From Diocletian to the Christian empire by pgu13428


									From Diocletian to the
Christian empire
HIST 325 Lecture 10
Diocletian and the Roman state

 Crisis of 3rd century ended
 Roman state transformed into new, late Roman form
 Key changes marking late Roman state
   Increase in total size of administration
      Number of officials, size of staff increases
      Still small, thinly administered
      But administrative capacity up vs. early empire
   Reinforced tendency to “policy-making”
   Split between military and civilian hierarchies
   Division of east and west formalized
 More aggressive, militaristic, intrusive state
Tetrarchic and Constantinian culture

   Vast expenditures on fortifications, public buildings
 Importance of court, imperial capitals
   Many new capitals created
   Only one survives as great city—Constantinople
 Christian church grows
   Trad elite culture, Christianity assimilated to each other
 Non-Christian religion remains vibrant
   “Secularism” of imperial law: Constantine & successors
Trier: a Tetrarchic Capital

 Porta Nigra and fortifications
 Baths (Constantius Chlorus,
 Aula Palatina (Constantine, 310)
 Various other monuments
Porta Nigra, Trier
Aula Palatina, Trier
Other Tetrarchic Monumental Sites

 Palace of Diocletian, Split (Dalmatia)
   Created by Diocletian for his retirement
   He lived there growing cabbages
 Villa of Casale, Piazza Armerina (Sicily)
   Massive villa occupied until ca. 800
   Property of a tetrarch?
 Baths of Diocletian, Rome
   One of several vast baths built by tetrarchs
The Christian church

 Emergence: first-second centuries
   Justin Martyr, died ca. 165
 Growth and reaction: third century
   Cornelius of Rome, 251
   Dura Europus, destroyed 256
 The impact of Constantine
   Theodoran Basilica, Aquileia, ca. 315
   Old Saint Peter’s, Santa Costanza, Rome
   Churches in the Holy Land
The first and second centuries
  Christian groups remain small
  Internal organization varies widely
  No archaeological traces of Christians
  Some references to internal hierarchy
       Bishop, from Gk episkopos, “overseer, supervisor”
       Deacon, from Gk diakonos, “servant, minister”
       Presbyter, Gk presbyteros, “elder” English “priest”
    Relation of offices, functions vary
Justin as teacher (Rome, ca. 165)
Rusticus the prefect said, "Where do you assemble?"
Justin said, "Where each one chooses and can: for do you fancy that we all
     meet in the very same place? Not so; because the God of the
     Christians is not circumscribed by place…"
Rusticus the prefect said, "Tell me where you assemble, or into what place
     do you collect your followers?"
Justin said, "I live above one Martinus, at the Timiotinian Bath; and during
     the whole time (and I am now living in Rome for the second time) I
     am unaware of any other meeting than his. And if any one wished to
     come to me, I communicated to him the doctrines of truth."
The third century
  Bishops emerge as patrons
     Major cities have large numbers of Christians
     Sizeable staffs supervised by bishops
     Charitable distributions to large #s of dependents
  Churches begin to own property
     Meeting places (mostly converted houses)
  Bishops begin to meet in councils
Bishop Cornelius’s staff (Rome, 251)

“….In [the church of Rome] there were forty-six
  presbyters, seven deacons, seven sub-deacons,
  forty-two acolytes, fifty-two exorcists and
  door-keepers, and over fifteen hundred
  widows and persons in distress, all of whom
  the grace and kindness of the Master nourish.”
  (Eusebius CH VI.xliii.11)
Model of Exponential Growth
 Start with 1000 members in 40 CE
 End with 6 million members in 300
 Assume exponential growth at a rate of about 3.5% per year
        100: 7500 Christians, .01% of population
        150: 40,000 Christians, .07%
        200: 220,000 Christians, .36%
        250: 1.2 million Christians, 2%
        300: 6.3 million Christians, over 10%
 Data fit exponential growth model
 Most growth in numbers between 250 and 300
Growth of Christian Communities

 Christian communities in individual cities must have
 been transformed in the third century:
    Example: Rome, a city of about 1 million:
       Ca. 150: .07% of population = 700 Christians
       Ca. 200: .36% of population = 3600 Christians
       Ca. 250: 2% of population = 20,000 Christians
       Ca. 300: 10% of population = 100,000 Christians
 Administering 100,000 people very different from
 3600 (much less 700)!
The domus ecclesiae at Dura Europos
Christian catacombs at Rome
The fourth century
  Construction of basilicas
  Bishop as key civic leader
     Episcopal patronage grows
     Rise of rhetorically educated preaching bishops
     Episcopalis audientia
     Parabalani and their ilk
  Emergence of monasteries
     Centers of population
     Sources of authority
Bishops as civic leaders
  Episcopalis audientia
      Instituted by Constantine
      Bishops held court—binding arbitration
      Corps of strong-arm men under bishop’s orders
      Law of 416 restricts numbers at Alexandria to 500
      How many had there been before?!
  Expansion of patronage
      More Christians more funds more patronage
      From Constantine, churches could inherit property
      Began to accumulate estates, income
      Bishops take on roles previously held by sophists
      Popular leadership more important than for sophists
An episcopal basilica at Aquileia
Constantine’s monumental churches

 Rome                         Constantinople
   St. Peter’s, Vatican         Holy Apostles
   Sant’ Agnese                 (Constantine’s
   St. John Lateran             mausoleum)
   Santa Costanza               St. Irene (Holy Peace)

 Jerusalem                    Antioch
   Holy Sepulcher               Octagonal “Golden
   Eleona (Mount of Olives)
Plan of a double-apsed basilica
Aula Palatina, Trier
Old Saint Peter’s, Rome, begun 313
Santa Costanza mausoleum, Rome
Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem

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