Galileo – a UK Success Story

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					Galileo – a UK Success Story


     Pat Norris MRAeS, FRIN
 LogicaCMG Business Development Manager
       Chairman, RAeS Space Group
Plan of the presentation


• GPS
• GLONASS
• Galileo
• UK in Galileo




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   2
How does GNSS Work?




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   3
Alternative satellite navigation concepts



• The US Navy Transit system popularised an alternative
  approach to determining position using satellites
    – this approach uses the change in the Doppler shift of a radio
      beacon to provide positioning information
• The concept is still operational in the SARSAT/COSPAS
  emergency location system




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   4
How Accurate is GPS?




                                                                                         1m
                                  10 m




                                   1 cm

Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   1 mm        5
Selective Availability
Reduced to Zero




    Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   6
                                  GPS Modernization Path




               Increasing System Capabilities w Increasing Defense / Civil Benefit

 Block IIA/IIR Block IIR-M, IIF                                                         Block III
                                        IIR-M: IIA/IIR capabilities plus          Block IIIA:
Basic GPS                               • 2nd civil signal (L2C)                  • Increased anti-jam power
• Std Service (16-24m SEP)              • M-Code (L1M & L2M)                      • Increased security
  – Single frequency (L1)                   • Eliminates SA for denial            • Increased accuracy
  – Coarse acquisition (C/A)            • Anti-jam flex power                     • Navigation surety
    code navigation                                                               • Backward compatibility
• Precise Service (16m SEP)             IIF: IIR-M capability plus                • Assured availability
  – Y-Code (L1Y & L2Y)                  • 3rd civil signal (L5)                   • Controlled integrity
                                        • Anti-jam flex power                     • System survivability
  – Y-Code navigation
                                                                                  • 4th civil signal (L1C)
      Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                          7
GPS Civil Signals

                                              L5                    L2               L1
                                                                                      C/A
         1st Civil
    Block II/IIA/IIR
                                                                     L2C              C/A

          2nd Civil
         Block IIR-M
                                         I5                          L2C              C/A


        3rd Civil
                                   Q5
        Block IIF                                                    L2C             C/A
                                                                                      L1C (TBR)
                                         I5

        4th Civil                  Q5
         Block III
                                     1176 MHz                1227 MHz             1575 MHz
Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                   8
L2C Second Civil Signal

• Benefits of L2C
     – improves PNT for current scientific/commercial dual                        L2C
       frequency users via ionospheric effect cancellation
     – extends safety-of-life, single-frequency E-911 applications
     – provides better protection than C/A against code cross
       correlation and continuous wave (CW) interference
                                                                                        1227.6 MHz
     – improved data structure for enhanced data demodulation
     – provides backup link in case of local interference
• Defined in ICD-GPS-200D
• First available with IIR-M launch 21 Sep 05
     – configuration of signal determined via ongoing
       interagency process
     – use L2C at user’s risk--configuration can change (NANU
       process)


Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                      9
L5 Third Civil Signal

• Improves signal structure for enhanced
  performance                                                                     L5

         • higher power
         • wider bandwidth = 10x processing gain
         • longer spreading codes (10x C/A)                                            1176.45 MHz

• Aeronautical Radionavigation Services band
         • WRC-2000 added space signal component to
           this aeronautical band so aviation community
           can manage interference to L5 more
           effectively than L2
• Defined in IS-GPS-705
• First available with first GPS IIF launch (2007)


Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                      10
New L1C Signal Improvements

          –Implementation will provide
                                                                                  L1C
           C/A code to ensure backward
           compatibility
          –Assured of 1.5 dB increase in
           minimum C/A code power to
                                                                                        1575.42 MHz
           mitigate any noise floor
           increase
          –Data-less signal component
           pilot carrier improves tracking
          –Enables greater civil
           interoperability with Galileo L1
          –First available with first GPS III
           launch in 2013

Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                       11
Space-Based Augmentation
Systems

           EGNOS in Europe, WAAS in the USA, MSAS in Japan




               WAAS                                EGNOS                            MSAS




       Related systems planned in India, China, Russia…

  Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005          12
Plan of the presentation


• GPS
• GLONASS
• Galileo
• UK in Galileo




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   13
History and Perspectives of the GLONASS
Constellation
                         GLONASS Deployment Program. History and Progress.
            SV in constellation
30
                                                                                         Planned GLONASS deployment program
                                                   26
27                                                                                     according to the Federal GLONASS Program


24                                                                                                                                           26
                                                        22
       GLONASS Initial Operation Capability                                                                                20         24
21     (12 SV , 3 year life-tim e. Decree of the                                                               18     18
       Prsident of 29.09.93 № 658 рпс).                                                                                          21
18
                       14                    16              16
                                                                                                       14
15                                         12                  13
                 12          12    12                               12                            12
                                                                         11                  11
12        10
                                                                                       10
      9
                                                                                  8
 9                                                                            7

 6

 3

 0
     1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

                                                                                      GLONASS-M Flight Test         GLONASS-K Flight Test
                                                                                        (7 years life-tim e)         (10 years life-tim e)


                               • GLONASS deployment milestones:
                                        – 18 satellites in constellation – 2007
                                                                                                                                Source: Glonass
                                        – 24 satellites in constellation – 2010-2011

Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                                                                   14
    GLONASS Performance

         – Problems of pure present GLONASS performances
              • new satellite – outdated ground control assets
              • limited area for orbit tracking (Russian territory)
              • time keeping system needs to be modernized


      SISRE,m
                                                                                   GLONASS
     20.03.2005 –
      20.06.2005



                                                      GPS


                                The GLONASS Accuracy Improvement Program
Source: Glonass
                                           is in implementation

     Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005         15
Results of GLONASS Program implementation
for 2002-2004
  12/2001: 6 SV, A=17 
       gap = 13.7h                      12/2002: 8 SV, A=22 
                                             gap = 9.3h


                                                                     12/2003: 9 SV, A=35 
                                                                          gap = 9.0h




  Since 2001 the gap in
navigation with GLONASS                                         12/2004: 11 SV, A=58 
                                                                      gap = 4.6h
         reduced
   from 14 to 3 hours

                                                            03/2005: 13 SV, A=76 
                                                                  gap = 2.9h
                  12/2007: 18 SV, A=96 
                        gap = 0.6h
                                                                                             Source: Glonass


  Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                        16
   GLONASS Modernization Plan
     GLONASS                   GLONASS-
                               GLONASS-M                       GLONASS-
                                                               GLONASS-K                GLONASS-
                                                                                        GLONASS-KM
     1982-2007
     1982-                      2003-2015
                                2003- 2015                      2008-2025
                                                                2008 2025                 2015-…..
                                                                                          2015-




Developer NPO PM            Developer NPO PM               Developer NPO PM          Requirement definition
Producer PO “Polyot”        Producer NPO PM                D&D phase                 since 2002 г.
Total launched 81 SV        Ordered 8 SV                   To be ordered up to 27 SV
Ordered 1 SV                In orbit 2 SV                  Life-time 10 years
In orbit 12 SV              To be ordered 6                3rd civil signal
Life-time 3 years           Life-time 7 years
                            2nd civil signal


                            Ground control segment modernization
                            Navigation (OD$TS) system modernization
                            GLONASS augmentation system implementation
                            System certification for safety of life applications

                            Navigation service market development

                                                           Search and Rescue service implementation
                                                                          Supplementary functions (TBD)


                                                                                            Source: Glonass

   Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                       17
GLONASS Performance Modernization
Plan
   – Satellite modernization
        • clock stability improvement
        • dynamic model improvement (attitude accuracy, eclipse passing algorithm)
   – Receiving monitoring stations (RMS) network extension
        • Space Force network (3 stations)
        • Roskosmos network (9-12 stations)
        • international cooperation (IGS network)
   – GLONASS time keeping system modernization
        • new system clocks with high stability (2 distributed clocks)
        • synchronization system modernization
   – OD&TS software modernization based on one-way code and phase data
     processing

        GPS level accuracy for GLONASS to be achieved by 2008
                                                                                  Source: Glonass


Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005               18
Plan of the presentation


• GPS
• GLONASS
• Galileo
• UK in Galileo




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   19
The European Galileo System


                                                                                      30 satellites in
                                                                                      3 orbital planes
                                                                                      120° apart

                                                                                      27 operational plus
                                                                                      3 in-orbit spares

                                                                                      Inclination 56°
                                                                                      Altitude ~22,900 km
                                                                                      Period ~14 hours

                                                                                      In-Orbit Validation
                                                                                      (IOV):
                                                                                      2 prototype satellites
                                                                                      4 pre-op’tnl satellites




    Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                      20
GALILEO Architecture

            Satellite
          Constellation                             ….




                        Worldwide Users
    30                                                                                  10
                           Global Ground Segment                        5          Uplink
           Sensor                                                                 Stations
                                                                  TT&C
           Stations                                              Stations
                                                                                  IOV configuration:
                                                                                      2x TT&C
                                                                              2        5x ULS
                                   Control Centres                                    12x GSS
Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005        1x GCC 21
The Customer


          17 Member States                                 25 Member States
            PB/Navigation                                  Transport Council

     European                                               European
   Space Agency                                            Commission
                             GJU
                       Supervisory Board
                                                                             GSA

                                                                      GSA = Galileo Supervisory Authority
                                 GJU                                  GJU = Galileo Joint Undertaking
                                                                      IOV = In-Orbit Validation
                                                                      PB = Programme Board

          ESA – responsible for IOV
Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                      22
Galileo Key Features



   Global, European-led under civil control

   Independent but compatible & interoperable with GPS

   A wide range of services to be offered

   Galileo is open to international partnerships




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   23
Current Services Definition

                                                         Commercial Service (CS)
         Open Service (OS)                                  added value services
           free of direct user charges


                                    Safety-of-Life
                                    Service (SoL)

                                       with high integrity
                                        signals & fault
                                           indication
                                                                    Public Regulated Service (PRS)
                                                                       government encrypted signals


                                Search and Rescue
                                 Service (S&R)
                                   for people in distress


   Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                    24
GNSS Frequencies




                        GPS
                                              GLONASS
                                                                                     GALILEO

                                         E4                               E1             E2

 L5           E5         L2 G2                           E6                     L1        G1               C1
  1164 MHz




                        1215 MHz




                                              1260 MHz




                                                                   1300 MHz

                                                                              1559 MHz




                                                                                                          5010 MHz


                                                                                                                      5030 MHz
                                                                                               1610 MHz
      Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                                25
Frequencies and Services




                       OS/SoL                              PRS                               CS

                                                                                E1         E2

                                                                                E1         E2
                  E5b                                       E6
                                                                                E1         E2

       E5a                                                  E6
1164 MHz




                          1215 MHz




                                                1260 MHz




                                                                     1300 MHz


                                                                                1559 MHz




                                                                                                  1610 MHz



                                                                                                             5010 MHz



                                                                                                                        5030 MHz
           Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                              26
 GNSS Development Schedules (at Sep 05)
              FY   02      03     04     05        06       07      08      09       10   11   12   13           14     15    16    17       18     19


                        GPS IIR               GPS IIR-M                                                   R&D            GPS III Launches
 Space                                 1st IIR-M        IIR-M - 8
Segment                                                                    GPS IIF                                                     IOC FOC
                                                         1st IIF                                      IIF – 19
                                                                                                                                                   2021
  GPS                                                                                               GPS III/Hi Power M
                                                                                                            Code/L1C
                                                                                                     IOC FOC
   New                                                                               L5
 Services                                                                                                                          Source:
                                                                                     IOC            FOC                            USAF Sep 2005


                                  L2C/M Code/Flex Power




                                              IOV Phase                  26 Galileo Launches
Galileo                                                                                                                                     Galileo 2
                                                                                               FOC               Source:
                                                                                                                 LD’s Best Guess
                                       GSTB V2

                   9 SVs                      14                    18 (IOC)               24 (FOC)
                                       L2 2nd Civil signal                                      E5B 3rd Civil signal
Glonass                                                                              M
                                                                                                                      Integrity
                                                                                                                                            Source:
                                                                                                                                            GLONASS
                                                                                                                                   K        Sep 05
                                                   Basic
Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                                                                          27
Plan of the presentation


• GPS
• GLONASS
• Galileo
• UK in Galileo
    – pre-development activities (including the prototype satellites)
    – the main development phase




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   28
 Galileo & the UK – 1 – the design phase


Before the main development contract began (Dec ’04) UK industry
   had been selected to provide >30% of Galileo:
1. Prime-contractor of one prototype satellite, GIOVE-A: SSTL
2. Payload contractor for the second, GIOVE-B: Astrium UK
3. Prime-contractor for design of the ground segment: LogicaCMG
4. Subsystem level roles for ComDev, Helios, NPL, QinetiQ,
   SciSys, Serco and Vega
Total funding at that stage ~€150M – so UK part ~€50M




  Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   29
GSTB-V2 Programme Overview

• ESA GIOVE-A
    – Precursor to European Galileo programme
    – Objective
         • secure frequency filing
         • measure MEO environment
         • demonstrate key payload technologies
         • provide Signal-in-Space for experimentation
    – Requirements
         • two year mission lifetime
         • low cost, rapid schedule
                                    Sir Martin Sweeting, SSTL (R)
                                    Claudio Mastracci, ESA (L)



Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   30
GIOVE-A Schedule

                                                                                          QSR: Q3 03
                                                                                          PDR: Q4 03
• Schedule driven by Winter ’05 launch
                                                                                          CDR: Q2 05
                         QSR        PDR MR                                    CDR         IRR : Q3 04
   Design                                                                                 TRR : Q3 05

                                                                      IRR                 FRR : Q4 05
   Manufacture                                                                            LW : Dec 05

                                                                                    TRR
   Integration

                                                                                           FRR
   Environmental Test

   Launch



                           KO           +5               +12        +14           +22     +25 +27
Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                         31
  A Modular Design

• Modular design
  – allows short duration programmes
       • by permitting parallel manufacture and test




                       Propulsion Bay
                                                        Avionics Plate              Payload Frame
  Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                   32
GIOVE-A: First Integration

• Delivered to ESTEC, NL, for environmental tests - summer 2005
                                                                                  Antenna


                                                                                  Payload
                                                                                  Bay



                                                                                  Avionics


                                                                                  Propulsion
                                                                                  Bay




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                33
GIOVE-A Solar Arrays




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   34
Launch – 26 December 2005 (1)
     Jettison of Soyuz/Fregat fairing




           Images Courtesy ESA
Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   35
Launch – 26 December 2005 (2)
        Satellite/Fregat composite separates from
        Soyuz third stage




           Images Courtesy ESA
Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   36
Launch – 26 December 2005 (3)
    Satellite separates from Fregat
    upper stage




           Images Courtesy ESA
Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   37
 Galileo Industries Formation & Heritage

• A political agreement was reached that called for the development of Galileo to be
  undertaken by an international consortium called Galileo Industries
• Galileo Industries S.A. founded May 2000 as a Belgian company
   – mission to become industrial prime contractor



                                                Galileo
                                             Industries SA


 Alcatel-Alenia (F)           Alcatel-Alenia (I)         Astrium GmbH (D)                Astrium Ltd (UK)
  25%21.5% 19%               25%21.5% 19%              25%21.5% 19%                25%21.5% 19%

                         Founding                Shareholders

                    GSS (E)                                             Thales (F/D/UK)
                    14%12%                                                        12%

               joined June 2003                                          joined April 2004


 Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                            38
 Lead Roles within Galileo Industries


                 Prime Mgt                                       Security
  Galileo                                                       Engineering
               System Eng &
Industries      Procurement
                                                                                     Level N
                                                                  Thales



 GSTB V1             Space             Ground             Ground             Test
  Alcatel           Segment            Control           Mission             User    Level N-1
 GSTB V2           & Satellite        Segment            Segment           Segment
 Astrium G         Astrium G         Astrium UK           Alcatel           Thales

 System AIV          Satellite AIT
   Alenia              Alenia
                                                                                     Level N-2
 Launcher             Payload
   (CFI)             Astrium UK




Clocks     SSPA         NSGU         PLSU        etc                                 Level N-3


  Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                39
Galileo & UK – 2 – the development phase


 For the main development contract, political arrangements
  assure each country of contracts in ~proportion to funding
 UK highlights in addition to the Galileo Industries roles:

                                               E2 channel                           Filter        E2
 Space Segment
 • Optical multiplexer, €1M, ComDev
 • Power amplifiers, €10M, Astrium
                                               E5 channel
 • Space qualified components, IGG

                                                                                OMUX
                                                                                               E5 + E6

                                               E6 channel



                                                             A
                                            Navigation signals mplification     COM DEV      Navigation
                                                               of signals        filters      antenna

  Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                         40
UK Roles - continued


Ground Segment
• Key management facilities, €20M, LogicaCMG
• Elements of Galileo receiver, €7M, QinetiQ
• Satellite control facility, €6M, LogicaCMG
• Algorithms & real-time hardware, €6M, LogicaCMG
• Test & integration tools, €6M, Vega
• Simulation & automation tools, €5M, SciSys




                                            ESA’s main control centre



Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   41
Galileo Key Management Facilities


• Principal functions:
    – generation of encryption keys
    – distribution, management & revocation of keys
    – monitoring & control of the security module in each element
    – COMSEC for the Galileo Services
    – service denial & over-the-air-rekeying (OTAR) for the PRS

• Galileo Services Supported:
    – PRS (Public Regulated Service)
    – C-band (mission segment monitoring & control)
    – CS (Commercial Service)
    – SoL (Safety of Life service)
    – S-Band (Control segment monitoring & control)


Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   42
Algorithms and real-time hardware


• EGNOS has been created to
  make GPS compatible with
  aviation standards
• LogicaCMG supplied the
  €10M check set that validates
  the EGNOS signal:
    – establishes GPS integrity
• similar processing hardware
  and software is designed into
  Galileo:                                                    The LogicaCMG check set currently installed at
                                                             Swanwick and other EGNOS centres across Europe
    – facilitates certification for
      aviation and other safety
      related uses
• specialist support from Sigma Associates & Ian McAnany

Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005                           43
Concluding remarks


• The operational phase of Galileo will be the responsibility of a
  concession contractor under a private finance initiative
  arrangement with the Galileo Supervisory Authority
    – two short-listed bidders now merged
    – Inmarsat is the UK shareholder in the resulting consortium
• UK industry roles in the exploitation aspects of Galileo include:
    – Helios/NPL/Thales: time service provider
    – LogicaCMG: location based services
    – Spirent: signal simulator
• Operational date ~2012

                                                      Hydrogen Maser clock for Galileo



Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005          44
                          QUESTIONS?




Galileo – a UK success story, Pat Norris, RAeS Gatwick Branch, 13 December 2005   45