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Email Policies

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									        An Analysis of Email Response Policies under
             Different Arrival Patterns
                                   By

                            Ashish Gupta
Doctoral Student, Department of Management Science & Information Systems,
                   Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.

                          Ramesh Sharda
     Regents Professor of Management Science & Information Systems,
         Director, Institute for Research in Information Systems,
                  Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.
               Objective of the study
   To improve individual knowledge worker
    performance by identifying policies that will :-
           To model email work environment by considering
           various email characteristics.
           Improve response time of emails and primary task
           completion time
           Reduce number of interruptions
           Validate the results of prior research.


01/06/05                      ICS-2005                        2
               Problem significance
    2004 AMA Research on workplace E-Mail & Productivity
       On a typical workday, time is spent on e-mail is ?????

          0–59 minutes 77.9%

          90 minutes–2 hours 18%

          2–3 hours 2%

          3–4 hours 2.5%



 Osterman Research- How often do you
check your E-mail for new messages
when at work?

    01/06/05                    ICS-2005                         3
                    Problem significance
     E-Policy Institute (2004)
       Annual Email growth rate= 66 %

      Corporate Research
              IBM, Microsoft, Xerox, Ferris, Radicati, etc.
       Need for more research in MS/IS that
              Looks at the problem of information overload and
               interruptions simultaneously.



    01/06/05                       ICS-2005                       4
                    Extant Research
     Overload due to emails-
           First reported by Peter Denning (1982).
           Most recently reported by Ron Weber (MISQ,
           Editor-in-Chief 2004)


     Interruptions due to emails-
           Reported by some- Speier,et.al.1999, Jackson, et.al.,
           2003, 2002, 2001), Venolia et.al. (2003)


01/06/05                       ICS-2005                      5
                Extant Research

   “The nature of managerial work”, Mintzberg (1976)
   “Managerial communication pattern”, Ray Panko (1992)
   “Email as a medium of managerial choice”, M. Markus
    (1994)
   “You have got (Lots and Lots) of mail” in “The Attention
    Economy” by Davenport (2001)
   “The Time Famine: Towards a Sociology of Work Time”,
    Leslie Perlow (1999)


    01/06/05                ICS-2005                     6
             Phenomenon of Interruption

Interruptions- According to distraction theory, interruption is
“an externally generated, randomly occurring, discrete event
that breaks continuity of cognitive focus on a primary task“
(Corragio, 1990; Tétard F. 2000).

                                                         Recall
                                                         time-
                             IL + Interrupt
            Pre-processing                               RL       Post-processing
                             processing




               Interrupt         Interrupt departs
               arrives

 01/06/05                                     ICS-2005                              7
           Previous Research Model

                 Task complexity
           (Pure simple) vs. (more-simple & less-complex) vs. (equal-simple & complex) vs.
           (less-simple & more-complex) vs. (pure complex)




               Email                                               Performance Measures
                                                                   1. % Increase in utilization
               Policy
                                                                   2. Number of interruptions
              Flow vs.
                                                                      per task.
            Scheduled vs.
                                                                   3. Primary task completion
               Triage
                                                                      time
                                Workload Level                     4. Email response time.
                                Low vs. Medium vs.
                                High


   Only “high” dependency on email communication (3 hrs) with
              exponential email arrivals was studied
01/06/05                                      ICS-2005                                            8
              Detailed Research model
              Email processing strategies
                  (C1, C2, C4, C8, C)



              Work Environment
                                                          Performance variables
           Dependency on email
             communication                                (a) % increase in
           (Very Low, Low, High, Very                          Utilization
                     High)                                (b) Time spent due to
                                                               interruptions
                                                          (c) Average response
             Email arrival pattern                             time of emails
                  (Expo, NSPS)                            (d) Average completion
                                                              time of primary task.
                                                          (e) Total no. of
                                                               interruptions/ day
             Email characteristics
              Processing Time*
                  (Large, Small)

                  Arrival Rate                 * Processing time is based on email category
           (V. Low, Low, High, V. High)

01/06/05                                    ICS-2005                                     9
                      Email types

      Emails differentiated on the basis of its ‘content’
       or the ‘action required by the user’
           Notation          Email type            Discrete arrival
                                                       percentage
              1             Priority email               5%
              2                 Spam                     5%
              3           Informative email             20%
              4       Email with non-diminishing        55%
                             service time
              5         Email with diminishing          15%
                             service time

01/06/05                         ICS-2005                             10
                                 Email Policies

                    Dependency on Email Communication
Policy type      Very Low              Low                High            Very High       Notation   # of Email
                   (1 hr)             (2 hrs)            (3 hrs)           (4 hrs)                   hour- slots
  Triage         8am-9am            8am-10am           8am-11am          8am -12 noon       C1           1

Schedule       8am-8:30am            8am-9am          8am-9:30am          8am-10am          C2           2
               4:30pm- 5pm           4pm-5pm         3:30 am to 5:00      3pm- 5pm
                                                             pm
Schedule       8am-8:15am,         8am-8:30am,        8am-8:45 am,        8am-9am           C4           4
              11am-11:15am        11am-11;30am       11am-11:45am,        11am - 12
               1pm-1:15pm          1pm-1:30pm        1 pm - 1:45 pm,      1pm- 2pm
               4:45pm- 5pm         4:30pm- 5pm        4:15 pm - 5:00      4pm- 5pm
                                                              pm
Schedule        8am-8:08am           8-8:15am           8-8:23am          8- 8:30am         C8           8
                 9- 9:08am           9-9:15am           9-9:23am          9- 9:30pm
                 and so on          10-10:15am         10-10:23am        10- 10:30pm
                                     and so on          and so on         and so on
  Flow        Processed as       Processed as       Processed as       Processed as          C          Not
                  soon               soon               soon               soon                      Applicable
              as emails arrive   as emails arrive   as emails arrive   as emails arrive


   01/06/05                                          ICS-2005                                              11
              Methodology

Discrete event simulation using Arena 8.01
Model Run length= 500 days
Model Warm-up time= 50 days
No. of replications of each model= 20
16 scenarios evaluated for 5 different policies.
Thus, Total number of simulations models= 16 x 5= 80
Total number of data points generated
= 80 x 20 = 1600

01/06/05                ICS-2005                       12
                            Scenarios
  Scenarios   Email (E) dependency         E Arrival pattern     E processing time
       1            Very low              Time stationary Expo         Small
       2            Very low              Time stationary Expo        Large
       3            Very low             Non-Stationary Expo          Small
       4            Very low             Non-Stationary Expo          Large
       5              Low                 Time stationary Expo         Small
       6              Low                 Time stationary Expo        Large
       7              Low                Non-Stationary Expo          Small
       8              Low                Non-Stationary Expo          Large
       9             High                 Time stationary Expo         Small
      10             High                 Time stationary Expo        Large
      11             High                Non-Stationary Expo          Small
      12             High                Non-Stationary Expo          Large
      13           Very High              Time stationary Expo         Small
      14           Very High              Time stationary Expo        Large
       15          Very High              Non-Stationary Expo         Small
01/06/05                             ICS-2005                                  13
       16          Very High              Non-Stationary Expo         Large
                                      Parameters
     Type 4 email
     (E)                                                   Primary
           Process   Type 5                                      Task                      Min
           ing       E PT     Total Email   Avg. Email     (P) Arrival                     (E+P)
S#   time (PT)       (min)    PT per day    Arrival Rate   Rate /day     E Util   P Util   Util

 1        5            5          1             12              62        0.125    0.775   0.9
 2        15          15          1              5              62        0.125    0.775   0.9
                                                                                                   Processing time of
 3        5            5          1             12              62        0.125    0.775   0.9     (a) Type 1 email-
 4        15          15          1              5              62        0.125    0.775   0.9         Expo(10 min)
 5        5            5          2             24              52         0.25    0.65    0.9     (b) Type 2 email-
 6        15          15          2             10              52         0.25    0.65    0.9         Expo (0.5 min)
 7        5            5          2             24              52         0.25    0.65    0.9
                                                                                                   (c) Type 3 email-
 8        15          15          2             10              52         0.25    0.65    0.9         Expo (5 min)
 9        5            5          3             36              42        0.375    0.525   0.9
                                                                                                   (d) Primary task-
10        15          15          3             15              42        0.375    0.525   0.9         Expo(6 min)
11        5            5          3             36              42        0.375    0.525   0.9
12        15          15          3             15              42        0.375    0.525   0.9
13        5            5          4             48              32          0.5     0.4    0.9
14        15          15          4             20              32          0.5     0.4    0.9
15         5           5          4             48             32           0.5     0.4    0.9
  01/06/05                                                 ICS-2005                                          14
16        15          15          4             20             32           0.5     0.4    0.9
                                                                                                                     Bird’s Eye view of Entire
                                                                                                                     model built using Arena
                                                                                       00:00:00                                                                   January 1, 2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Knowl edge Worker (Busy- green, Idl e- whi te, Inacti ve- hatched)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Emai l hours                        N on Emai l hours


                                                               As s ig n e m a il                                                                                                                                                              Pr o c e s s e m a il
                                  e m a ils                                               hold dur in g    e m a il e f f e c t iv e                                                                             Pr eem pt                                                                                     e m a il t y p e 1 t im e
                                                                     t y pe                                                                              t y p e o f e m a il                                                                         1234               s p lit e m a il t y p e
                                                                                       nonof f ic e hour s         t im e                                                                                                                                                                                                s pent
                                                     0                                                                                                                                                               k W

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                        E ls e                                                                                                            E ls e
                                                                                                                                                e m     a il t y p e = = 1                                                                                               e m    a il t y p e = = 1
                                                                                                                                                e m     a il t y p e < = 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                im ple m ent in g                                                        e m    a il t y p e = = 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               e m a il t y p e 2 t im e
                                                                                                                                                                                               em ail s t r at egy                                                       e m    a il t y p e = = 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         s pent
                                                                                                                                                                                             f or t y pes 2 3 4

                                                                                                                Pr eem pt                e m a il 5 in 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         s t andar d
                                  im ple m ent in g                                  0 Tr                     u e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a v e r a g e e m a il                  m a x im u m e m a il               m in im u m e m a il
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          d e v ia t io n in e m a il       Dis p o s e e m a il
                                                    d e c id in g s e r v ic e t im e o f
                                 em ail s t r at egy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        r e s p o n s e t im e                   r e s p o n s e t im e              r e s p o n s e t im e
                                                                   t y pe 5                                         k W                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     r e s p o s e t im e
                                   f or t y pe 5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               e m a il t y p e 3 t im e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         s pent
                                                                             0      F a ls e        Pr eem pt
                                                                                                                          e m a il 5 in 2              e m a il t y p e 5 t im e
                                                                                                                                                                 s pent
                                                                                                      k W


                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e m a il t y p e 4 t im e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           s pent




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I n t e r r u p t e d d u r in g
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        T r u e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a v e r a g e s im p le             Av e r a g e
                                                                                                                                  I n t e r r u p t e d d u r in g
                                                                                                                                                                  0    T r u e                                                                   0   T r u e                                                                                                    e v a lu a t io n o r n o t s im p le                                                                                                               t a s k c o m p le t io n   in t e r r u p t io n s p e r    Dis p o s e s im p le
                                                                                                                                                                                                               I n t e r r u p t e d d u r in g                                                                                   e v a lu a t io n
                                                         Hold s im ple                         p la n n in g s im p le         p la n n in g o r n o t s im p le             e x e c u t io n s im p le
                                                                                                                                                                                                           e x e c u t io n o r n o t s im p le                                                                                      s im p le                                                                                                                                                                                t im e                     wo r k d a y
s im p le               As s ig n 1 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0
               0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0       F a ls e
                                                                                                          0                                                                              0                                                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                            0         F a ls e                                                             0       F a ls e




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       no of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                in t e r r u p t io n s                   s e t e v a lu a t io n
                                                                                                                                                                                                            I L e x e c u t in g              RL e x e c u t in g             no of                                                                                                                               Rl e v a lu a t in g                  s ev al                                  RT0
                                                                                                                                                                                     As s ig n 2 4              s im p le                        s im p le             in t e r r u p t io n s       s e t e x e c u t io n RT0                                          I L e v a lu a t in g                        s im p le
                                                                 RL p la n n in g                   no of                                                                                                                                                                      ex es                                                            As s ig n 2 5                s im p le
                                 I L p la n n in g                 s im p le                                              s e t p la n n in g RT0
        As s ig n 2 3                                                                     in t e r r u p t io n s s p
                                    s im p le
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0                                0                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                         0
                                         0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Zoom in follows….

                   01/06/05                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ICS-2005                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    15
                        Arena Email flow Snapshot
      emails                     Assign email
                                    type
                                                             hold during                email effective                      type of email                1
                                                           nonoffice hours                   time
                    0

                                                                                                                                        E lse             2
 Emails created based on different                                                                              email type==1           3
schedules that determines whether                                                                               email type<=4

it is Expo or Non-Stationary Expo
          and at what rate
                                              1
                                                           Preempt                   Process email
                                                                                         1234                                split email ty pe
Preempts the KW when an email of
                                                       kW
type 1 arrives during email hrs .
Stores remaining processing time                                                             0
in an attribute ‘RT’                                                                                                                        Else
                                                                                                                       email type== 1
                                                        plem
                                                     im enting                                                         email type== 2
                                          2                                                                            email type== 3       To record output
    Releases emails of type                             ail
                                                     em strategy                                                                            statistics of each
  2,3,4 on the basis of policy                       for types 2 3 4                                                                           email type
                                                                                                                                               separately


                         implementing                                    0    True   Preempt                       email 5 in 1
                                              deciding service time of
               3        email strategy                type 5                           kW
                           for type 5
                                                                                                                         0

          Checks if email has been in                  0      False          Preempt
                                                                                                 email 5 in 2                     email type 5 time
         system for > or < than 24 hrs                                                                                                 spent
                                                                             kW


                                                                                                      0
                   Arena Primary Task Snapshot
                                                                           Checks to see if RT>0.
                                                                                If yes, RL and IL are added
                                                                                If no, Primary task is sent
                                                                                next processing stage




                                                                                                                                 0   True
                                                                                                         Interrupted during
                                               Hold simple                 planning s imple            planning or not s imple
s imple                 As s ign 19

               0                                                                   0
                                                                                                                0    Fal s e




                                                      RL planning                no of
                                 IL planning            s imple                                  s et planning RT0
          As s ign 23                                                      interruptions s p
                                    s imple

                                                             0
                                      0

                                                                   Attribute RT is reset to 0 to erase the
                                                                  memory. This makes the attribute RT
                                                                  reusable for recording remaining time
01/06/05                                                     ICS-2005
                                                                    interrupted primary task in future.                          17
                            Model Logic
New email arrival Ei occurs at time T0, for all i ={n : n = 1 . . 5}
If i = 1,
     Step1. Email released at T0.
     Step2. If STATE (KW) == IDLE & E1.WIP=0
                       KW seized;
                                  Than, Set RT = Ta = 0;
                                  IL = 0, RL = 0;
                                  Process E1;
                       Release KW;
            If STATE (KW) == BUSY & E1.WIP=0
                       Seize KW;
                                  Than, Set RT = Ta;
                                  Record IL = Tria (a, b, c), Tb;
                                  Process E1;
                       Release KW;
                                  Calculate;
                                   χ = Tb /( Ta + Tb) for all        0≤χ≤1
                                  Calculate;
                                  RL = {RT * [χ * *( K-1)] * [ (1- χ)* * ( L-1 ) } / Beta (K,L)


01/06/05                                     ICS-2005                                             19
                          Model Logic
                               For K = 2, L = 1;
                               Calculate;
                               T1 = IL + Tb + RL;
                     Seize KW for time T1;
                               Process Pi
                               Set RT=0;
                     Release KW;
If i = 2 || 3 || 4 || 5,
     Step.3 Release Ei, if
                       {(STATE(dummy) == IDLE_RES &&
                       Process email 1234.WIP == 0 &&
                       email 5 in 1.WIP == 0 &&
                       email 5 in 2.WIP == 0 ) ||
                       ( STATE(anti dummy) == IDLE_RES &&
                       Primary.WIP == 0 &&
                       NQ(Hold primary.Queue) == 0 &&
                       IL Primary .WIP=0 &&
                       RL primary.WIP == 0 ) } = TRUE
                            Else Hold;


01/06/05                                  ICS-2005          20
                  Model logic- comments
           If New arrival = Pn
                          Step4. Release if,
                          STATE(kW) == IDLE_RES;
             Else Hold;

     //*****
     Tb- Value added time spent on the task Before interruption
     Ta- Value added time spent on the task After interruption
     χ - Fraction of task completed before interruption occurred
     IL – Interruption Lag
     RL – Resumption Lag
     Pi – interrupted primary task
     Dummy resource- implements email hours
     Anti-dummy resource – implements non- email hours
      *****//
           Stop;
           Stop;
           Stop;



01/06/05                                    ICS-2005               21
                                                                                                                % increase in utilization (base value=0.9)
                           Results                                                                          8


                                                                                                            7

    % increase in utilization (base value=0.9)
                                                                                                            6
9




                                                        Estimated Marginal Means
8                                                                                                           5


7                                                                                                           4


6
                                                                                                            3                                        Email Arriv. Pattern
5                                                                                  Email dependency
                                                                                                            2                                            Expo
4                                                                                     high
                                                                                                            1                                            Non Stationary Expo
                                                                                                             C1           C2   C4      C8        C
3                                                                                     low


2                                                                                     very high                 POLICY

1                                                                                     very low            % increase in utilization (base value=0.9)
C1           C2     C4      C8                                            C
                                                                                                      9

    POLICY
                                                                                                      8



     (a) Percent Increase in                                                                          7



            Utilization
                             Estimated Marginal Means




                                                                                                      6


                                                                                                      5


                                                                                                      4                                                             EPT

                                                                                                      3                                                               large

                                                                                                      2                                                               Small
                                                                                                      C1             C2         C4          C8                  C


                                                                                                          POLICY
       Results                                                                      40
                                                                                         Additional Time spent / day due to interruptions


      Additional Time spent / day due to interruptions
                                                                                    30
 40




                                  Estimated Marginal Means
                                                                                    20
 30



                                                                                    10                                        Email Arriv. Pattern
 20                                                              Email Dependency
                                                                                                                                  Expo

                                                                    high
                                                                                    0                                             Non-Stationary Expo
                                                                                     C1           C2    C4      C8        C
 10                                                                 low

                                                                                         POLICY
                                                                    very high

                                                                                         Additional Time spent / day due to interruptions
  0                                                                 very low
                                                                                    40
  C1           C2    C4      C8                              C


      POLICY


                                                                                    30

(b) Additional Time (min) spent
                                  Estimated Marginal Means




    per day due to interruptions
                                                                                    20
                                                                                                                          Email Processing Tim

                                                                                                                               large

                                                                                    10                                         Small
                                                                                     C1           C2   C4     C8      C


                                                                                         POLICY
               Response time results

   Avg. Email Response Time
    = Avg. Email processing time (Value added)
      + Avg. Email wait (Queue) time [fig. c]

   Avg. Primary Task (PT) Completion Time [fig. d.3]
    = Avg. PT value added processing time
       + Avg. PT non-value added processing time due
         recalling & switching [fig. d.1]
           + Avg. PT wait (Queue) time [fig. d.2]
01/06/05                         ICS-2005           24
                                                                                  Email wait time
           Results                                                          400




      Email wait time                                                       300

400




                             Estimated Marginal Means
                                                                            200                                          Email Dependency

300
                                                                                                                            high


                                                                            100                                             low

200                                                                                                                         very high

                                                                              0                                             very low
                                                                              C1           C2    C4        C8        C
100                                                               EPT

                                                                                  POLICY
                                                                    large

 0                                                                  Small
                                                                                  Email wait time
  C1           C2       C4                               C8   C
                                                                            400

      POLICY

                                                                            300
                              Estimated Marginal Means




           (c) Email Wait time i.e.                                         200




          inbox queue and holdup                                            100                                                  Email Pattern


                    time                                                                                                            EA

                                                                             0                                                      NSEA
                                                                              C1            C2        C4        C8           C


                                                                                  POLICY
                                                                                                             Non-Value Added time (RL+ IL) spent
                     Results                                                                                 per Primary Task (min)
                                                                                                        .8


       Non-Value Added time (RL+ IL) spent                                                              .7


                                                                                                        .6




                                                           Estimated Marginal Means
       per Primary Task (min)
                                                                                                        .5
 1.0
                                                                                                        .4

  .8                                                                                                                                                      Email Arriv. Pattern
                                                                                                        .3


                                                                                                        .2                                                        Expo
  .6                                                                        Email Dependency
                                                                                                        .1                                                        Non-Stationary Expo
                                                                                      high               C1            C2        C4        C8         C
  .4
                                                                                      low                    POLICY

  .2
                                                                                      very high
                                                                                                        Non-Value Added time (RL+ IL) spent
 0.0                                                                                  very low
   C1           C2    C4   C8                                 C
                                                                                                        per Primary Task (min)
       POLICY                                                                                     1.0



                                                                                                   .8

(d.1) Avg. Additional time spent
                                Estimated Marginal Means




                                                                                                   .6

    (wasted) in recalling and
                                                                                                   .4
  switching for processing one                                                                                                                      Email Processing tim

          primary task                                                                             .2
                                                                                                                                                          large

                                                                                                  0.0                                                     Small
                                                                                                    C1            C2        C4        C8        C


                                                                                                        POLICY
                                                                                  Avg. Primary Task Wait Time (min)
                     Results                                               1600


                                                                           1400


       Avg Primary Task Wait time (min)                                    1200

2000
                                                                           1000




                                                Estimated Marginal Means
                                                                            800


                                                                            600


                                                                            400                                  Email Arriv. Pattern
1000                                   Email Dependency
                                                                            200                                      Expo
                                          high
                                                                             0                                       Non-Stationary Expo
                                          low                                 C1           C2   C4    C8     C

                                          very high                               POLICY

  0                                       very low
   C1           C2   C4    C8      C
                                                                                  Avg Primary Task Wait time (min)
       POLICY                                                              2000




       (d.2) Average Primary
            Task Wait Time
                                          Estimated Marginal Means




                                                                           1000




                                                                                                                 Email Processing Tim

                                                                                                                    large

                                                                              0                                     Small
                                                                                  C1       C2   C4   C8      C


                                                                                  POLICY
                                                                                                   Avg Primary Task Completion time
Results                                                                                     1800

                                                                                            1600

                                                                                            1400
        Avg Primary Task Completion time
                                                                                            1200
 2000




                                 Estimated Marginal Means
                                                                                            1000

                                                                                             800

                                                                                             600
                                                                                                                                    Email Arriv. Pattern
                                                                                             400
 1000                                                                    Email Dependency                                               EA
                                                                                             200

                                                                            high              0                                         NSEA
                                                                                               C1           C2       C4   C8    C
                                                                            low
                                                                                                   POLICY
                                                                            very high

   0                                                                        very low
                                                                                                       Avg Primary Task Completion time
    C1           C2   C4    C8                                       C
                                                                                             2000

        POLICY




(d.3) Average Primary
                                          Estimated Marginal Means




Task Completion Time                                                                         1000




                                                                                                                                    Email Processing Tim

                                                                                                                                        large

                                                                                                   0                                    Small
                                                                                                   C1           C2   C4   C8    C


                                                                                                       POLICY
                   Optimal Policy ??

   Previous research found C4 as the optimal policy (no
    consideration was given to email arrival pattern and
    characteristics).
   Current Research found under varying email arrival
    characteristics-
          Optimal policy for primary task completion time - C1 & C2
           closely followed by C4.
          Optimal policy for email response time – C
          Optimal policy for reducing interruptions- C1& C4 closely
           followed by C2

01/06/05                         ICS-2005                         29
              Limitations of the model

   Assumptions of the model are its limitations
          Knowledge worker works strictly according from 8 to 12
           and then from 1 to 5pm. Need for relaxing the work-hrs.
          Knowledge worker is busy only 90% of the time in a given
           workday.
          KW is working on interruptible primary task. In reality, not
           all primary tasks are interruptible. For e.g. group meetings
          Primary task modeled is interruptible only 3 times.
          Emails are not interrupted.


01/06/05                           ICS-2005                          30
           Limitations & future research
 Perform the study in field or experimental
  settings.
 Modeling utility/ life of an email.

 Modeling group knowledge network and at
  organizational level.
 Modeling by incorporating more doses of
  reality. Considering other communication media
  along with email.
      http://iris.okstate.edu/rems/
Suggestions or comments or Questions????
01/06/05                  ICS-2005           31

								
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