M-548 A =Preliminary Re ort Plant Species

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					          Report M-548
          A =Preliminary ort on Rare
                         Re
          Plant Species in t e Flora of
          NationalPark Service Areas
                                                             R
I         of South Florida
                                                    Everglades National Park
                                                    Reference Library
                                                    Homestead, Florida 33030
    250


          EvergladesNational Park, South Florida Research Center, PO.Box 279. Homestead, Florida 33030
A Preliminary Report on Rare Plant Species in the Flora

    of National Park Service Areas o f South Florida




                     Report M-548




         Lloyd L. Loope and George N. Avery

              U.S. National Park Service
            South Florida Research Center
              Everglades National Park
              Homestead, Florida 33030
    n                                                                                          --   --




                         ..




                         A Preliminary Report on R a r e Plant Species in t h e Flora
                             of National Park Service Areas of South Florida


                                              Table of Contents



                                                                                        Page


            INTRODUCTION.     ........................                                    1                  1



                Aims of this report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             1

                Problems in t h e preservation of r a r e plant species of South
                  Florida     .........................                                   I
        ,


            PREIJMINARY LIST O F RARE PLANT SPECIES.              ..........              6

                Basis for t h e list   ......................                             6

                                                   .......
                Explanation of symbols used in conjunction with list                      6

                List of species    .......................                                9



            LITERATURE CITED.          ......................                            37
                                                                                                         -


I
            INDEX TO SPECIES       .......................                               39




                                                             EVERGLAGES NC;~IONALPARK
                                                             REFERENCE LIBWRX



i
               A Preliminary Report on R a r e Plant Species in t h e Flora
                   of National Park Service Areas of South Florida

                          Lloyd L. Loope and George N. Avery


                                     INTRODUCTION
~ i m ' of-this report
        s

South Florida has a remarkable flora, quite distinctive within t h e United S t a t e s for
i t s strong tropical affinities. A large number of West Indian species occur in t h e
United S t a t e s only here, and a considerable number of plant species a r e endemic t o
South Florida. Major modifications have occurred and a r e occurring in South
Florida ecosystems and some species have already been extirpated. A large portion
of t h e southern t i p of Florida and i t s islands is under t h e jurisdiction of t h e U.S.
National Park Service - Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve,
Biscayne National iilonument, and F o r t Jefferson National Monument. Even t h e s e
a r e a s have been significantly modified froin pristine ecological conditions and parts
of t h e a r e a s a r e currently subjected t o active manipulation (prescribed burning,
control of e x o t i c plants, scheduled w a t e r releases) designed t o preserve ecosystems
in as natural a condition as possible.

The Endangered Species A c t of 1973 requires Federal agencies t o give special
consideration t o r a r e biota. This is largely compatible with t h e mandate of t h e
National Park Service (NPS) t o manage ecosystems t o maintain or restore as
natural a condition as possible (Houston, 19711, but future conflicts of species
management vs. ecosystem management a r e a possibility. As yet no plant species
of South ~ l o r a a
                   have been given protected s t a t u s under t h e Endangered Species
Act,

This report is intended t o bring together information concerning t h e r a r e species in
t h e flora of South Florida National Park Service areas. This information is
important to fulfill t h e following purposes: 1) t o provide an adequate background
for management of t h e resources of South Florida parks by t h e National Park
Service, particularly for prograrns of f i r e management and backcountry manage-
ment; (2) to summarize our c u r r e n t knowledge a s a means of stimulating obser-
vations of o t h e r s on distribution and ecology of r a r e plants of t h e area; 3) t o
identify species for which populations should be monitored t o assess changes
resulting from f i r e management o r o t h e r causes; and 4) t o assist South Florida-wide
e f f o r t s in botanical preservation (i.e., to identify which species do o r do not
receive secure protection within NPS areas). The preliminary nature of t h e report
should be emphasized. It is intended t o provide an account of our current s t a t e of
knowledge with t h e hope t h a t i t will stimulate others t o contribute ideas and
information needed t o allow a comprehensive analysis.


          Problems in t h e preservation of r a r e plant species of South Florida

The systernatic drainage of South Florida, which s t a r t e d in t h e early 1900's and
continues a t present, and expanding urbanization have been t h e primary factors
contributing t o habitat destruction. The impact of drainage has been multiplied by
            devastating f i r e s which burn during drought periods, resulting in direct destruction
            of plants and removal of accumulations of organic substrates.                   J. K. Small
            witnessed t h e changes taking place in the early decades of t h e century and
            published a book entitled "From Eden t o Sahara: Florida's Tragedy" (Small, 1929),
            lamenting t h e destructive trends. After 1930, the destruction accelerated, with
            Florida's population increasing from less than 1.5 million in 1930 t o over 8 million
            at present. The pine forest of t h e Miami Rock Ridge, rich in endemic and r a r e
            plant species, has been one of t h e most severely a f f e c t e d habitats. Robertson and
            Kushlan (1974) report t h a t comparision of aerial photographs o f 1940 and 1972
            indicated t h a t urban and agricultural development removed nearly 90 percens of
            the pine forest south of Sunset LJrive (South Miami), excluding about 25 km of
            pineland within Everglades National Park, mostly during t h e 1950's and 1960's. This
            destruction of pinelands has continued in the 19701s, so t h a t very little remains
            outside Everglades National Park.

            Although South Florida parks a r e largely f r e e of drainage structures, agriculture,                   1
            and urbanization, t h e security of r a r e plants within their boundaries is f a r from                  ,
            assured for t h e following reasons (in order of probable severity of t h e threat):

            1.                                 -
                     Threat from wildfire T h a t fire is a major natural force in t h e South Florida
                     environment has been well documented by Robertson (1953, 1955). Nearly
                     half of the f i r e s recorded in Everglades National Park in t h e past 25 years
                     have been a t t r i b u t e d t o ignition by lightning (Everglades National Park,
a
-
,
 t..             '   1978). Several thousand years ago aboriginal populations undoubtedly began
9
,,"
                     augmenting ignitions and extending t h e fire season into t h e dry season
                     (November-April) when few lightning strikes occur. Many South Florida plant
                           es, including many r a r e species, a r e dependent upon recurrent fire f o r              1
c
, e.
       .
       (I
                       rvival. In fire-dependent habitats (pine forest and Muhlenbergia prairie, for
                                                                                                   eliminated
                        ample), species which a r e not adapted to f i r e w e ~ p r e s u m a b l y
                                                                                                                      i
                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                                      I
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i
;

5 1"
$      i
                           ago. Nevertheless, fire is still a major t h r e a t t o South Florida's r a r e
                             primarily because of ~nodification of t h e natural w a t e r regime.
                          nage outside parks has lowered water levels within parks t o an unknown
                                                                                                                      I
                          nt. Fires during drought periods since drainage began a r e believed t o be
                        rning organic mat:er which may have accumulated over decades or
                     centuries. Plant conlmunities which may not have been subjected t o s e v e r e
                     fires in t h e past (hammocks, cypress strands) a r e now threatened by fire.
                     Another significant aspect of t h e fire problern is t h a t fuel accumulations
                     which build up when fires a r e suppressed can result in more severe future
                     fires t o which t h e native biota, even in fire-adapted communities, may not b e
                     adapted.                                                                                         I
                                                                                                                      1
                     In spite of modern f i r e fighting technology, l i t t l e can b e done t o control large       1
                     fires once they a r e burning. The best approach under the circumstances, t h e                      I


                     one which has been adopted by t h e National Park Service, is f i r e management
                     which utilizes prescribed burning and other managed fires t o reduce fuels and
                     reduce t h e t h r e a t of t h e holocaust fire, as well a s t o maintain c e r t a i n fire-
                     dependent communities.              This complex subject is t r e a t e d in t h e Fire
                     Management Plan for Everglades National Park (Everglades N.P., 1978). A
                     Fire Management Plan is also being developed for t h e newly established Big
                     Cypress National Preserve.
2.                                                   -
     Threat from illegal collecting pressure Second only t o the t h r e a t o f wildfire
     is t h e t h r e a t from collectors, both "serious" and "casual." In t h e early days of
     Everglades National Park and before t h e park was established, a relatively
     small number of very knowledgeable and o f t e n unscrupulous collectors
     systematically removed large numbers of r a r e plants from t h e park area. To
     a much reduced e x t e n t , this phenomenon probably continues today. Because
     of easy accessibility by off-road vehicles, t h e problem of collector pressure is
     undoubtedly presently g r e a t e r in Big Cypress National Preserve,
     Dr. Frank Craighead made many observations concerning t h e impact of plant
     collectors in t h e 1950's a n d 1960's.             He aptly s t a t e d t h e problem in a
     memorandum t o t h e Chief Ranger of Everglades National Park (Craighead,
     19661, giving many examples: "The people who a r e taking these plants know
     ihe various species they want. They also know where t o look for them, and
     they know t h e park a r e a much b e t t e r than do t h e park employees."                A
     minority among less knowledgeable visitors are also a t h r e a t and c a n sooner
     o r l a t e r be e x p e c t e d t o remove showy o r interesting-looking orchids o r o t h e r
     plants which they see. Education of t h e public may help, but i t is a doubtful
     solution to t h e problem. Craighead (1966) gave a n account of a n instance of
     NPS negligence in t h e case of the r a r e hand f e r n (Ophioglossum palmatum)
     known in Everglades National Park from only one site. "When t h e trail was
     constructed into Mahogany Hammock, I advised against approaching t h e
     colony of this hand fern, but t h e construction was carried o u t within a f e w
     f e e t of t h e f e r n and a label pointing to it erected. Some t h r e e months a f t e r
     construction of t h e trail, t h e e n t i r e colony was taken." Dr. Craighead g a v e
     many other examples of t h e a t t r i t i o n of r a r e plants growing near trails.
3.   Threat f r o m hurricanes       - Hurricanes a r e an extremely potent force in
     destruction of r a r e plants, particularly epiphytes. According to Craighead
                                                       - - -
                              ad              t
     (1963) and ~ r a i ~ h e and ~ i i b e r (19621, Hurricane Donna of 5Gptember 9 - 1 0 ,
     1960, destroyed over 90 percent of t h e epiphytes within t h e mangrove zone of
     Everglades National Park. G r e a t losses of epiphytes also occurred in t h e
     Long Pine Key hammocks, where defoliation of t h e forest canopy exposed
     remnant epiphytes to damaging full sunlight.
                                                                 d
     Hurricanes are, of course, natural phenomena. Hurricanes of t h e intensity of
     t h e 1960 hurricane a r e thought to b e rare, perhaps occurring at a specific s i t e
     in South Florida o n c e in a century o r less frequently. Less severe hurricanes
     will undoubtedly continue to result in major losses of r a r e plants, which in
     combination with man-caused losses will be disastrous f o r both coastal and
     inlahd species. Hurricanes also have probably provided a major means of
     dispersal f o r propagules which have resulted in establishment of many of t h e
     West Indian plant species in t h e South Florida environment.
4.                                                    -
     Threat from invasion by e x o t i c species Austin (1978) reports t h a t over 170
                 s
     s ~ e c i e of e x o t i c plants have become naturalized in Southeastern Florida. A
     small p e r c e n t a g e s o £ these plants are extremely aggressive in competition
     with t h e native flora and clearly have t h e potential f o r displacing r a r e native
     plant species in South Florida park areas. The particularly aggressive species
           include: Schinus t e r e binthif olius (Brazilian pepper), Casuar ina e uiset itolia
           and C. g l a m u s t r a l i a n pinel, Melaleuca q u i n q u e n e r v ; 8 ~ c a h
           ~olubTina asiatica.
           Schinus is very aggressive in invading native pineland vegetation of t h e Miami
           Rock Ridge and t h r e a t e n s to t a k e over as t h e understory of all remnant pine
           forest a r e a s which a r e not prescribed burned regularly, thereby shading o u t
           pirieland understory species. In Everglades National Park, prescribed burning
           has so far largely, but not completely, succeeded in excluding Schinus from
           pine forests. An abundant seed source for Schinus exists on abandoned
           farmland and other disturbed land throughout Dade County, including t h e
           "Hole-in-the-Donut" a r e a of Everglades National Park, where t h e NPS is
                                         --
           a t t e m p t i n g t o reduce Schinus invasion of abandoned farmland through
           encouraging establishment of native hardwood species,
            Casuarina invades many types of sites.                Control e f f o r t s in Everglades
            National Park have thus f a r been concentrated in coastal a r e a s because of
            concern for nesting habitat of t h e officially "threatened" sea t u r t l e ( C a r e t t a
            caretta). Large concentrations of Casuarina remain in t h e e x t r e m e south-
            eastern portion of Everglades N.P., where hammocks dominated by button-
            wood and o t h e r tropical hardwoods a r e being invaded. A major e f f o r t at
            control of Casuarina in this a r e a was instituted in t h e spring of 1978.
            Con'rinued priority should probably b e given t o this project particularly
          '.because of t h e presence in s o m e of t h e s e hammocks o f Vanilla barbellata and
            other r a r e species. An inventory of t h e r a r e plant species of this area should
            be made a s soon as possible. Casuarina control is also underway on several
            islands of Biscayne National Monument,
h    2
            ~ e l a l e u c a ,generally regarded as t h e most serious exotic plant problem in
,.   -      South Florida, is not at present a problem in South Florida parks e x c e p t for
V
r
     -
     LI
            Big Cypress National Preserve, where considerable t h r e a t to native vegeta-
            tion seems t o occur. No Melaleuca invasion of r a r e plant habitats has y e t
           .been observed, but further examination of t h e problem is needed.
           Colubrina asiatica is apparently a r a t h e r r e c e n t invader of coastal f o r e s t s
           bordering Florida Bay in southern Everglades N.P. and on Elliott and Adams
           Keys of Biscayne N.M. The ecology of Colubrina is f a r from being well
           understood, but preliminary indications a r e t h a t i t poses a serious t h r e a t t o
           coastal hammock and buttonwood f o r e s t habitats. This could ultimately
           result in a significant t h r e a t t o several r a r e plant species of coastal forests
           (Cordia sebestena and C e r e u s gracilis var. sirnpsonii, a r e examples).
           In a t least one instance, r a r e plant species a r e threatened by exotic animals.
           O n Elliott Key of Biscayne National Monument, t h e introduced Mexican red-
           bellied squirrel (Sciurus aureogaster) is suspected of damage t o two rare
           species of t h a t c h palms (Thrinax morrisii and Thrinax radiata (Tilmant, 1975,
                                                             ~
           personal c ~ r n m u n i c a t i o n ~ t i a l lt h e, black rat'(Rattus   rattus) was
           suspected of being a primary or contributing agent of damage, but this
           possibility has been discarded because of absence of damage of Thrinax on
           nearby ~ o t t e nKey, where t h e R a t t u s population equals       exceeds t h a t on
Elliott Key, but where squirrels a r e absent. The animals remove t h e apical
buds, killing t h e palms. Three-fourths of t h e Thrinax morrisii plants o n
Elliott Key have been affected.

-h e NPSr o imeNational Park
Threat f                                                                 -
                                   Service f i r e management program Even though
t         f r management           program is intended t o enhance preservation of
                                   . -
ecosystems and bioG, t h e potential exists for damage t o r a r e plant popula-
tions f r o m action taken within t h e framework of t h e Fire Management Plan,
including prescribed burning and observation of wildfires. Examples of past
criticism include concern about i m p a c t of a 1975 f i r e upon t h e fern,
Sphenomeris c l a v a t a in Block A of Long Pine Key (apparently unjustified,
since S ~ h e n o m e r i scontinues t o thrive at i t s old site) and concern t h a t a n
earlier f i r e severely damaged t h e Hypelate trifoliata population.              It is
suggested t h a t t h e following measures be instituted by t h e NPS t o reduce
chances f o r negative impacts upon r a r e plant species f r o m t h e f i r e manage-
m e n t program:

a)    Continue t h e practice of prescribed burning only when soil moisture
      levels a r e relatively high. This protects hammocks and probably tends
      t o "buffer" plant underground parts against high soil temperatures.

b)    Continue to experiment with making individual ignitions i n t h e vicinity
      of hammocks and r a r e plant concentrations aimed at removal of fuel
      from such a r e a s before an intense headfire burns t h e m (Taylor, personal
      communication).

c)    Complete floristic inventory, with emphasis given to a r e a s of intensive
      f i r e management. Compile information o n maps which will be reviewed
      by f i r e management personnel prior to e a c h prescribed burn i n consul-
      tation with t h e plant ecologist and f i r e ecologist.

d)    Institute a program of monitoring f i r e impacts on r a r e plant popula-
      tions. Work on this aspect was s t a r t e d durinfi t h e summer of 1978.

e)    Continue to improve our understanding of fire's natural role and impact
      within South Florida ecosystems.
                                                                                                       6


                                PRELIMINARY LIST OF R A R E PLANT SPECIES

         Basis for t h e list
         The list below includes the following species known by the authors t o occur in
         South Florida a r e a s managed by t h e U.S. National Park Service (Everglades
         National Park = ENP, Big Cypress National Preserve = BICY, Biscayne National
                    = BISC, and F o r t Jefferson National Monument = FOJE):

                1)    Those which occur on the list prepared by t h e Smithsonian Institution
                      (1974) for t h e U.S. Congress, entitled "Report on r a r e and endangered
                      species of t h e United States,"
                2)     Those which occur on t h e list of plants prepared by t h e Florida
                       C o m m i t t e e o n R a r e and Endangered Plants and Animals (1 976).

                3)    Species endemic t o South Florida (defined as t h e a r e a south of t h e
                      Caloosahatchee River, Lake Okeechobee, and t h e St. Lucie Canai), as
                      determined by a review by Avery and Loope (1979).

I               4)     Other species which might be considered rare.

         Nomenclature for t h e list partially follows t h a t in Long and Lakela (1971), but
         diverges in cases where Avery has noted t h a t recent taxonomic revisions and
         monographs and usage by specialists indicate t h a t nomenclature used by Long and
    ,I
         l a k e l a is inappropriate. Voucher specimens for most t a x a listed a r e included in t h e
,    +   Everglades National Park herbarium.
         Major sources of information for t h e list and distributional information are as
     *
         follows:    G. N. Avery's field notes and experience; herbarium of Everglades
         National Park; Long and Lakela (197 1); Avery and Loope (1979); Loope et al. (1979);
         Black m d Black (1978) and personal communication; Craighead (1963); Luer (1972);
         Little:Q976); Little (1978); and D. F. Austin, personal communication. Assistance
         was given by members of t h e research staff at t h e South Florida Research C e n t e r
         in Everglades National Park.                            r
                                                                 .



         Explanation of symbols used in conjunction with list
         Symbols used in the c h a r t accompanying t h e list a r e interpreted as follows:
                "Level of Concern"
                For Smithsonian List (Smithsonian Institution, 19741, T = Threatened ("those               I
                species o f plants t h a t a r e likely t o become endangered within t h e foreseeable
                future throughout all o r a significant portion of their ranges"), and E =
                Endangered (''those species of plants in danger of extinction throughout all o r
                a significant portion of their ranges").
                For list of Florida C o m m i t t e e (19761, E = Endangered, T = Threatened, R =
                Rare and R E = Recently Extirpated
An a t t e m p t is made to roughly assess t h e level of concern for species in this report
by assigning numbers on a 1-5 scale, with t h e following interpretation assigned to
e a c h number:
      1   -           Species of highest concern. These a r e very r a r e species of which
                      a ) populations have been reduced by development outside parks, by past
                      collecting within or outside parks, and/or by f i r e damage; o r
                      b) populations occupy habitats which require a c t i v e ecosystem manipu-
                      lation to restore and perpetuate processes which have been a c t i n g o n
                      South Florida native vegetation for millenia (primarily fire).
      2   -           Species which have apparently always been extremely rare in South
                      Florida (often t h e result of chance dispersal from f a r t h e r south in t h e
                      American tropics, where they may b e relatively common) and subject to
                      natural disasters.
      3   -           Species which have a very restricted range in t h e United States.
                      Formerly common within range, but have been reduced (by f i r e damage,
                      collectors, lowering of w a t e r tables, etc.).
      4   -           Species which have a very r e s t r i c t e d range in t h e United States, but
                      which a r e still at l e a s t moderately common within range. Active
                      management (usually prescribed burning) should suffice t o perpetuate
                      populations a t s a f e levels f o r t h e foreseeable future.
      3   -           Species which have a very restricted range in t h e United States, but
                      which a r e still at least moderately common within range. Populations
                      should be r a t h e r s t a b l e f o r t h e foreseeable f u t u r e without a c t i v e
                      management by t h e National Park Service.
"Appropriate Management Action"

Management recommendations at this s t a g e can only b e a first approximation.
Symbols under this heading in t h e c h a r t a r e t o b e interpreted as follows:
      Vl      -                                                             d

                      Normal visitor use should b e channeled away from s i t e s of populations
                      of this species.
      V2      -       Special emphasis upon proper education of visitors and enforcement of                       -
              .       park regulations may suffice to allow adequate protection.
      Fl      -       High priority should b e given to fuel reduction and suppression programs
                      to reduce chances of destruction of populations by fire.
      F2      -       Preservation requires periodic burning of immediate habitat.
      I   -           Emphasis should be given to precisely locating populations of this
                      species t o enable adequate protection.
      M1          -   Monitoring of populations h a s been initiated in 1978.
1   MZ - Monitoring of populations is needed f o r assuring adequate protection.

    R   -       High priority should b e given t o experimental e f f o r t s at reintroduction
                of t h e species to habitats where i t was initially more abundant than at
                present.
    N1      -   No particular management problem occurs.             Populations a r e secure
                without massive habitat destruction.
    N2      -   No particular management problem occurs, but populations a r e vulner-
                a b l e t o hurricanes.
                                     Level of Concern
                                  Smith-
                                  sonian Florida     This        Habitat, Status, and Location                 Range and Status Outside                           Appropriirrt
     Species ( F a m ~ l y )       List Committee   Report          in South Florida Parks                       South FIor~daParks                            Managemenr 4cr1oos
Psiloturn nudum (L.) Eeauv.                             5    Present in ENP and BICY, generally in              Heavy coliection pressure, but still              V2
(Psllotaceae)                                                hammocks. Plants scattered and sometimes in        present in many dreas. k u t h e a s t e r n
 Whisk  Fern                                                 unexpected habitats (e.g., successional            U.S., pantropical.
                                                             Myrica forest on abandoned farmland of ENP).
          eatanil Hieron.
Selag~nelIs                                                  Very rare. Known from a few sites in               Known from several other Dade Co.                V1, F2?, \!i
T~rndl                                                                                                 s
                                                             limestone solution holes of p i ~ l a n d and      sites. ,Also in the Bahamas.
                                                             hammock edges, Long Pine Key, ENP.
0 hlo lossum        almaturr L.      T        E              Formerly present at hlahogany Hammock,            Very rare, but present a t a few sites            VI, FI
e
+*                                                           ENP, but was eliminated following construction    in Florida. Also present scattered
Hand Fern                                                    of boardwalk. Extremely rare on                   over wide a r e a of New World and Old
                                                             palmetto in BICY. Extremely susceptible           World Tropics.
                                                             t o fire damage and removal by collectors.
Tr ichomanes holopter urn                                    Known in U.S. from only one area in BICY,         West lndies
Kunze                                                        where i t grows on rotten logs.
(Hymenophyllaceae)
Anemia wri h t i ~
                 Bak                                         Recently found in one small a r e a within ENP,   Known from a band of hammocks along               1
                                                             on the margin of Taylor Slough.                   "Context Road," W of Homestead, Fla.,
                                                                                                               just outside boundaries of ENP. Also
                                                                                                               in the Bahamas and Cuba.
Vtttarta lineata (L.) Snl.                                   Crows only on Sabal palmetto, in ENP and          Found in Florida up t o Georgia                   V2, F2
EiGLZ&-                                                      BICY. Locally cornmon.                            border. Throughout Arnerican
bhoestring Fern                                                                                                Tropics.
1
I
I
I
1
I                                  Lebel o Concern
                               Sm~th-
                                          f
                               soiran Florida      Th~s     Habrtat, Status, and Location                 Range and Status Outside                           Appropr~are
    Spec~es
    ------ (Fdrn~ly)            Llst Committee Report          i n South Florida Parks                      South Fior~da
                                                                                                              -
                                                                                                                          Parks                          'Aanagenenr i c : tnls
                                                                                                                                                                       --- - - --- -
    Polypodrum plumula Humb. &                        2   Has been collected in one hammock i n ENP,        Rare, known frorn Florida                         N2,
    Bonpl. ex Willd.                                      but not seen recently.                            peninsula up to Alachua Co.
    (Pol) pod~aceae)                                                                                        Tt~roughouttrop~cal Amer~ca.
    Pol   odrum hetero hvllum L.                      4   Locally common i n hammocks of NU' portion        Very rare in eastern Dade Co.                     Fi
    *+
     e                                                    of ENP and SQ port lon of BICY .                  hammocks (currently known frorn
    V~neFern                                                                                                on1y orre). Present i n Collrer and
                                                                                                            Monroe (Key Largo) Counties outside
                                                                                                            park.) Also In tropical Amer~ca.
    Goniophlebium triser iale (Sw.)                   2   Reported once from Ten Thousand Islands area,     Site i n Ten Thousand Islands is only
    Wherry                                                ENP. Precise location not known.                                   species in U.S. Also
                                                                                                            report for t h ~ s
    (Polypodiaceae)                                                                                         i n trop~calAmerica.
                                                      3   Known from one hammock of Long P i n Key,         Rare I n Fla. Still present in a few
                                                          ENP. ENP Herbarium has one specimen               scattered locations i n Dade and
    Boston Fern                                           from BICY.,                                       Broward counties. Widely distributed
                                                                                                            i n the tropics.
    Acrostichum aureum L.                   R         5   Present under mangroves i n brackish areas of     Known from coastal areas of Dade and              N2
    h e r idiaceae)                                       ENP and BISC.                                     Monroe Counties. Also in West Indres,
                                                                                                            Mexico, South America. Pantropical.
    Adiantum melanoleucum Willd.            R         1   Very rare. Known only from a few solution         Also i n the West Indies                          V I , FI. R
    (Pterldlaceae)                                        holes of one hammock of Long Pine Key, ENP.
    Adiantum tenerum Sui.                             1   Present i n a few hammocks of Long Pine Key,      Small populations l e f t i n a few of the        1'1,   Ff, R
    FiGXZeae)                                             ENP.                                              south Dade Co. hammocks. Also rn
I                                                                                                           Ncot ropics.
                                                  1
I
I
                                   Level of Concern
                               3mith-
                                son~an Florida      fhis         Habitat, Status, and Location                Range and Status Outside                      .4ppropria!e
     Species (Famiiy             List Committee Report              in South Florida Parks                      South Florida Parks                      Management A c t ~ o n s
                                                                                                                                                                            -
Sphenomeris clavara                                 I       Very rare. Known from several very restricted     Presertt in U.S. only a t a few other       V1, F2     - Appears
%\axon                                                      sites in solution holes in limestone, Long Pine   Dade and Monroe Co. sltes. Also in          to be a specres
(Pteridiaceae)                                              Key, ENP.                                         West Indies.                                large]? r e s t r ~ c t e d
                                                                                                                                                          ro solutlon holes
                                                                                                                                                          on hammock edges,
                                                                                                                                                          requiring a rnodcratcl.
                                                                                                                                                          open canopy.
Asplenium serratum L.                     E         1       Rare in cypress strands of BICY.                  Present i n U.5. only in a few locatrons    V I , FI
ir\s~lenlacer                                                                                                 in Florrda. Also in Keotrop~cs.
      d
~ i r Nest Fern
Asplenjum platyneuron (.
                       11                                   Present in one hammock of ENP, in rocky           Common throughout eastern U.S.              Fl
Oakes                                                       glades area. Probably the southernmost
(Aspleniaceae)                                              station for this plant.
Ctenitis sioanei (Poepp.1                           2      . Known from one hammock near Pinecrest in         Rare and scattered in hammocks of           F1
Morton                                                       BICY.                                            southern Florrda. Also in West Indies,
(Aspidiaceae)                                                                                                 elsewhere i n tropical America.
+
The1 terts reptans (2. F.
(Aspidiaceae)

                                                    4       In solution holes in some of the Long Pine Key
                                                            hammocks, ENP.
                                                                                                              Peninsular Florida and Greater
                                                                                                              Antilles.
                                                                                                                                                          V1, I
Thelypterls reticulata (L.)                         2       Present in easternmost part of ENP, and           Rare in Dade and Collier counties.          VI, I
Proctor                                                     probably scattered in BICY.                       American tropics.
(= Menlscium retrcui~tum    (L.) Sw.)
(hspidiaceac)
                                     Level of Concern
                                  3m1th-
                                  sonian  Florida     This         Habitat, Status, and Location                Range and Status O u t s ~ d e               P.ppropriate
    S p e c ~ e (Famrly)
                s                  List Committee Report              in South Florida Parks                                        Parks
                                                                                                                  South F l o r ~ d a                    flanageri~enrArttons
                                                                                                                                                                    --------
Tectaria lobata (Polr.) Morton                          I        Uncommon. Present in solution holes in           Found in U.5. only in hammocks of          Vl, 1
(Aspld,acX                                                       a few of the Long Pine Key harnmacks of          Dade Co. Also prescnt ~n the
                                                                 ENP.                                             Baharnas and Cuba.
                                                         1       Known from one Long Pine Key hammock,            Very srftall populations known frotn two   V \ , Fi, 1
                                                                                                                                                                       1
 ornario sis
kmdbkunzeana (Presl
             m.-
(Loviarropsidacede)
                                                                 ENP.                                             Dade Co. hdfnmoclcs.
7d:r:la u m ~ l a
                L.                                      3        Locally fairly common in pinelands of Long      Fa~rly common in the fe~cremnant
cycad%                                                           Pine Key, ENP. Not recorded from                pinelands of Dade Co. Occurs o ~ e r
Coont ie                                                         pinelands of BICY.                              a wide area of Flor~ds. Also tn West
                                                                                                                 Ind~rb.
I' rtaria pauciflora
k , Hitchc.
 )                                                      2        Apparently not collected often but recently
                                                                 found t o be present in low p~nelands
                                                                 transverse glades of Long P ~ n e
                                                                                                      and
                                                                                                 Key, ENP.

                                                                                                                 Endemic to South Florida. The
                                                                                                                 original collectron was from some-
                                                                                                                 where near Everglades Ctty.
Irnperata brasilrensis Trrn.
T
                                                        4        Uncommon in pinelands of Long Pine Key, ENP Not common, pinelands of South
iPoaceac)                                                        in sites where pockets of shallow soil are                          and
                                                                                                             Florida. Also tn Mex~co other
                                                                 present. Also on Cape Sable.                parts of tropical America.
Errochloa mictiauxii (Poir.)
--                                     T                ?        Presumably present in prairies in western       Scattered distribution on Florida's         I
     ~
r l tchc.                                                        parts of ENP and BICY.                          west coast
  var. srrn sonir H ~ t c h c .
       -
(Poaceae -7
Ar.;:eoeyn ca ban~siiHack.                              4        Widespread and abundant in pinelands of Long    Endemic t o central and South Florida       F2
                                                                 Pine Key, ENP.                                  Rare in Dadc Co. outside ENP. Status
                                                                                                                 elsewhere not known to authors.
                                                             I
      Schizachyrium gracile (Spreng.)       4   Widespread and common in pinelands of Long        Common in pinelands of Dade County                     FZ
      hash                                      Pine Key, ENP.                                    and Lower Florida Keys. Also in
      (Poaceae)                                                                                   West Indies.
I
                                            5   Abundant over wide a r e a s of ENP and BlCY in               to
                                                                                                  E n d c m ~ c South Florida. Abundant                  Nl
                                                "rocky glades," prairies, and pinelands.          in "east Everglades," and st111 present
                                                                                                  in remnant pinelands of the Mrarni area.
       Tripsacum floridanum                 4   Frequent in pinelands of Long Pine Key            Endemic to limestone ridge pinelands                   F2
       Porter e x Vasey                         of ENP.                                           of Dade County. Present in some
       iPoaceae)                                                                                  remnant pirtelands outside ENP.
      Pseddophoenrx sargent ii              1   Native population in U.S. has been reduced        Introduced to several other F l o r ~ d a              Th~s specle5 ?ria)
      Nendl. ex b r a".                                                on
                                                t o about I5 ind~viduals Elliott Key of BISC.     Keys. N a t ~ v e Bahamas, Cuba,
                                                                                                                  to                                     require d i s t ~ ~ r h d ~ i ,
                                                                                                                                                                                 t-
      (i'slrnae)                                                                                  H~spaniola,Dominica, SE \lexica,                       for regcnera t on.
      bargen t's Palm                                                                             British Honduras.                                      Populatioqs s!~olllC
                                                                                                                                                         be uarcired far
                                                                                                                                                         damage 5) e w t I,
                                                                                                                                                         mamrnals.
      Roystonea elara (8artr.f          E   1   Very rare in hammocks of ENP (Paradise Key,       Large numbers exist In natural h a b ~ t a t T n ~ s   species 1s
      r. Harper                                 Small Hammock, Johnson Mound). Formerly           in South Florida only in Fakahatchee           reproducing paorly rn ESP.
      (Palmae)                                  present a t Seven Palm Lake.                      Strand. Present in Collier-Sem~nole            Reasan is not knoun.
      Florida Royal Palrn                                                                         S t a t e Park and northern Deep Lake          Distirrbdnce ma) be
                                                                                                  Strand (just outside BlCY boundary).           r e q u ~ r e dlor r e g e n e r a t ~ s n .
                                                                                                                                in
                                                                                                  Common in c u l t i v a t ~ o n South Fior~da.
                                                                                                  Species also present In Cuba, Pucrto Kico.
      Acoelorra he wria~htii                5   Common in SW portion of ENP and present           Abundant in Fakahatchee Strand.                        N1
1     Lr15-b. d r y U e a m n d 1 .             northward in W portion of park within zone o f    Present in Collier-Seininole S t a t e Park
    . :a aecc.                                  saline influence. Rare in SE portion of ENP.      and vlc~nity. Cuba, Bahan~as,and
I     ' !'aI~riae)                                                                                Rerlize.
                                     Level of Concern
                                 Sml th-
                                 sonian Florida            This          Habitat, Status, and Location              Range and Status a u ~ s r d e                Sppropr~ate
                                                                                                                                                              Llanagrl-nenr A c t ions
       S p e c ~ e ( F a m ~yl
                   s              L a t C o m m ~ t t e e Report            in South Florida Parks                    South Florrda Parks                                       ----
Thrinax-
-radiata Lodd. e x
Schult.
                                             T            3        Small populations scattered along south shore
                                                                   of ENP from Cape Sable t o Fan Palm
                                                                                                                                               Keys,
                                                                                                                   Common on upper F l o r ~ d a
                                                                                                                   uncommon on lower. West Indres and
                                                                                                                                                              Severe damage by t h e
                                                                                                                                                              exotic red-bellled
(Palmael                                                           Hammock, and on Florida Bay Keys. Also          Central America                            s q ~ r r r e ihas occurred
Thatch Palm                                                        present in BISC.                                                                           on Elliott Key of BISC. \ \ I
Thrinax rnorrissii H. Wendl.                              I        Present in some quantity in BISC.               Common In prnelands and thrckets           Severe datrdge 5) tt8c
IPalrnae)
. --   -~
                                                                                                                   of lower Florida Keys, less common         cxorlc \\exrrnq rez-
Brittle Thatch Palrn                                                                                               in upper. West Indres, Raharna Islands.                        ei
                                                                                                                                                              bellred b q ~ ~ r r has
                                                                                                                                                              occurred on f1110~1 t , K
                                                                                                                                                              of BI5C. II  \
Coccot hrinax argentata                      T .          3        Uncommon in pinelands of Long Pine Key,         Common in the few remnant pineland       F2, \I1
(Jacq.) Bailey                                                     ENP. Present in BISC.                           sites outside ENP in Dade Co. Common
(Palmael                                                                                                           in pinelands of lower Florida Keys. 91s3
Silver Palm                                                                                                        in Broward Co., Fia. Present in Baharna
                                                                                                                   Islands and West Indles.
Tillandsia valenzuelana                                   5        Locally common in hammocks and cypress          Ranges widely but becoming depleted        V2, FI
A. Richard                                                         swamps of ENP and BICY. Also present in         in South Florida. Also ~n West Ind~es,
(Bromeliaceae)                                                     mangrove zone of ENP. Not yet recorded          Central a n d South Smerrca.
Sof t-leaved Wild Pine                                             for BISC.
Tillandsia urriculata 1.                                  5        Widespread and common in ENP and BICY.          Widespread in South Florida. Also          V2, FI
(drolnellacr                                                       Also recorded for BISC.                         in West Indies, Central and South
Giant Wild Pine                                                                                                    America.
                  a
Tillandsra ~ u y Sw.                         T             I       Present locally in cypress and pond apple       SparinglypresentrnColl~erCo.,Fla.           V1,FI
7l3rorneiiaceac                                                    areas of BICY.                                  Also in \\"esst lndies and elseurhere in
Hoary .4ir Plant                                                                                                   tropical America.
                                Level of Concern
                                  h
                           S m i t.
                           m i a n Florida       lh&       Habitat, Status, and Lacation                 Range and Status Outside                     A~propr~ate
  Species (Family)           List Committee R e p w t         i n South Florida Parks                      South Flortda Parks                     Vanagemen! ?cr ~ o n s
                                                                                                                                                                      ----
                                                   3    Locally common i~ dwarf mangrove areas                                                        V2, FI
Tillandsia
rpolystachia
(Bromeliaceae)
                                                        of ENP (Craighcad, 1963). One of the less
                                                        common bromeliads in cypress areas of BICY.

                                                                                                          Becoming rare in South Florida out-
                                                                                                          side parks. Also West Indies, Central
                                                                                                          and South America.
Keddish Wild Pine
 Tillandsia flexuosa Sw.
(rme)
 o ee
   l
   c
   f
8 aa
Banded Wild Pime                                        BISC.                                             elsewhere in t r o p ~ c a lAmer~ca.
Tillandsia circinnata                              5    Locally common in ENP, especially in coastal      Widespread in South Florida, but
Schlecht.                                               areas. Also in BISC and BICY.                     declining outside parks. Also 'Aftst
(Bromeliaceae)                                                                                            Indies, Mexico.
Twisted Air Plant
Tillandsia balbisiana                              5    Very common in a variety of habitats,             Widespread and locally common in
Schul tes                                               especially hammocks and cypress in ENP and        South Florida. Also in West Indies,
(Bromeliaceae)                                          BICY. Also present in BISC.                       Central and South America.
Heflexed Wild Pine
C a t o is berteroniana                            3    Locally common in hammocks, pinelands,            Only in South Florida in U.S.
-
=
tSchultes) Mez ex D.C.                                  and primarily mangrove zone of ENP.               Uncommon outside ENP. Also in
                                                        Present in at least one cypress strand of BICY    tropical America.
                                                        (Black and Black, personal communication).
Catopsis floribunda                                1    Rare in ENP, possibly confined t one small
                                                                                        o                 Present in Fakahatchec Strand. Only in      V I, F I
L. 8. Sm.                                               a r e a of Long Pine Key.                                           ..
                                                                                                          South Florida in U S Also in tropical
(Brorneliactae)                                                                                           America.
Catopsis nutaris (Sw.)                                  Not presently known from BICY, but may be         Present in F a k a h a t d u e Strand.      VI, 1
Criseb.                                                 present there.                                    Only in South Florida in U.5. Also in
                                                                                                          tropical America.
                                     Level of Concern
                                3rn1th-
                                sonian FloriQ         This       Habitat, Status, and Location            Range and Status Outside                      Appropriate
       Species (Family)           List Committee Report             in South Florida Parks                  South Florida Parks                      Management Actions
                                                                                                                                                                     -
    Guzmania monostachia                    E          1     Present in one of the Long Pine Key          Present only in 5outh Florida in U.S.        V l , F!, I
             ex Mez                                          hammocks, ENP. Locally common in portion     Locally common in Fakahatchee Strand,
                                                             of a cypress strand of BICY (Black and       W of BICY. Also in West Indies, South
                                                             Black, personal communication).              America.
'   H menocallis almeri Wats.                                Locally uncommon in wet prairies of ENP.     Endemic to Sourh Florida. In wet             Ni
    l2k3izze*                                                Present in prairies of BICY.                 prairies throughout but nowhere
                                                                                                          common.
    H menocallis latifolia                                   Uncommon on shores and keys of Florida Bay
    b
    (Amar yllidaceae)
                                                             in ENP, and on shores and in hammocks of
                                                                                                          Endemic to South Florida, north to
                                                                                                          Broward Co. and Lee Co.
                                                                                                                                                       N1
                                                             BlSC and FOJE.
    Burmannia flava Mart.                                    Possibly present in BlCY                     Known from Fakahatchee strand.               I
    l~urmanniaceae)
    Vanilla phaeantha                                        In hammocks on north shore of Florida Bay    Known from Fakahatchee strand,
    Heichenb. f.                                             in ENP. Probably in same cypress areas of    West Indies.
                                                                                                                                                       I, N
                                                             BICY.
    Vanilla barbellata                                       Fairly common in buttonwood hammocks of      Only in S. Fla. in U.S. and rare outside     Habitat threatened
    Heichenb. f.                                             SE portion of ENP, W to Cape Sable           ENP. Also in Cuba and Bahamas.               by invasion of
    (Orchidaceae)                                            (buttonwood zone), and along mangrove belt                                                Casuar ina.
                                                             of western ENP.
    Spiranthes costariceniis                                 Reported by Lucr (1972) as having been       Only known from single ENP site in
    Iteichenb. 1.                                            discovered in single ENP hammock in 1953,    South Florida. Also in Central and
    (Orchidaceae)                                            in humus along margins of solution holes.    South America.
                                                             Appears to have been lost.
                                Level of Concern
                            Smith-
                            sonian Florida       This       Habitat, Status, and Location               Range and Status Outside                      Appropr~are
       Species (Family)      List Committee Report             in South Florida P a r k                   South Florida Parks                      Management Acr ions
  Spiranthes polyantha                                  Reported by L w r ( 1972) as having been         Has been found a t several sites in
  Kerchenb. 1.                                          first discovered in U S on Elliott Key (BISC)
                                                                             ..                          central and northern Florida. Also
  (Orchidaceae)                                         in 1915. No location known there a t present.    in blexico, West Indtes.
  Er throdes guerceticola                               Presently known in one ENP harnmock              Present in Ffor~da,S. Mrssrss~ppl,          Not a stwwy or
  im
  7e
  bs                                                    (Fairchild, Block H of Long Pine Key) and in     SE Texas, West Ind~es,Central and           consp~cuousorchrd.
  (Orchidaceae)                                         Hammock R36 NE of Pinecnst in BICY.              South America.                              F1
  Platanthera @                                         Occurs locally in "Loop" area of BICY between    Reaches S limit of its range in BICY.       N1
  ? ~ u t t . )Luer                                     Oasis and Roberts Lake Strand.                   Range extends to Texas and New
  (Orchidaceae)                                                                                          Jersey.
   Habenaria uin ueseta                                 Present sparingly in pinelands of Long Pine Key, Native t o SE U.S., Florida to SE Texas     N1
A- [               :
              .'A. a ton                                ENP. Also present, but rare in hammocks          and South Carolina. Rare in pinelands
     var. quinqueyta                                    of P i n c r e s t area, BICY.                   of south Dade Co. and on Big Pine Key,
   (Orchidaceae                                                                                          Monroe Co.
  Enc clia tampense                                     Very common in hammocks, mangrove zone,          Most abundant orchid in South Florida,      VZ, FI
  &small                                                and cypress forests of ENP and BICY. Present     although declining. Present in
  (Orchidaceae)                                         in BISC. Has been greatly reduced locally by     peninsular Florida and Bahamas.
  Butterfly Orchid                                      fire ahd probably by collecting.
  Encyclia cochleata (1.)                               Present in many hammocks of Long Pine Key,       Moderately common in South Florida.         Vl, FI
  Oressler                                              ENP. Also in cypress strands of BICY.            Not found elsewhere in U.S. Also
  (Orchidaceae)                                                                                                                         Central
                                                                                                         present in 'Yest Indles, Mex~co,
  Clamshell Orchid                                                                                       America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
                                 Level of Concern
                             Smith-
                             sonlan Florida       This        Habitat, Status, and Location               Range and Status Outside                       Appropriate
    Species (Family)          List Committee Repart              in South Florida Parks                     South Florida Parks                       Managemenr Xcr ~ o n s
Enc clia boothiaria             T       E          1     Rare in mangrove zone of ENP, especially         Also known from Key Largo, but not            Vl, R
&Dressler                                                on buttonwood.                                   elsewhere in U.S. Also present in       -
(Orchidaceae)                                                                                             West Indies, Mexico, Guatemala,
Dollar Orchid                                                                                             Belize.
fipidendrum y a p s 3acq.                         3      Locally common in cypress strands in BlCY        Fairly comrnon in Fakahatchee Strand          I
 Orchidaceae                                             and possibly present in ENP as well.             and vicinity, but not present in U S
                                                                                                                                            ..
Brown .Epiclendrum                                                                                        outside Florida. Also presenr in West
                                                                                                          Indies, Mexico, Central and South
                                                                                                          America.
E idendrum difforme Jacq.                          2     Rccordcd from BICY f tom hammock near            Fairly common in South Florida, but not       I
h a e -                                                  1-28 Tieback Canal (Black and Black,             present elsewhere in U.S. Also present
Umbelled Epidendrum                                      1978) and probably present elsewhere             in West Indies, Mexico, Central and
                                                         in BICY.                                         South America.
E idendrum nocturnum 3acq.                         3     Fairly common in Long Pine Key hammocks          Widespread but becoming rare, in South        VI, Fl
h a e -                                                  of ENP and in cypress forests of BICY.           Florida. Not present elsewhere in U.S.
Night-blooming Epidendrum                                                                                 Also present in West Indies, ,Mexico,
                                                                                                          Central and South America.
Epidendrum acunae                                  2     Very rare. Eelievcd t o occur in one locality    Formerly known in U.S. only from              1
Dressler                                                 in cypress strand in BICY.                       Fakahatchee Strand. Also present in
(Orchidaceae)                                                                                             Cuba, Central America.
E idendrum ri idum 3acq.                           3     Moderately common in Long Pine Key               One of the commonest orchids of South         V2, FI
k a e +                                                  h a m m o c k of ENP and in cypress forests of   Florida, but declining. Not present
Matted Epidendrum                                        BICY.                                            elsewhere in U.S. Also present in West
                                                                                                          Indies, .Mexico, Central and Quth
                                                                                                          Amer~ca.
                                    Level of Concern     .
                               Srnr th-
                               sonian Florida        This        Habitat, Status, and Location                Range and Status Outslde                    Appropr~~!~
    Specres (Family)            List Committee Report               in South Florida Parks                      South Florida Parks                    'danagerncn: XCTIO~I,
 Pol stach a concreta                                  3     Fairly common in hammocks of Long Pine           Moderately cornmon over much of South \'2, F1
y-            r sweet                                        Key of ENP. Uncommon in hammocks of              Florida, but not found elsewhere in U.C.
                                                             mangrove zone, ENP. Uncommon in cypress          Also in 'West Indies, Mexico, Central and
                                                             strands of BICY.                                 South America, Africa, South Asia,
                                                                                                              Indonesia, and Phrlippines.
              punctatum                                I     Extremely rare in hammocks of Long Pine          Present in U.S. only ~n South Florida,     V1
                                                             Key of ENP and sparingly present in mangrove     primarily in vicinity of Brg Cypress
 (Orchidaceae)                                               forests on t h e north shore of Florida Bay.     swamp. Also in West Indies, Mexico,
 Cow Horn Orchid                                             Uncommon, but widespread, in cypress forests     Central, and South A m e r ~ c a .
                                                             of BICY.
Govenia utriculata Lindl.                              2     Discovered in 1957 i n one hammock of ENP        Not present elsewhere in U.S. Also
(Orahidaceae)                                                in Long P i n Key area. Not seen recently.       present in West Indies, Central, and
                                                                                                              South America.
 Galeandra beyrichii                                   2     In ENP, known only from trailside in one         Present in several tropical hardwood       V l ? (yet only known
 Heichenb. 1.                                                Long Pine Key hammock. Plant apparently          hammocks of Dade Co. Also in West          site in ENP is
 (Orchidaceae)                                               may lie d o r m m t for several years.           Indies, South America.                     adjacent t o surf aced
                                                                                                                                                         trarl); FI
Maxillaria crassifolia                      E          1     Rather abundant a t one locality in BICY,        Otherwise known (Luer, 1972) in U.S.       V1, FI
I m e i c h e n b . f.                                       where i t is epiphytic on pond apple.            only from Fakaharchee Strand. Also in
(Orchidaceae)                                                                                                 West Indies, Central and.South America.
 Brassia caudata (L.) Lindi.                RE         I     Until recently was known from one hammock        Present until 19Z09sin N~xon-Lewis         R
 (Orchidax                                                   (Block A) of Long Pine Key. The last             Hammock near Homestead. Never
 Spider Orchid                                               remaining known individual in the wild was       elsewhere in U.S. than Dade Co. Alu,
                                                             killed by the freeze of January 1977. Persists   in West Indies, Central and South
                                                             in cultivation in limited numbers.               America.
                         b-        b                                                                                                                         ~   \     _*
                                     Level of Concern
                                 Smith-
                                 sonian Florida       This         Habitat, Status, and Location                Range and Status Outside                     4pproprlate
    Species
    - (Family)                    Llst Committee Report               in South Florida Parks                      South Florida Parks                   'danagernent 4 c t Ions
                                                                                                                                                                      --------
    Oncidium ensatum Lindl.                              1       Infrequent i n hammocks of Long Pine Key in      Present in U.S. only in South Florida,  V2 (Vi"), F l
    (tor     fforidanum~
                       mes)                                      ENP.                                             north to Collier Co. Also in Bahamds. .
    (Orchidaceae)
    Oncidium altissimum                                  1       Main habitat in U.S. is in mangrove zone of      Present in U.S. only in South Florida,     VI
    o    w    .                                                  ENP.                                             north t o Collier County. .41w in West
    ( : .luridum Lindl.)
       0                                                                                                          Indies, Mexico, Central and South
    (0rZidaceael                                                                                                  America.
    Mule-ear orchid
    Oncid~um carthagenense                               2       Collected m a r Coot Bay (ENP) in 1915 by                                     Central
                                                                                                                  Present in West Ind~es,Mex~co,
    o   w    .                                                   3. K. Small and not seen in U.S. since.          and South America.
    (Orchidaceae)
    Macradenia lutescens                                 1       Present until recently (Luer, 1972) in a         Not known in U.S. outside ENP.             R, although gene
    R. Brown                                                     hammock of ENP. May be extinct in the US ..      Formerly present a t several other         pool may already be
    (Orchidaceae)                                                                                                 Dade Co. sites. Also occurs in West        lost and s p e c ~ e s
                                                                                                                                                                                  does
    Trinidad Macradenia                                                                                           Indies, South America.                     thrive in cult~vation.
    lonopsis utricularioides                             3       Locally common in cypress strands and            Present in U.S. only in South Florida,     V1, F1
    Lindl.                                                       associated communities (pond apple and pop       where it grows primarily in Collrer Co.
    (Orch~daceae)                                                ash ponds) in BICY. Also present in mangrove     Also in West Indres, Central America,
                                                                 forests of western ENP.                          South Amer~ca.
    Pleurothallis elida Lindl.                                   Known in ENP from single collection in ENP       Uncommon in Fakahatchee Strand.
    lOrchidaceae8-                                               Herbarium frorn "cypress slough, west            Present in tropical Arnerica.
                                                                 side of park."
    Polyrhiza lindenii (Llndl.) Cogn.                    3       Present in cypress strands of BICY.              Present in Fakahatchee strand.
    ex Urban                                                                                                      Bahamas and Cuba.
    (Orchidaceae)
    Ghost Orchld
                                                                                                                                                                                         N
                                                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                             I
L
                                   Level of Concern
                            Smrth-
                                sonian Flortda        This      Habitat, Status, and Location                Range and Status Dutslde                         Appropriate
 Spec~es
       (Farntly)                 L ~ s t Committee   Repopt        in South Florida Parks                      South F l o r ~ d a
                                                                                                                                 Parks                 'hlanagemen~Act tons
                                                                                                                                                         -----            -----   ----
Peperomia f lor idana                                     3   Present in a few hammocks on Long Pine Key       Fakahatchee, Dade hammocks, Broward. FI, V 2
Small                                                         ENP. Also in cypress strands within BICY.        Endemic t o south Florida. (Note: Recent
(Piperaceae)                                                                                                   oral communications claim that this is a
                                                                                                               synonym of E. obtusifolia)
Pe romia obtusifolia                                      4   Present In only a few of t h e Long Pine Key     Present in some Dade Co. hammocks but 1, F 1, V 2
Kfkir                                                         hammocks of ENP, and formerly known from         not in others. Also in the Fakahatchee
(Piperaceae)                                                  the Flamingo area.                               Strand. Wide ranging in tropical
                                                                                                               America.
Schoe fia chrysophylloides                                5   Uncommon in hammocks of Long Pine Key and        Present in U.S. only in Florida, from        F1
-
z5
 A. Rich. Planchon
(Olacaceae)
                                                              in hammocks N of Long Pine Key, ENP.
                                                              Present in numerous hammocks of Pinecrest
                                                                                                               Upper Keys N to Voiusia and Pinellas
                                                                                                               Cos. Rare outside ENP.
Gulf Graytwig                                                 area of BICY (Black and Black, 1978).
Aristolochia ntandra (Jacq.)                              2   Very rare on W i o t t and Sands Keys, BISC.     Also in West Indies.
(Aristolochiak
Okenia hypogaea                                           2   Present on one key on the Gulf in Ten            Rare on beaches, Key Biscayne t o Jupiter,
Schlect. & Cham.                                              Thousand Islands, ENP.                           east coast of Florida. Also in Mexico.
Clematis baldwinii T. & G.                                    Rare in pinciands of Long Pine Key, ENP.         Endemic t o Florida. Present in pinelands F2
(Hanunculaceae)-                                              Appears t o be an annual species which initiates of Dade Co. Status elsewhere unknown
                                                              life cycle with germination following fire.      t o authors.
                       (L.)
Prunus m r t i f o l ~ a Urb.                                 Locally fairly common in hammocks of Long        Rare in hammocks of Dade County.             Fl, U 2
~ e + '                                                       P i m Key, ENP. Not known from hammocks          Absent from Florida Keys. Also in
U'est Indian Cherry ,                                         of BICY (Black and Black, 1978).                 West Indies.
I
                                         Level of Concern
                                     Smtth-
                                     sontan Florida       Th~s        Habitat, Status, and Location               Range and Status O u t s ~ d e                Appropriare
I         Species (Family             List Committee Report              in South Florida Parks                     South Florida Parks                    ilanago-nenr Actron5
                                                                                                                                                                       -
                                                                                                                                                                       -
                                                                                                                                                                       .
I
    Licania michauxii                                    4       Uncommon in east end of Long Pine Key, ENP.     lJncommon in various pinelands of Dade F2, hi1
    Prance                                                                                                       Co. and on the lcwer Florida Keys.   .
    (Chr ysobalanaceae)                                                                                          Ranges north to Georgia and bl~ssissippi.
    Gopher Apple                                                                                                 Common in central Florida.
    Acacia ixtorurn Hermann                                      Present sparingly in pinelands and glades of    in pineland and scrub from Lee and        F2, k t 2
    m
    =&
     i                                                           Long Pine Key, ENP.                             Dade counties to tlre lower Florida Keys.
    ~in;land Acacia                                                                                              Also in \Vest fndies.
    Rh nchosia cinerea Nash            T                         Rare in pinelands of Long Pine Key, ENP.                             of
                                                                                                                 Present in p~nelands Lower Florida         F2
    w                a                     ~                                                                     Keys and in Florida north t o Lake Co.
                                                                                                                 Endemic t o Florida.
    Rh nchosia swartzii                                          Probably present on the Keys of BISC, but not   Rare in hammocks of Florida Keys.           I, NI
                                                                 seen recently.                                  Also in Bahama Islands and Cuba.
    (Leguminosae)
    Cassia deerin iana                                           Widespread and common in pinelands of Long      Endemic t o Florida. Found in south         F2, 5!1
           .b
           &c
            *
            a
            r                                                    Pine Key, ENP.                                  Florida, west central Florida, and the
    (Legutninosae)                                                                                               panhandle.
    Desmodiutn lineatutn DC.                                     Rare and local in pimlands o Long Pine Key,
                                                                                             f                   Known frsm several remnant pinelands        F2, U I
    ? ~ e ~ u m t n o s a r                                      ENP.                                            of Dade Co. outside ENP. Ranges
                                                                                                                 north in sandy pinelands t o :\Iaryland
                                                                                                                 and Louisiana.
    F p h r o s i a florida                                      Rare and local in pinelands of Long Pine Key,   N to Louisiana and North Carol~na.          F2
     F. G. ll~etr.)~..        Wood                               ENP.                                            Known frorn a few pinelands of South
                                                                                                                 I)a&- Co.
                                  Level of Concern
                              !5iiar----
                              sonran Florrda        Thrs             H a b ~ t a t ,Status, and Locatton        Range and Status Outs~de                            l?oroprtitc
     Specres (Famrly)          L ~ s t Committee   Report                 ~n South Florida Parks                                    Parks
                                                                                                                  South F l o r ~ d a                          1ianage:rle;: ir:ton
                                                                        -                                                                                               - --- - -. - s -   -    --
Aeschynomene pratensis                               5          Present in Taylor Slough and Shark Valley       Endemic t o South Florida. Known                 UI
Srnall                                                          in ENP.                                         frorn Brouard Co. and IS probably
 var. p!atensy                                                                                                  present in the three conservat~on areas
(Leguminosae                                                                                                    of southeast Florida.
l n d ~afera ke ensis Small                                     No ENP specimen in ENP herbarium, but           Endemic t a South Florida. Present in            XI
s
&
*o                                                              reported from area near Flamingo.               Upper and Middle Florida Keys.
Stylosanthes calcicola                                          Uncommon in pinelands and pineland-glade        Formerly considered endemic t o South            F2
Small                                                           margins of Long Pine Key, ENP.                  Florida. Present in pinelands and
(Leguminosae)                                                                                                   pineland-glade margins of Dade Co.
                                                                                                                and lower Florida Keys. Recently found
                                                                                                                on Grand Bahama Island.
Galactia inetorum Small                              3          Uncommon in pinelands of Long Pine Key,         Endemic t o South Florida. Present in  F2, h l 2
~ r n 5 - a -                                                   ENP.                                            pinelands of Dade Co. Taxonomic status
                                                                                                                uncertain.
--
Linum carter1 Small
 var. srnallii Rogers
                                                     3?         Present in eastern part of ENP (entrance area
                                                                and Long Pine Key). Also known from
                                                                                                                                                         t
                                                                                                                Endemic t o South Florida. C o n f ~ n e d o
                                                                                                                Dade Co.
                                                                                                                                                                 I, XI, seerns to t h r ~ v e
                                                                                                                                                                 ~n disturbed habitats
( ~ i n a c x                                                   Monument Road area of BICY.                                                                      (roadstd~s, levees, etc.)
Guaiacurn sanctum L.                                  1         Locally present on Totten and Old Rhodes        Uncommon and local in Upper F l o r ~ d a        V2
(ZyRophyl~ a c e a e )                                          Key in BISC.                                    Keys. Also West lndies and Central
                                                                                                                America.
Alvaradoa amorphoides                                 1     .   Uncommon in pinelands of Block A, western       Occurs in a few hammocks of South                Fl?, F2, MI
L~ebm.                                                          Long Pine Key, ENP.                             Dade Co. Very rare. Also In Bahamas,
(Simaroubaceae)                                                                                                 Cuba, and Central America t o
Mexican Alvaradoa                                                                                               Nicaragua.
I
    -.
    +-                           ----                        -
I
I
                                             Level of Concern
                                         Sml th-
                                         sonlan Florida       This              Habitat, Status, and Location              Range and Status Outs~de                        Appropriate
               Spec~es
                     (Family)             L ~ s t Committee Report                 in South Florida Parks                    South Flor~daParks                         Management Act ~ o n s
                                                                                                                                                                                                 --
         Polvgala boykinii Nutt.           T                  3           Locally common in pinelands of Long Pine        Formerly believed to be a South Florida        FZ
                                                                          Key, ENP. This may be the only area occupied    endernic, but now known t o exist also in
         I;~ig;c;iibt~a       Wheelock                                    by this taxon on the U.S. mainland.             Bahamas where it 1s widespread. Also
                                                                                                                          present in pinelands of lower F l o r ~ d a
                                                                                                                          Keys.
         Croton humilis L.                                    2           Rare on dry limestone outcrops on hammock       Formerly present on Big P ~ n e
                                                                                                                                                        Key, but         F2
         (Euphorbiaceae)                                                  margins in BICY north of Pinecrest. Presently   now extirpated. Present In South
                                                                          known only from BlCY in Florida.                Flor~da,South Texas, Mexico.
         Stillin ia s lvatica L.           T                 4            Uncommon in pinelands of Long Pine Key,                                            s
                                                                                                                          Also present a t pinelands s ~ t e of Dade     F2
                               Rogers                                     ENP. Has been collected in Collier Co. and                         ENP. Endem~c o
                                                                                                                          County o u t s ~ d e               t
         (Euphorbiaceae)                                                  is probably present in BICY.                    Dade and Collier counties.
         Hi~p~;-t;~,"~yineIla L.                              3           Locally common in hammocks within man-          Very rare or absent ~n Dade Co.                N1
                          1                                               grove zone of SW portion of ENP. Rare in        outside ENP. Moderately rare in
         Manchineel                                                       BISC.                                           Florida Keys a s a result of use for
                                                                                                                          timber and deliberate destruction
                                                                                                                          because of polsanous properties. W ide-
                                                                                                                          spread in Rmerican tropics.
         Ateramnus lucldus (Sw.)                             5            Abundant on islands of BISC. A dominant         Common in upper Florida Keys, but             F1
         Kothm.                                                           t r e e species of old-growth hammock forest    very rare on mainland (Long Pine Key
         ( = G ymnanthes~lucida)                                          of Totten Key. Very rare in hammocks of         rnay be only locality). Also in West
         (Euphorbiaceae                                                   Long Pine Key, ENP.                             Indies, .Mexico, Central America.
         Crabwood
         Poinsettia pinetoru~n                               4            Widespread and fairly cornmon in pinelands      Endemic t o South Florida. Very               F2, MI
         Small                                                        '   of Long Pine Key, ENP.                          limited distribution outside ENP,
         (Euphorbiaceae)                                                                                                  but known t o be present in several
                                                                                                                          Dade Co. liinestone pinelands outside
                                                                                                                          ENP.
                                                                                                                                                                                            h)
                                                                                                                                                                                           r
                                                                  I
-------                        -   --m
                                    -*-       -                      --   -   --*--
                                              Level of Concern
                                          Sml th-
                                          sonian Florida       This                   Habitat, Status, and Location          Range and Status Outside                        Appropriate
              Species (Family)             Llst Committee Report                         in South F l o r ~ d aParks           South Flor~da Parks                        Management Actrons
          Dr e t e s lateriflora                                3             Present in a few hammocks of Long Pine Key     Rare from Florida Keys N t o Broward             Fl
          ?-Sw. Krug & Urb.
          ?-
           -                                                                  in ENP and in a few hammocks north of          Co., Fla. Also in West Indies, southern
          (Euphor biaceae)                                                    Pinecrest and in Bear lsland area of BICY.     Mextco, Central America.
          Guiana-plum                                                         Also present in hammocks in BISC.
          Chamaer ce arberi                  E                   1            Rare in Block A of pinelands of Long Pine      Recorded for Florida Keys but not                F2
          & c !                      ~mdl                                     Key of ENP. Also present in prairie areas of   seen there recently. Endemic to South
          (Euphorbiaceae)                                                     Cape Sable. This taxon may now be confined     Florida.
                                                                              t o ENP.
                                                                                                                                                                          I
          Chamaesyce cumulicola               T                               Not reported from Ten Thousand Islands of      Endemic t o South Florida. Stlll                 I, R (DISC)
          Small                                                               ENP, but probably exists there. Formerly       present on the shores of Collier Co.,
          (Euphorbiaceae)                                                     collected on Elliott Key of BISC, but not      but seems to be gone from its former
                                                                              known from there a t present.                  range in Dade Co.
          Chamaesyce pinetorum                                  4             Widespread and common in pinelands of Long     Endemic to South Florida. Seems t o
          Small                                                               Pine Key, ENP.                                 be confined to limestone pinelands
          (Euphorbiaceae)                                                                                                    of South Dade Co. Still present in
                                                                                                                                                   ENP.
                                                                                                                             pinelands o u t s ~ d e
          Chamaesyce conferta                                   4             Present on Long Pine Key, ENP, where           Endemic t o South Florida. Rare in
          rmall                                                               distribution is s w t t y . Also present in    pinelands of Dade Co. Can become
          (Euphor biaceae)                                                    Pinecrest, BICY.                               weedy habitat.
                                                                                                                             normal in disturbed sltes adjacent t o its
          Chamacsyce porter t~rla             T                  4            Common in pinelands of Long Pine Key.          Rare outside ENP in Dade Co.
          bmal l                                                              Recently discovered in Lostman's Pines area                       to
                                                                                                                             prnelands. Endem~c South
                                                                              of BICY, where i t is rare.                    Florida.
           var.  =?
          (Euphorbtdceae
                                                                                                                                                                                               r\)
                                                                                                                                                                                               l
                                                                                                                                                                                               u
                                                                I
                                  Level of concern'
                              Smith-
                              sontan Florida     ' Thts     Habitat, Status, and Location                Range and Status Ourside                   4ppropriate
  Species (Fantly)             List Committee Report           in South Florida Parks                      South Florida Parks                   Wdnage:nent Acr tons
 -
--                                                                                                                                                                             --
Phyllanthus pentaphyllus             T                4   Abundant and ubiquitous in pinelands of Long     Endemic t o South Florida. Confined t o    F2, b11
C. Wright e x Griseb.                                     Pine Key, ENP.                                   limestone pinelands of South Dade CO.
 var. floridanus Websrer                                                                                   and lower Florida Keys.
c~~pho-
                                                          Very common in pinelands of Long Pine Key,       Endemic t o South Florida. Confined       F2, M I
Tra ia
P saxicola Small
                                                      4
Euphorbiaceae)                                            ENP.                                             t o limestone pinelands of South Dade Co.
                                                                                                           and lower Florida Keys.
Ar thamnia blodgettii                T                1   Rare and localized in a portion of Block A,      Endemic t o South Florida. Known           F2, MI
+.
 m                                                        of pineland, Long Pine Key, ENP.                 from a few pinelands of South Dade
(Euphorbiaceae)                                                                                            Co. and lower Florida Keys.
flex krugiana Loes.                                   3   Uncommon in pinelands and hammocks of            Very rare outside ENP in U.S. Present     M1, probably fire
(Aauif oliaceae)                                          Long Pine Key, ENP. Seems to be most             in a t least one pineland area (Camp      sensitive, but persists
~a\;n~berr~  Holly                                        common in pineland Block 3. Apparently           Owissa Bauer) of South Dade Co. and       in burned pinelands.
                                                          not present in BlCY (Black and Black,            also in a few of t h e Dade Co. hammocks.
                                                          1978).                                           Also in West Indies.
Cal     tranthes zuzygiurn                            1   Very rare, but locally common in Paradise        Present in upper Florida Keys. Also in     F1
7i&--                                                     Key and present in Mahogany Hammock              West Indies.
                                                          of ENP.
Calyptranthes pallens                                 5   Fairly common in hammocks of saline zone in Widespread, but seldom comlnon in               FI
Cr~seb.                                                   SE ENP. Uncommon in hammocks of Long Pine South Florida, including Florida Keys.
:Myrtaceae)                                               Key and in hammocks of rocky glades N of    Also in Llexico, West Indies.
                                                          Long Pine Key, ENP. Uncommon in hamrnocks
                                                          of BlCY and BIFC.
                      f2-X
                   +c::+$#
                       .
                       ?
                       t     ,(A.
                           0,.(
                              O.
                             'C$ .*
                                (. , -.I
                                 ,.
                                     ;'
                                    0< : /,                                                                                                                               N
                                        tq
                                      'wL
                                       8
                                  Level of Concern
                              knith-
                              wnian Florida        This       Habitat, Status, and Location              Range and Status Outside                       Appropriate
       . Species   (Family)    List Committee Report             in South Florida Parks                    South Florida Parks                    Management Actions
  Eu m i a confusa DC.                              5     Small populations known on islands of BISC.    Present in Brickell Hammock in             NI
 r-i y r t a c e r
  k                                                       One of the major species of old-growth
                                                          hammock forest on Totten Key.
                                                                                                         Miami, Matheson Hammock and
                                                                                                         several other hammocks of East
       d
  ~ e Stopper
                                                                                                         Dade Co. and on Key Largo in
                                                                                                         Monroe Co. Also in West Indres.
  M rcianthcs fragrans                                    Locally common in hammocks of Long Pine        Endemic to South Florida. (According       Fl? Appears to have
. *h
  g
  -                                                       Key, ENP and in hammocks N of Long Pine        t o Little (1976), it is restricted to     been stimulated by
   var. simpsonii (Small)                                 Key. Also common in most of the tropical       Dade Co. and is rare and local.)           fire in some hammocks,
  R. W.Lann                                               hammocks in BICY.                                                                         but absent f row
  (~~rtacea;)                                                                                                                                       adjacent pinelands.
  Simpson's Stopper
  Ludwigia spathulifolia                                  Present in Taylor Slough of ENP.               Known from Dade and Lee counties.          I
  Small                                                                                                  Endemic to South Florida. Taxonomy
  (Onagraceae)                                                                                           and distribution poorly understood.
 Jac      inia ke ensis Mez                               Scattered plants on Long Pine Key, and on      Ranges north on west coast of Fla. to      F2 in pinelands; MI
 a
 &
 s
 *                                                        Florida Bay Keys, and in shore hammocks of     Charlotte Co. Present in West
  Joewood                                                 the mainland, all in ENP. Present throughout   Indies. Threatened: Fla. law, 1978.
                                                          the keys of BISC.
  Bumelia reclinata                                       Common in transverse glades on Long Pine       Ranges through Florida and t o Georgia     NI
  E i V e n t .                                           Key, ENP. Present in BICY.                     and Louisiana.
  (Sapotaceae)
  Manil kara bahamensis                                   Locally present along Florida Bay shore in     Locally common in Florida Keys. Also       NI
.-7
m             & Meeuse                                    ENP. Present in hammocks of BISC.              in Bahama Islands, West Indies.
  (Sapotaceae)
                                Level of Concern .
                            Smlth-
                            sonian Florida      This      Habitat, Status, and Location             Range and Status Outside                     Approprtate
    Spezies (Family          List Committee Report           in S w t h Florida Parks                 South Florida Parks                     Management Act tons
Crossopetalum rhacoma                             I    Rare in pinelands of Long Pine Key, ENP.     Known from a few pinelands of Dade           MI, a species of
Crantz                                                 Rare in hammocks of BiSC.                    Co. outside ENP. Also reported from         .hammock margins,
(Celastraceae)                                                                                      several areas near the coast in Collter      probably unable to
                                                                                                    Co. More common on t h e Florida             w~thstand  repeated
                                                                                                    Keys than on the mainland. West              severe frre, but
                                                                                                    Indies.                                      requiring open canopy.
Maytenus phyllanthoides                           2    Uncommon in BfSC. Probably present on        Rare in Florida Keys. Also present          N1
Bent h                                                 the Fla. Bay keys of ENP. Habitat is         on W coast of Florida N to Levy Co.
(Celastraceae)                                         hammocks, dunes.                             Also in south Texas, southern
                                                                                                    California and Mexico.
Schaeffer~a rutescens
          f                                       2    Uncommon in BISC.                            Rare in Florida Keys and coastal areas      NI
Jacs.                                                                                               of SE Dade Co. Also in Bahama
                                                                                                    Islands, West Indies, elsewhere in
                                                                                                    tropical America.
H
?--late dtrifoliatae )Sw.
~a~in acea
white Ironwood
                                                  1    Uncommon and very localized in pinelands
                                                       and hammocks of western Long Pine Key,
                                                       ENP.
                                                                                                    Very rare in Florida Keys and perhaps.
                                                                                                    near Homestead in Dade Co. Also
                                                                                                    West Indies.
                                                                                                                                                F1, F2, M I , appears to
                                                                                                                                                require open 'canopy of
                                                                                                                                                pinelands, but sensit~ve
                                                                                                                                                to severe fire. I -
                                                                                                                                                range in BlSC unknown.
Colubrina cubensis                                1    Uncommon in pinelands of western Long Pine   Very rare in South Dade Co. outside         MI, appears to require
(3acq.)ongn.                                           Key, ENP.                                    ENP. Present in Nixon-Lewis hammock         open canopy of
 var. floridana h4. C. Johnst.                                                                      near Homestead. Var. floridana occurs       pinelands or hammock
(  ~ h a m z                                                                                        in South Florida and Andros Island of       edges, but probably
                                                                                                    Bahamas. Other varieties present in         sensitive to severe
                                                                                                    Cuba and Hispaniola.                        fire.
1
I
                                        Level of Concern
                                    Smi th-
                                    sonian Florida       This        Habitat, Status, and Location             Range and Status Outside
           Species (Family)          List Committee Report              in South Florida Parks                   South Florida Parks
    Colubrina a r b o r e s a n s                        3      Uncommon in pinelands of Long Pine Key,       Present in cosstal hammocks of South            -
                                                                                                                                                       \%I,I range in BlSC
    -.
    g                                                           ENP. Fairly common in hammocks within         Florida and Florida Keys. Also in West   not known.
     (Rhamnaceae)                                               mangrove zone of ENP. Rare in hammocks        Indies, Mexico, Central America.
     Coffee Colubrina                                           north of Pinecrest in BICY. Reported fw
                                                                Sands Key, BISC.
    Colubrina elliptica 15w.I                            2      May be present on islands of BISC. Recorded   Present in U.S. only in upper Florida    I - range in BI5C
    B r a . & Stern                                             from vicinity of Key Largo Ranger Statlon,    Keys. West lndies.                       unknown.
    (Rhamnaceae)                                                ENP.
    Soldierwood
    Reynosia septentrionalis                             5      Fairly common on islands of BISC. Possibly    Locally common in Florida Keys in a      Nl, 1 - range In
    Urbm                                                        present on the shores and keys of Fla. Bay,   wide variety of vegetation types         ENP unknown.
    (Rhamnaceae)                                                ENP.                                          on mainland. Also in Bahama Islands.
    Darling Plum
    -shuttle wort hi^
    Vitts
    tiause
                                                         ?      Recorded frorn vicinity of Donut Lake
                                                                m a r Paradise Key, ENP, and from roadside
                                                                                                              Apparently somewhat rare in South
                                                                                                              Florida. Endemic to Florida.
                                                                                                                                                       Habitat t i s u c c e ~ s i o n a l
                                                                                                                                                       vegetat~on.
    (V~taceae)                                                  scrub on Long Pine Key.                       Status elsewhere not known t o
    Calusa Grape                                                                                              authors.
    t o s s ium hirsutum 1.                              3      Locally present in coastal hammocks           Rare on Florida Keys. Tropical           NI - Survived tnany
    dh---
    Wild Cotton
                                                                and on Florida Bay keys of ENP.               America.                                 years of a t t e m p t e d
                                                                                                                                                                   a
                                                                                                                                                       e r a d ~ c tton.
    Pavonia s icata Cav.                                 2      Uncommon in mangrove zone of western          Mangrove zone of South Florida,          N1
    ~      e      *                                             ENP.                                          tropical America. Occurs outslde
    klangrove Mallow                                                                                          ENP in SE Dade Co.
                                                         I
                                   Level of Concern .
                              Simi th-
                              sonian    Florida    R\ir      Habitat, Status, and Location                 Range and Sratus Outside                   Appropriate
       Species (Family)         List Committee Repoft           in k u t h Florida Parks                     South Florida Parks                   Management Act~ons
    Canella winterana                                5    P w ~ n in hnmmockr within mangrove zone
                                                                   t                                        Present in U.S. in hammocks of             NI
    O e r t n .
    (Canellaceac)
                                                              W
                                                          of S portion of ENP. Fairly colnmon on
                                                          islands of BISC.
                                                                                                            Florida Keys and S portion of ENP.
                                                                                                                               W                   -
                                                                                                            Also in West lndies and elsewhere in
                                                                                                            tropical America.
    Hibiscus grandiflor us                                Present in solution holes of transverse glades of Rare in "East Glades" area of Dade         N1
    MiCtrx.                                               Long Pine Key, ENP. Alro present in BICY.         Co.; more common there before
    (\la1 vaceae)                                                                                           drainage. Ranges N on coastal plain
                                                                                                            to Mississippi and Georgia.
    Pawiflora sexflora Juu.                               Known from Paradise Key, ENP, but not seen        Known from Castellow and Nixon-            F1, R
    liGzziceae)                                           recent)y.                                         Lewis Hammocks, north of
                                                                                                            Homestead. Also in Mexico, West
                                                                                                            Indies, elsewhere in tropical
                                                                                                            America.
    Rhi alb baccif era
    f"
     J.S. ~iliTGGii-
    (Cactaceae)
                                                                      -
                                                          Fwmerly found ~ p u l n g l y rnmgrove forests
                                                                                      in
                                                          of Flamingo Cape Sable region, ENP. Seems
                                                          to !rave been destroyed by hurricanes of 1960
                                                                                                           Also in Mexico, West Indies, other
                                                                                                           parts of tropical America, tropical
                                                                                                           Africa, and Ceylon (only cactus
                                                                                                                                                       R
    Mistletoe Cactus                                      and 1965.                                        native in Old World).
                                                          Locally fairly common in forests of saline amc Uncommon in coastal h a m m ~ k s             V2
                                                          adjacent to Florida Bay, ENP. Present sparingly of South Florida and Florida Keys.
                                                          on islands of BISC.
I                                                    5    Rare in pinelands and hammocks of Long           Present on Key Biscayne and in a            F1, but persists
                                                          Pine Key, ENP. Common in hammocks                few hammocks near Homestead.                in pinelands.
1   Persimmon                                             N of Pinecnst in BICY.                           Species ranges N to Connecticut
                                                                                                           and Iowa. included here only because
                                                                                                           it is rare at its southern limit
                                                                                                           in ENP.
                                  Level of concern'
                              Sml th-
                              sonlan Florida ' This            Habitat, Status, and Location              Range and Status Outside                       Sppropriate
         (Family)
   Spec~es                     Llst Committee Report              in South Florida P a r k                  South Florida Parks                       Management Actions
                                                                                                                                                                           ---
Forestiera segregata             E                3        Moderately common in portions of pinelands     Endemic to South Florida. Present
(Jaco.)urr    & Urb.                                       of Long P i n Key, ENP.                        in retnniint Dade Co. pinelands.
  var: pii~etzrurn(Small)
M. C. Johnst.
(3leaceae)
Leiphairnos pxasitica                             3.       Apparently moderately rare, but w r y          Plants saprophytic on leaf mold in            F1
Schlecht & Cham.                                       ,   inconspicuous in hammocks of Long Pine         hammocks in South Florida and Florida
(Gent ianaceae)                                            Key, ENP.                                      Keys. Very inconspicuous. Also in
                                                                                                          West Indies.
Vallesia ant illana Woodson                       5        Uncommon in hammocks of mangrow m e            Present in Florida Keys. Also                 N1
(.9pocynaW                                                 in southern portion of ENP, W to Cape Sable.   elsewhere in West Indies.
                                                           Alto recorded from BISC.
                                                  2        V r y rare in BISC.                            P r e x n t on a few of the Florida Keys.     I, N2
                                                                                                          Also Bahamas and Cuba.
pomoea microdactyla                               3        Widespread, but rare, in pinelands of Long     In U.S., confined to pinelands of Sauth       F2, MI
Griseb.                                                    P i n Key, ENP.                                Oade Co. Occurs in a t least one
(Convolvulaceae)                                                                                          pineland (Camp Owissa Baucr) outside
                                                                                                          ENP. Also West Indies.
y m o e a tenuissima Choisy                       4        Locally fairly common in pinelands of Long     Apparently restricted to pinelands of         F2, hll
Convolunlaceae)                                            Pine Key, ENP.                                 South Florida. Also in West Indies.
Jacquemantia curtissii           7                4        Common in plnelands of Long Pine Key, ENP.     Endemic t o South Florida. P r e x n t in
iyeterex Hall. f.                                          Present in pinelands of BICY.                  pineiands of South Dade Co. as well as
(Convolvulaceae)                                                                                          in "rocky glades" areas. Also in
i'lneland Morning-Glory                                                                                   pinelands of Collier and Hendry Cos.
                                     Level of Concern .
                                 3mi th-
                                 sonian Florida      This       Habitat, Status, ud Location                 Range and Status Outside                      Appropr~ate
    Species (Family)              List Committee Report            in South Florida Parks                      South Florida Parks                     ,Management Act~ons
Bourreria cassinifolia                                1     Very r q e in pinelands of Long Pine Key,        Very rare in pinelands of South Dade        F2, M I
(       .
  A Griseb.                                                 ENP.                                             Co. Present in several remnant
                                                                                                             pinelands outside ENP; also on Big Pine
                                                                                                             Key of Monroe Co.
-+
Cordia lobosa (Jacq.) HBK.
var. hurnrl~s Iacq.) I. M.
                                                      5     Locally common in hammocks of mangrove
                                                            zone in EN?. Recorded from two hammocks
                                                                                                             Coastal hammocks of South Florida
                                                                                                             and Florida Keys. ,4150 in Wesr Ind~es.
                                                                                                                                                         N1
johnst.                                                     (Turner River and near Pinecrest) from SKY.
(haginaceae)                                                Not recorded from BISC.
Cordia s e k s t e n a 1
                       .                                    Prcsent in coast& hammocks dong Florida          Present in U.S. only in Florida Keys        N2?, V 2
~ l n a c e a e )                                           Bay in ENP. Scattered plants on shores           and extreme 5 portion of Florida
Geiger-tree                                                 a t BISC.    .                                   mainland.
Mallotonia naphalodes                                       Present on f! coast of Elliott Key, BISC. Also   Uncommon in coastal strand areas
                                                            FOJE (Garden Key).                               of South Florida and the Florida
( = Tournefortia gnaphalodes)                                                                                Keys. Also in West lndies.
(Boragtnaceae)
Sea-Lavender
Tournefortia hirsutissima L.                          I     Known from Paradise Key, ENP. Present in         Distribution in South Florida is            F1
b o r a g i n a c e a e r                                   hammocks in various parts of BICY.               limited to a few hammocks in South
                                                                                                             Dade Co. Also present elsewhere in
                                                                                                             tropical America.
Lantana depreaa Small                                       Locally fairly common in pinelands of Long       Endemic to South Florida. Conf~ned to       F2, kt 1
( = p a t i f o l i avar. reclinata)                        Pine Key, ENP.                                   limestone pinelands of South Dade Co.
                                Level of Concern
                            Srncth-
                            sonran Florida       This     Habitat, Status, and Location                Range and Status Outside                   Appropr~are
  Species (Fa-nily)          List Committee Report           in South Florida Parks                      South Florida Parks                   Management ',ct low
Verbena maritima Small                              I   Rare in pinelands of Long Pine Key, ENP,         Endemic to Florida. Occurs along E       F2 in pinelands
t-aceae)                                                mainly in "Pine Island" area. Also collected     Florida coast, N to Volusia Co.
                                                        from hammock N of Pinecrest in BICY.
Hyptit alata (Raf .) Shirvrers                      @   This variety is probably the one present on      Endemic to South Florida. Common in       FZ
 var. s t T b y l l a Shinners                          Long Pine Key of ENP and in the surrounding      the south half of Dade Co., and
(Labiatae                                               glades. Probably also present in BICY.           recorded from Collier Co.
Ocimum micranthum                                   2   Rare and local. Known from limestone outcrops    Present a t widely separated places on    NI
Willd                                                   In one hammock of Long Pine Key, ENP and         hammock margins and glade margins in
(Labiatae)                                              in several hammocks N of Pinecrest in            South Dade Co. and on the Fla. Keys.
Wild Basil                                              BICY.                                            Also in West Indies, Mexico, and else-
                                                                                                         where in tropical America.
Pinffuicula pumila Michx.                               Type specimen of w i t t y is from the edge      Endemic to South Florida, but local      1
  var. buswellii Moldenke                               of BICY, and it may still be in BICY.            range unknown t o authors.
(Lentibulariaceae)
Utricularia resupinata                                  Scattered patches of plants on margins of        Not known to authors outside of
Greene                                                  lower Taylor Slough in ENP. More common          South Florida parks.
(Lentibulariaceae)                                      in cypress prairie areas in BICY.
Stenandrium                                             Widespread, but sparingly present in            Endemic to Florida. Ranges north           F2
kav.) Nees
 var. floridana Gray
                                                                     -
                                                        Muhltnber~ia dominated prairies and             t o Citrus and Orceola Cos. Usually
                                                        pineiands of ENP and BICY.                      noticed only when in bloom following
(~canthaceae)                                                                                           fire.
                                  Level of Concern   -
                              Smith-
                              sonian Florlda       this      Habitat, Status, and Location                 Range and 9tatus Outside                      Appropr~ate
  Spectcs (Family)             L ~ s t Committee Report         in South Florida Parks                       South Florrda Parks                   '.lanage-nent Ict1on3
---        -                                                                                                                                     --------------            ---
El traria caroliniensis           T                  0    Fairly common in transverse glades of Long        Endemic ro South Florida. Present in       - F2
+-
IJ- F Gmel.) Pers.                                        Pine Key, ENP. Present in pinelands of BICY.      low pinelands and glades of Dade Co.
  vat. angusta (Fern) Blake
(Acanthaceae)
i) schwiste oblongifolia                             4    Abundant and ubiquitous in pinelands of Long      Virtually wdemic to South Florida,          F2, MI
h      n     t re                                         Pine Key, ENP. Also present in pinelands          although one station reported from
  var. angusta (Gray)                                     and prairies of BICY.                             Grand Bahama I. Fairly common in
R. w. Long                                                                                                  pinelands of Dade Co. and the Flor~da
(Acanthaceae)                                                                                               Keys.
Rucllia caroliniensis                                4    Present in the transverse glades on Long          Endemic to South Florida. Range outside F2
(J.~mel.)     Steud.                                      Pine Key of ENP.                                  of ENP not well known. Present in
  var. succulents (Small)                                                                                   glade a t Larry and Penny Thompson Park
  R. W. Long                                                                                                in Dade Co.
Barreria terminalis Small                            4    Abundant in pinelands of Long Pine Key, ENP.      Endemic to South Florida. Present in        F2, M I
(Hubiaceae )                                              Also present in rocky glades of ENP and in        pinelands o south Dade Co. and the
                                                                                                                       f
                                                          pinelands of B1CY.                                Florida Keys.
--
Ernodea littoralis Sw.
  var. I ~ t t o r a l ~ s
                                                     I    Uncommon in beach dune cornmunitia along
                                                          Florida Bay in ENP.
                                                                                                            Confined in the U.S. to coastal areas of
                                                                                                            Florida, prirnaril y South Florida. Also
                                                                                                                                                        NI
( ~ u b i a c r                                                                                             in West Indies.
                 Sw.
Ernodea littoral~s                                   1    Not presently known from ENP, although            Very rare in pinelands of South Dade     F2
  var. a n m n ~ a l l )                                  Robertson recorded i t a t a site in pinelands    Co. Still present in several remnant
 R. W. Long                                               of eastern Long Pine Key in the 1950's.           pinelands (Navy Wells, Larry C Penny
(Rubiaceae)                                                                                                 Thompson Park). Moderately common
                                                                                                            in pinelands of Lower Florida Keys. Also
                                                                                                            in West Indies.
                                  Level sf Concern
                              Smr th-
                              sonan Florrda        This     Habitat, Status, and Location               Range and Status Outside                      Spproprrare
 Sprc~es
---
       (Fa-r~~ly)              L~st Commrttee Report
                         ----------
                                                               in South Florida Parks                     South Florida Parks
                                                                                                                                                  -
                                                                                                                                                 '\lanagement + r _ r ~ o q s
                                                                                                                                                               --- -- ---- -    --
Exostema car ibaeum                                   2   Rare in 6I.X (Elliott Key, Old Rhodes           Present in U.S. only in Florida Keys            -
                                                                                                                                                      N1 Formerly much
OR&        S                                              Key).                                           where it 1s uncommon. Also in West      -   used medicinally, but
(~ubiaceae)                                                                                               lndies and from Mexico to Costa Rica.       no collection pressure
Princewood                                                                                                                                            known at present.
hlelanthera parvifolia                T               4                                   !
                                                          Common in pinelands and glades o Long           Endemic to South Florida. Pinelands         F2, h! 1
Small                                                     Pine Key area of ENP.                           of lower Florida Keys, Dade Co., and
                                                                                                          Broward Co.
Sachsia    1 ce hala Griseb.                          4   Widespread and common in pinelands of Long      Rare in remnant pinelands of South
(Cornps*                                                  Pine Key, ENP.                                  Dade Co. and lower Florida Keys.
                                                                                                          Also present in the Bahamas and
                                                                                                          Greater Antilles.
A eratum littorale Gray                               5   No ENP specimen in ENP herbarium, but           Endemic to South Florida. Locally
? & i a r                                                 reported from Flamingo area.                    common in Florida Keys.
Aster concolor L. var. simulatus                      ?   ENP Herbarium has specimen from pimlands        Endemic to South Florida pinelands.
(Small~~on~one.  -                                        a t East boundary of ENP. Not seen recently     Rare, if still present at all, in
(Cornpositae)                                             in ENP by authors.                              remnant pinelands. Dade Co. only.
Eupatorium f rustratum                                5   Locally common in buttonwood zone of            Endemic to South Florida. Present in        NI - hlay be favored by
8. 1 Robinson
    .                                                     S and S portion of ENP.
                                                                W                                         a few of the upper Florida Keys.                     hurr
                                                                                                                                                      period~c icancs
(Cornpositae)                                                                                                                                         which create favorable
                                                                                                                                                      substrate.
                                 Level of Concern    .
                             Sml th-
                             sonian Florida       This       Habitat, Status, and Location              Range and Status Outside                     Appropriate
    Species (Family)          L ~ s t Committee Report          in South Florida Parks                    South FLorida Parks                    ,Management Actions
Brickellia mosieri (Small)      T                  1     Not presently known from ENP, but should       Endemic to South Florida. Very rare in    Habitat in remnant
Shinners                                                 be looked for in pinelands of Long Pine Key.   timestom pinelands of South Dade Co.      pinelands outside ENP
( = Kuhnia eu atorioides                                                                                                                          requires preservation and
           --%--
   var. floridana
(cornpo-
                                                                                                                                                  prescribed burning.
                                    LITERATURE CITED


    Austin, D. 8. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida.
          Environmental Conservation 5(1):25- 34.

    Avery, G. N. and L. L. Loope. 1979. Endemic plant taxa in the flora of South
         Florida. Manuscript in preparation.

    Black, D. W. and S. Black. 1978. Report of investigations in Big Cypress National
          Preserve, May-July, 1978. Unpublished.

    Craighead, F. C. 1963. Orchids and other air plants of t h e Everglades National         .
         Park. Univ. of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Fla. 125 p.

    Craighead, F. C. 1966. Removal of rare plants from Everglades National Park.
                                                  ..
         Memorandum t o Chief Ranger, Everglades N P , Nov. 18, 1966. 4 p.

    Craighead, F. C. and V. C. Giibert. 1962. The effects of Hurricane Donna on t h e
         vegetation of southern Florida. Quart. Jour. Fla. Acad. Sci. 21:l- 28.

    Everglades National Park. 1978. Fire Management Plan.

    Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals.          1976.    List of
          endangered and threatened plant species.

    Houston, D. 0. 197 1. Ecosystems of National Parks. Science 172648-651,

    Little, E. L. 1976. Rare tropical trees of South Florida. Conservation Research
          Report No. 20, USDA, Forest Service, Washington, D.C.

    Little, E. L. 1978. Atlas of United States trees: Volume 5.         Florida.   USDA,
           Forest Service, Misc. Publ. No. 1361. 22 p., 268 maps.

    Long, R. W. and 0. Lakela. 1971. A flora of tropical Florida.        Univ. of Miami
         Press, Coral Cables, Fla. 962 p.

                    .
    Loope, L.. L., D W. Black, S. Black, and G. N. Avery. 1979. Distribution and
         abundance of flora in limestone rockland pine forests of southeastern Florida.
          ..
         U S National Park Service, South Florida Research Center. 37 p.
I   Luer, C. A.   1972. The native orchids of Florida.     New York Botanical Garden.



I   Robertson, W. 8. 1953. A survey of the e f f e c t s of fire in Everglades National
         Park. National Park Service, Mimeo. Rept. 169 p.
    Robertson, W. 8. 1955. An analysis of the breeding-bird populations of tropical
         Florida in relation to t h e vegetation. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Illinois. 599 p.
                                                                               38

Robertson, W. B. and 3. A. Kushlan.       1974. The southern Florida avifauna,
     p. 414-452.     In Environments of South Florida:      Present and Past,
     P. J. Gleason (ex.). Memoir 2, Miami Geol. Soc. 452 p.

Small, J, K. 1929. From Eden to Sahara:      Florida's tragedy.   Science Press,
      Lancaster, Pa. 123 p.
                                                               7




.   -


                                                  39

                        INDEX TO SPECIES


                                           page
Acacia pinetorum                            22
Acoelorraphe wrightii                       13
Acrostichum aureum                          10
Adiantum melanoleucum                       10
Adiantum tenerum                            10
Aeschynomene pratensis var. pratensis       23
Ageratum littorale                          35
Alvaradoa amorphoides                       23
Andro pogon cabanisii                       12     .   .
Anemia wrightii                              9
Argythamnia blodgettii                      26
Aristolochia pentandra                      21
Asplenium platyneuron                       I1
Asplenium serratum                          11
Aster concolor var. simulatus               35
Ateramnus lucidus                           24
Borreria t e r minalis                      34
Bourreria cassinif olia                     32
Brassia caudata                             19
Brickellia mosieri                          35
Bumelia reclinata                           27
Burmannia flava                             16
Calyptranthes pallens                       26
Calyptranthes zuzygium                      26
Canella winterana                           30
Cassia deeringiana                           22
Catopsis berteroniana                        15
Catopsis flor ibunda                         15
Catopsis nutans                              15
Cereus gracilis var. simpsonii               30
Chamaesyce conferta                          25
Chamaesyce cumulicola
Chamaesyce gar ber i
                                             25
                                             25
                                                           -
Chamaesyce pinetorum                         25
Chamaesyce porteriana var. porteriana        25
Clematis baldwinii                           21
Coccot hrinax argentata                      14
 Colubrina arborescens                       29
 Colubrina cubensis var. floridana           28
 Colubrina elliptica                         29
 Cordia globosa                              32
 Cordia sebestena                            32
 Crossopetalum rhacoma                       28




                                                               k
                                                      -
                                                      -
r




                                                                 40
     S
     +,:                                                  page

              Croton humilis                               24
              Ctenitis sloanei                             I1
              Cynanchum bahamense                          31
              Cyrtopodium punctatum                        19
              Desmodium lineatum                           22
              Digitaria pauciflora                         12
              Diospyros virginiana                         30
              Drypetes lateriflora                         25
              Dyschoriste oblongifolia var, angusta        34
              Elytraria carcliniensis var. angusta         34
              Encyclia boot lliana                         18
              Encyclia cochiea ta                          17
              Encyciia tampense                            17
              Epidendrum acunae .                          18
              Epidendrum ance ps                           18
              Epidendrum dif f orrne                       18
              Epidendrum nocturnum                         18
              Epidendrum rigidum                           18
              Eriochloa michauxii var, sinlpsonii          12
              Ernodea littoralis var. angusta              34
              Ernodea littoralis var. litroralis           34
!             Erythrodes querceticola                      17
              Eugenia confusa                             27
              Eupatorium frust- a t u m                   35
             Exosterna caribaeclm                         35
             Foresticra segregata var. pinctorum          31
.    .
     I,      Galactia pinetorum                           23
             Galeandra beyrictzii                         19
             Goniophlebium triser iale                    10
             Cossypium hirsutum                           29
             Covenia utriculata                           !9
             Guiacum sanctum                              23
             Guzrnania monos tachia                       16
             Habenaria quinqueseta var. quinqueseta       17
             Hibiscus grandiflor us                       30
             Hippomane rnancinella                        24
           . Hymenocallis latifolia                       26
             Hymenocallis palrrleri                       16
             Hypelate trifoliata                          28
             Hyptis a l a t a var. stenophylla            33
             Ilex krugiana                                26
             1n:perata brasiliensis                       12
             Indigofera ke!lensis                         23
                                    ar
             Ionopsis u t r i c ~ ~ioides                 20
             ipomoea microdac t yla                       31
             Ipomoea teni;:.,sima                         31
             Jacquemont:.~ eurtissii                      31
             Jacquinia keyensis                           27
             Lantana depressa                             32




.c
                                                      page
    Leiphamos parasi tica                              31
    Licania michauxii                                  22
    Linum c a r t e r i var. smallii                   23
    Lomariopsis kunzeana                               12
    Ludwigia spathulifolia                             27
    Macradenia lutescens                               20
    Mallotonia gnaphalodes                             32
    Manilkara bahamensis                               27
    Maxillar ia crassif olia                           19
    Maytenus phyllanthoides                            28
    Melanthera parvifolia                              35
    Myrcianthes f ragrans var. simpsonii               27
    Nephrolepis biserrata                              10
    Ocimum micranthum                                  33
    Oncidium a tissimum
                 l                                     20
    Oncidium c a r t hagenense                         20
    Oncidium ensatum                                   20
    Okenia hypogaea                                    21
    Ophioglossum palmatum                               9
    Passif lora sexflora                               30
    Pavonia spicata                                    29
    Peperomia flor idana                               21
    Peperomia obtusif olia                             21
    Phyllanthus pentaphyllus var. floridanus           26
    Pinguicula pumila var. buswellii                   33
    Platanthera nivea                                  17
    Pleurot hallis gelida                              20
    Poinsettia pinetorum                               24
    Polygala boykinii var. sparsifolia                 24
    Polypodium heterophyllum                           10
    Polypodium plumula                                 10
    Polyrhiza lindenii                                 20
    Polystachia concreta                               19
    Prunus myrtifolia                                  21
    Pseudophoenix sargentii                            13
    Psilotum nudum                                      9
    Reynosia septentrionalis                           29
    Rhipsalis baccifera                                30
,   Rhynchosia cinerea                                 22
    Khynchosia swartzii                                22
    Roystonea e l a t a                                13
    Ruellia c a r ~ l i n i e n s i s
                                    vat. succulenta    34
    Sachsia polycephala                                35
    Schaeff e r ia f rutescens                         29
    Schizachyrium gracile                              13
    Schizachyrium rhizomatum                           13
    Schoepf i a chrysophylloides                       21
    Seiaginella eatonii                                 9
    Sphenomeris clavata                                11
m-           - -
              -       - -   -   - -   - -   - - --   --   --   --      --


                                                                              4

     r                                                         I
                                                                                                .   1J




                                                                   t               42       .


                                                                            page
         Spiranthes costaricensis                                            16
         Spiranthes polyantha                                                17
         Stenandrium d u k e                                                 33
         Stillingia sylvafica ssp. tenuis                                    24
         Stylasanthes calcicola                                              23
         Tectaria lobata                                                     12
         Tephrosia florida                                                   22
         Thelypteris reptans                                                 II
         Thelypteris reticulata                                              11
         Thrinax morrissii                                                   14
         Thrinax radiata                                                     14
         Tillandsia balbisiana                                               15
         Tillandsia circinnara                                               15
         Tillandsia flexuosa                                                 15
                                                                                            -9-
         Tillandsia polystachia                                              15
         Tillandsia pruinosa                                                 14
         Tillandsia utriculata                                               14
         Tillandsia valenzuelana                                             14
         Tournefortia hirsutissima                                           32
i
         Tragia saxicola                                                     26
         Trichomanes holopterum                                               9
         Tripsacurn floridanurn                                              13
         Utricularia resupinata                                              33
         Vallesia antillana                                                  31
         Vanilla barbella ta                                                 16
         Vanilla phaeantha                                                   16
         Verbena mar i t ima                                                 33
         Vitis shuttleworthii                                                29
         Vittaria lineata                                                     9
         Zamia pumila                                                        12




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