/Support Outline (p. 53) Think Aloud (p. 54) After Reading Assessing if purpose of reading was met Paraphrasing important information Identifying the main idea and details Making comparisons Connecting Drawing conclusions Analyzing Reflecting Reflection strategy instruction is designed to… Extend meaning through discussing, questioning, and/or writing. Help students summarize, evaluate, and apply information. Reflection Strategies Strategy Pages from… TRIS Discussion Web pp. 112 & 114 pp. 111–113 Learning Log pp. 115–117 pp. 114–116 QAR pp. 118–120 pp. 117–119 QtA pp. 121–122 pp. 120–121 RAFT pp. 124–125 pp. 122–123 Reflection Assignment Read about your assigned strategy. Prepare a 60-second commercial that ―sells‖ your strategy. It could be… A description of the strategy, or An example of how to use the strategy. Final Reflection • Think about what you observed. • What were the steps in the process? • What does this have to do with Science? “After talking today, I’m thinking….” or “A new thought I have is ...” Commitment Papers HO, p. 55 Thank you! Please fill out the evaluation form. Your thoughtful comments are appreciated.
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