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					   RESUME JURNAL
METODOLOGI PENELITIAN
     KUALITATIF

 Negative Behaviour of Teachers with Regard
to High School Students in Classroom Settings


                      oleh

                  Dody Luhansa
Penelitian kualitatif adalah penelitian yang bertujuan untuk memahami fenomena
tentang apa yang dialami oleh subyek penelitian, misalnya perilaku, persepsi,
motivasi, tindakan, dll., secara holistik, dan dengan cara menggambarkannya
dalam bentuk kata-kata dan bahasa, pada suatu konteks tertentu yang alami dan
dengan memanfaatkan berbagai metode ilmiah (Moleong, 2008). Penelitian ini
mempunya ciri-ciri yang membedakannya dengan jenis penelitian lainnya, yaitu
penelitian kuantitatif.

Jenis peneltian ini sebenarnya bukan hal yang baru bagi penulis. Akan tetapi baru
di program pascasarjana ini penulis lebih memahami tentang apa dan bagaimana
penelitian kualitatif itu. Meskipun demikian, tetap saja pengetahuan dan
pemahaman penulis masih belum mendalam.

Berkaitan dengan tugas untuk membuat resume dari suatu jurnal penelitian
kualitatif, dan juga untuk memperdalam pengetahuan dan pemahaman penulis
akan penelitian kualitatif, maka penulis beruaha membuat resume dari suatu
naskah pada Journal of Instructional Psychology 36.1, yang terbit pada bulan
Maret 2009. Jurnal tulisan dari Nuri Baloglu tersebut diambil pada tanggal 1
April 2010 dari http://find.galegroup.com/gps/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-
Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=IPS&docId=A199537408&sou
rce=gale&srcprod=SP01&userGroupName=kpt07001&version=1.0.

Penulis memilih penelitian itu dikarenakan ketertarikannya akan dunia pendidikan
yang merupakan hal yang wajar dan sudah seharusnya mengingat latar belakang
penulis sebagai guru. Terlebih lagi penulis sejak awal merencanakan untuk lebih
berfokus di psikologi pendidikan. Disebab alasan-alasan tersebut, penulis menjadi
semakin berminat untuk menjatuhkan pilihan di jurnal yang berjudul Negative
Behaviour of Teachers with Regard to High School Students in Classroom
Setting atau Perilaku Negatif Guru di Kelas Menurut Siswa-Siswa Sekolah
Menengah Atas.

Harapannya adalah dengan membuat resume tentang penelitian kualitatif yang
dilakukan di dunia pendidikan penulis akan memperoleh pemahaman yang
semakin mendalam tentang bagaimana penelitian kualitatif seharusnya, yang pada
akhirnya nanti bisa diterapkan di lingkungan dimana penulis berada.
RESUME
  Perilaku Negatif Guru di Kelas Menurut Siswa-Siswa Sekolah
                        Menengah Atas


Ditulis oleh Nuri Baloglu di Journal of Instructional Psychology 36.1 (March
2009): p. 69 (10).



Dalam pendahuluan jurnalnya bisa disimpulkan bahwa Nuri Baloglu menjelaskan
bahwa perilaku siswa berpengaruh pada perilaku guru. Perilaku kelas yang tidak
patuh sering kali membuat guru terganggu, frustrasi, bahkan hingga membuat
stress, dan yang lebih jauh lagi mengganggu kesehatan guru (Hawe, Tuck,
Manthei, Adair, & Moore, 2000; Lawrence dan Steadman, 1984 dalam Baloglu,
2009).

Pada saat yang sama, perilaku siswa juga terpengaruh kuat dengan faktor yang ada
di sekolah, mulai dari peraturan, kurikulum, penyampaian kurikulum, sistem
sekolah, hingga perilaku guru di kelas.

Merujuk pada referensi dari Glenn dan Nelsen (2000), Baloglu memaparkan
bahwa perilaku yang baik dari siswa-siswa sekolah harus muncul dari contoh yang
baik dari guru dan orang tua. Lebih lanjut lagi mereka menyatakan bahwa anak-
anak belajar lebih baik melalui contoh.

Tuntutan itu sering kali berhadapan dengan tekanan dalam mengajar yang
berkaitan dengan masalah-masalah yang ada dikelas. Banyak guru menjadi
defensif dan tersinggung jika berhadapan dengan perilaku siswa yang salah dan
sulit untuk bisa melihat diri mereka sendiri dan pada sikap atau metode
mengajarnya.

Untuk menciptakan suasana kelas yang cocok untuk belajar diperlukan
manajemen kelas yang baik. Merujuk pada Buden (1995), Baloglu menjelaskan
bahwa salah satu tantangan bagi guru adalah mempertahankan keteraturan di kelas
sehingga bisa mencapai tujuan akademis yang ditentukan.

Tanggung jawab untuk mempertahankan keteraturan sepertinya terutama berada
pada pundak guru. Akan tetapi, hal ini tidak berarti guru harus menerapkan
kontrol yang kuat, sebaliknya, psikologi pendidikan menyarankan kontrol yang
lebih lemah dengan anggapan bahwa siswa memegang tanggung jawab yang lebih
untuk mengontrol perilaku mereka sendiri dan bahwa mereka mampu melakukan
hal tersebut (Burden, 1995). Masalah yang berkaitan dengan perilaku merupakan
hasil dari sistem kepercayaan yang salah, pola pikir yang terdistorsi, dan respon
emosional yang kurang dikontrol dengan baik. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut
penelaahan akan sudut pandang sosial, kepercayaan, dan perasaan sangatlah
diperlukan (Nicols, 2000). Pendampingan harus diberikan melalui pemberiaan
iklim yang mendukung dan latihan akan keterampilan sosial yang penting (Skiba
& Peterson, 2000)
Ketika Baloglo meneliti referensi tentang perilaku yang tidak diinginkan di kelas
atau manajemen kelas dia menemukan bahwa banyak periset memfokuskan pada
perilaku siswa yang tidak diinginkan dan tidak banyak literatur yang menjelaskan
tentang perilaku negatif guru di kelas.

Berdasarkan fakta itulah Baloglu kemudian menentukan fokus penelitiannya.

Tujuan Peneitian

Tujuan dari penelitian kualitatif ini untuk mendefinisikan perilaku negatif guru di
kelas menurut siswa sekolah menengah atas kelas XI, atau yang di tahun
terakhirnya.

   a. Apa pendapat siswa-siswa sekolah menengah atas kelas XI tentang
      perilaku negatif guru mereka ketika di dalam kelas?
   b. Bagaimana tingkatan perilaku negatif dari guru perempuan dan laki-laki
      menurut pendapat siswa-siswa?
   c. Apa pendapat siswa laki-laki terhadap perilaku negatif guru laki-laki dan
      perempuan?
   d. Apa pendapat siswa perempuan terhadap perilaku negatif guru laki-laki
      dan perempuan?



Metodologi

Mendefinisikan harapan siswa-siswa adalah hal yang penting dalam pengajaran
dan sangat penting untuk mengevaluasi proses pengajaran. Ketika penelitian
tentang hal ini dilakukan, terlihat bahwa kebanyakan penelitian itu dilakukan
dalam bentuk penelitian kuantitatif. Di sisi lain, penelitian kualitatif lebih
bermanfaat ketika digunakan ntuk mengungkap faktor-faktor yang terjadi dibalik
proses pengajaran. Karena hal itulah pada penelitian ini digunakan model
penelitian kualitatif dan desain analisis situasional untuk menentukan
faktor-faktor perilaku negatif dari guru ketika berada di kelas. Riset
kualitatif biasanya akan melibatkan proses menginterpretasi berbagai konsep,
maslaah, dan proses. Proses penelitian kualitatif adalah suatu penelitian dimana
peneliti ikut terlibat dan mengugkap hubungan tersembunyi antara data yang
berbeda dan juga dimensi yang berbeda (Miller & Dingwell, 1997)



Populasi dan Sampling

Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah 1100 siswa kelas XI di tiga skolah menengah
atas yang berbeda. Sekolah ini dipilih secara acak di permulaan tahun pelajaran
2007 di Kirsehir, Turki. Sampelnya terdiri dari 275 siswa (137 berjenis kelamin
laki-laki dan 138 berjenis kelamin perempuan).
Instrumen

Data dikumpulkan melalui metode wawancara tidak terstruktur. Pendekatan
analisis konten atau isi digunakan untuk menganalisa data. Selain itu,
pengkodingan juga dilakukan dalam analisa data. Siswa yang menjadi sampel
diberikan selembar kertas yang berisikan pertanyaan terbuka dengan tujuan agar
mereka bisa menuliskan pola perilaku negtif guru mereka secara bebas. Jawaban
dari siswa-siswa tersebut akan menjadi data penelitian. Jawaban dari para siswa
mungkin saja berbeda-beda pada hal tertentu, dan itulah yang menjadi batasan
dari penelitian ini.



Analisa Data

Pendekatan konten analisis digunakan untuk menganalisa data. Jawaban dari para
siswa dikumpulkan menjadi 30 tema utama, yang didalamnya paling tidak ada dua
jawaban yang serupa. Jawaban yang berbeda dengan lainnya, yang tidak
mempunyai tema serupa disinkirkan. Judul dari tema tersebut ditulis, begitu juga
dengan jumlah jawaban yang serupa dalam satu tema itu. Koding digunakan
dalam analisa data.

Hasil Penelitian

a. Apa pendapat siswa-siswa sekolah menengah atas kelas XI tentang perilaku
   negatif guru mereka ketika di dalam kelas?

Pendepat siswa tentang perilaku negatif guru dan frekuensi serta persentasenya
ada di tabel 1. Data yang ada di tabel 1 menunjukkan bahwa menurut siswa-siswa
“perilaku agresif” adalah perilaku negatif guru di dalam kelas yang paling sering
terjadi (23,3%). “Berbicara dengan cepat” adalah ada di urutan kedua (8,4%) dan
“mengancam (dengan nilai yang jelek)” ada di peringkat ketiga (6,3%). “membuat
diskriminasi antar siswa (pilih kasih)” (6,1%) adalah perilaku negatif keempat
yang sering dilakukan guru. Temuan ini memberitahukan bahwa siswa sering
mengeluhkan skap agresif guru mereka. Di dalam riset yang dilakukan Malkoc-
Istengel (2006), ditemukan bahwa guru berada pada tingkat stress yang tinggi.
Jika guru berada pada tingkat stress yang tinggi, dia bisa berperilaku negatif
(Basut, 2006).

b. Bagaimana tingkatan perilaku negatif dari guru perempuan dan laki-laki
   menurut pendapat siswa-siswa?

Pendapat dari siswa tentang perilaku negatif guru laki-laki dan perempuan ada di
tabel 2.

Data perilaku negatif guru laki-laki dan perempuan beserta frekuensinya bisa
dilihat di tabel 2. Data tersebut memperlihatkan bahwa “berperilaku agresif”
adalah perilaku yang paling negatif pada guru laki-laki (f=61) dan guru
perempuan (f=37). “berbicara dengan cepat” (f=28) dan “menerapkan hukuman
fisik” (f=19) ada di urutan kedua dan ketiga pada guru laki-laki. Sedang pada guru
perempuan “mengancam (dengan nilai jelek)” (f=15) dan “lebih baik ke siswa
perempuan (pilih kasih)” (f=14) ada di urutan kedua dan ketiga. Merupakan hal
yang sangat menarik bahwa “menerapkan hukuman fisik” dan “berbicara dengan
handphone di kelas” hanya tercatat pada perilaku negatif guru laki-laki. Hal yang
hampir sama terjadi pada “berpakaian seksi” dan “memakai high heels di kelas”
yang dicatat sebagai perilaku negatif guru perempuan.

c. Apa pendapat siswa laki-laki terhadap perilaku negatif guru laki-laki dan
   perempuan?

Pendapat sisiwa laki-laki terhadap perilaku negatif guru laki-laki dan perempuan
terdapat pada tabel 3.

Tabel 3 menunjukkan bahwa “berperilaku agresif” adalah perilaku paling negatif
dari guru laki-laki (f=30) dan guru perempuan (f=21) menurut siswa laki-laki.
“berbicara dengan cepat” dan “mempermalukan” adalah perilaku negatif kedua
dan ketiga pada guru laki-laki menurut siswa laki-laki. Sedangkan, menurut siswa
yang sama “lebih baik ke siswa perempuan (piih kasih)” dan “berbicara dengan
cepat” adalah perilaku negatif ketiga dan keempat pada guru perempuan.

d. Apa pendapat siswa perempuan terhadap perilaku negatif guru laki-laki dan
   perempuan?


Pendapat siswa perempuan terhadap perilaku negatif guru laki-laki dan
perempuan bisa ditemkan di tabel 4.

Menurut siswa perempuan, “berperilaku aresif” adalah perilaku paling negatif dari
guru laki-laki (f=31) dan pada guru perempuan (f=16). “menghina” (f=13) dan
“berbicara cepat” (f=12) ialah perilaku negatif kedua dan ketiga pada guru laki-
laki. Sedang, perilaku negatif kedua dan ketiga pada guru perempuan yaitu
“membuat diskriminasi antar siswa (pilih kasih)” (f=13) dan “mengancam
(dengan nilai jelek)” (f=11).

Pembahasan

Menurut siswa “berperilaku agresif” adalah perilaku negatif yang paling dicatat di
penelitian ini. “berbicara dengancepat”, “mengancam (dengan nilai jelek)”, dan
“membuat diskrimasi antar siswa (pilih kasih)” ialah perilaku negatif yang sering
diekspresikan oleh guru. Manajemen kelas tidak hanya berfokus pada perilaku
siswa tapi juga perilaku guru itu sendiri. Guru harus tahu dan memperhatikan
bagaimana mereka bersikap terhadap siswa di kelas dan bagaimana pengajaran
diatur untuk siswa (sanford & Emer, 1988; Cohn, 1987). Guru yang dalam
keadaan bahagia, sejahtera atau aman, dan optimis mempengaruhi proses
pengajaran mereka secara positif. Keadaan emosional mereka dan apakah mereka
rileks di kelas atau tidak mempengaruhi keputusan dan sikap mereka di salam
kelas (Basar, 1999).

Menurut Wubbels dan Levy (1991) perilaku guru di kelas digolongkan menjadi
dua, “authoritarian” dan “democratic”. Guru yang “authoritarian” atau otoriter
percaya bahwa siswa harus dikontrol dan kebebsan tidaklah baik untuk siswa. Hal
itu bisa membuat mereka seenaknya sendiri. Guru yang demokratis percaya
bahwa siswa pertama-tama harus menyukai atmosfer kelas, dan karena hal itu,
guru harus menyediakan keadan yang mendukung dan juga memberi imbalan.
Menurut guru demokratis, mereka hanya akan bisa meningkatkan motivasi dan
kesuksesan siswa dengan cara ini. Mereka juga percaya pada siswa mereka dan
memberi mereka kepercayaan.

Siswa yang ambil bagian dalam penelitian berkata bahwa guru berperilaku agresif
terhadap mereka dengan cara yang otoriter. Mereka menyatakan bahwa guru laki-
laki berbicara dengan cepat ketika mnegajar dan memberikan hukuman fisik.
Selain itu, mereka juga menambahkan bahwa guru menggunakan handphone di
kelas.”berpakaian seksi” dan “memakai high heels di kelas” dinyatakan sebagai
perilaku negatif guru perempuan. Selain itu juga “mengancam (dengan nilai
jelek)” dan “lebih baik ke siswa perempuan (pilih kasih)” adalah perilaku negatif
yang paling sering dipraktekkan guru perempuan.

Menurut siswa, guru laki-laki lebih agresif dan mempermalukan siswa mereka di
dalam kelas. Guru perempuan tidak terlalu agresif tapi mereka memperlakukan
siswa perempuan dengan lebih baik (pilih kasih) dan berbicara dengan cepat di
dalam kelas. Jenis kelamin adalah hal yang didapat dari lahir dan hal tersebut bisa
dengan mudah diidentifikasi. Hal tersebut mempengaruhi peran kita dan harapan
dari masyarakat di sekitar kita. Bennet (1993) melakukan riset di sekolah dasar
dan berbagai tingkatan kelas, dan dia menemukan bahwa guru berperilaku
berbeda terhadap siswa laki-laki. Menurut penelitiannya, persepsi siswa laki-laki
lebih negatif daripada siswa perempuan (Tauber, 1997). Lebih lanjut lagi, Moore
dan Johnson (1983) dan tauber (1997) menemukan bahwa guru memiliki
semacam buruk sangka dikarenakan jenis kelamin mereka.

Menurut siswa perempuan yang turut serta di dalam riset, guru laki-laki
cenderung agresif. Mereka menyebutkan bahwa “menghina” dan “berbicara
dengan cepat” sebagai hal negatif dari guru laki-laki. Hal yang sama pada
”membuat diskrimasi antar siswa (pilih kasih)” dan “mengancam siswa (dengan
nilai jelek)”.

Di dalam penelitiannya, Rosenthal (1974) menemukan bahwa guru bersikap
kepada siswa-siswa mereka dengan cara yang berbeda. Perbedaan itu berkaitan
dengan suasana, feedback, input, dan output. Guru memberikan suasana yang
mendukung bagi beberapa siswa. Mereka bersikap lebih ramah terhadap siswa.
Mereka tersenyum dan lebih menyemangati siswa. Mereka memberikan arahan
yang jelas, lebih memberikan imbalan, sedikit mengkritik. Feedback yang
diberikan pun berdasarkan keberhasilan dari siswa. Siswa yang lain menerima
feedback karena kegagalan mereka. Guru ini biasanya memberi kesempatan pada
siswanya untuk berbicara dengan bebas dan kesempatan untuk belajar. Ketika
siswa ragu-ragu dalam menjawab, mereka menyemangati dan memberikan
petunjuk. Mereka juga memberikan kesempatan kedua (Jussim vd., 1998; Harris
dan Rosenthal. 1990).

Daftar Tabel

Tabel 1
Pendapat siswa tentang perilaku negatif guru

Perilaku                           f        %

Berperilaku negatif                98      22,3

Berbicara dengan cepat             37      8,4

Mengancam (dengan nilai jelek)     28      6,3

Membuat diskriminasi antar siswa   27      6,1
(pilih kasih)

Lebih baik ke siswa perempuan      21      4,7
(pilih kasih)

Menggunakan bahasa slang           20      4,5

Menghina                           20      4,5

Mengunakan hukuman fisik           19      4,3

Mempermalukan                      19      4,3

Datang terlambat ke kelas          19      4,3

Tidak bersemangat                  16      3,6

Terlalu banyak memberi PR          14      3,1

Kurang memberi contoh              12      2,7
Saat mengajar

Menggunakan HP di kelas            10      2,2

Tidak memberi cukup kesempatan         7   1,5
untuk mencatat

Terlalu otoriter                       7   1,5

Membuat siswa terlalu banyak           6   1,3
menulis

Selalu menekan siswa                   6   1,3

Mempermainkan                          6   1,3

Berpakaian seksi                       6   1,3

Berbicara terlalu pelan                6   1,3

Kurang perhatian kepada siswa          5   1,1
laki-laki

Berbicara kasar                        4   0,9

Terlalu awal datang ke kelas           4   0,9
Memakai high heels di kelas           3    0,9

Berperilaku sombong                   3    0,6

Membuat lelucon konyol                3    0,6

Mengabaikan siswanya                  2    0,6

Memberi nama panggilan                2    0,4

Melalkuakn pidato yang membosankan    2    0,4


Tabel 2
Perilaku negatif guru laki-laki dan perempuan menurut siswa.

Perilaku guru laki-laki          f     Perilaku guru perempuan        f

Berperilaku agresif              61   Berperilaku agresif             37

Berbicara dengan cepat           28   Mengancam (dengan nilai jelek) 15

Menerapkan hukuman fisik         19   Lebih baik ke siswa perempuan   14
                                      (pilih kasih)

Menggunakan bahasa slang         16   Membuat diskriminasi
                                      (pilih kasih       )            13

Mempermalukan                    14    Datang terlambat ke kelas      13

Mengancam (dengan nilai jelek    13    Berbicara dengan cepat         9

Menghina                         13    Menghina                       7

Tidak bersemangat                12    Terlalu otoriter               7

Membuat diskriminasi
(pilih kasih)                    14   Mempermainkan                   6

Berbicara dengan HP di kelas     10    Berpakaian seksi               6

Kurang memberi contoh            8     Berbicara dengan suara pelan   6
saat mengajar

Memberi terlalu banyak tugas     8     Memberi terlalu banyak tugas   6

Lebih baik ke siswa perempuan    7     Mempermalukan                  5
(pilih kasih)

Tidak memberi cukup kesempatan         Kurang perhatian pada siswa
Untuk mencatat                   7     laki-laki                      5

Membuat siswa terlalu banyak     6    Memakai high heels dikelas      4
menulis

Terlalu menekan siswa            6     Menggunakan bahasa slang       4

Datang terlambat ke kelas        6     Tidak bersemangat              4

Berbicara kasar                  4    Kurang memberi contoh           4
                                      Saat mengajar

Terlalu cepat datang ke kelas    4     Membuat lelucon konyol         3

Berperilaku sombong              3     Berperilaku sombong            3

                                       Membuat pidato membosankan     2
Tabel 3
Pendapat siswa laki-laki terhadap perilaku negatif guru di kelas

Perilaku negatif guru laki=laki f    Perilaku negatif guru perempuan f

Berperilaku agresif             30   Berperilaku agresif               21

Berbicara dengan cepat          16   Lebih baik ke siswa perempuan     14

Mempermalukan                   14   Berbicara dengan cepat            9

Menerapkan hukuman fisik        14   Datang terlambat ke kelas         7

Membuat diskriminasi            11   Memberi terlalu banyak PR         6
(pilih kasih)

Menggunkaan bahasa slang        8    Mempermalukan                     5

Berbicara dengan HP di kelas    6    Kurang memperhatikan siswa       5
                                     laki-laki

Membuat siswa terlalu banyak    6    Terlalu otoriter                  4
menulis

Terlalu memberi tekanan         6    Kurang memberi contoh saat        3
                                     mengajar

Tidak bersemnagat               5    Mengancam (dengan nilai jelek)   4

Mengancam (dengan nilai jelek) 4     Berbicara dengan suara pelan      2

Berbicara dengan kasar          4

Datang terlalu awal ke kelas    4


Tabel 4
Pendapat siswa perempuan tentang perilaku negatif guru dikelas

Perilaku negatif guru laki-laki f    Perilaku negatif guru perempuan f

Berperilaku agresif             31   Berperilaku agresif              16

Menghina                        13   Membuat diskrimiasi
                                     (pilih kasih)                    13

Berbicara dengan cepat          12   Mengancam (dengan nilai jelek) 11

Mengancam (dengan nilai jelek) 9     Berbicara dengan cepat           8

Menggunakan bahasa slang        8    Menghina                         7

Memberikan terlalu banyak PR    8    Mempermainkan                    6

Tidak bersemangat               7    Berpakaian seksi                 6

Tidak memberi cukup kesempatan       Datang terlambat ke kelas        6
untuk mencatat                 7

Datang terlambat ke kelas       6    Memakai high heels di kelas      4

Lebih baik ke siswa perempuan   6    Mengunakan bahasa slang          4

Menerapkan hukuman fisik        5    Tidak bersemangat                4

Berbicaa dengan HP di kelas     4    Berbicara dengan suara pelan     4

Kurang memberi contoh saat      4    Membuat lelucon yang konyol      3
mengajar
Referensi

Alexander, P. A. (2000). Toward a model of academic development: schooling
and the acquisition of knowledge. Educational Researcher, 29, 28-33.

Basut, E.(2006). Stres, basacikmave ergenlik [Stress, coping and adolescence].
Cocukve Genclik Ruh Sagligi Dergisi, 13(1):31-36.

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Nuri Baloglu, Ahi Evran University, College of Education, Egitim Fakultesi,
Terme Cad. Merkez, 40100/Kirsehir/Turkiye.

Pertanyaan tentang artikel ini bisa dialamatkan langsung ke Nuri Baloglu di
baloglu@gaziedu.tr
LAMPIRAN
Negative behavior of teachers with
regard to high school students in
classroom settings

Journal of Instructional Psychology 36.1 (March 2009): p.69(10). (4990 words)

Show details
Author(s):     Nuri Baloglu.
Document Type: Magazine/Journal



Full Text :

COPYRIGHT 2009 George Uhlig Publisher

Good behavior is a necessary condition for effective teaching. There are few
children who come to school without problems. Children's behavior at school
appears to be strongly affected by within school factors. In this qualitative case
study, the teachers' negative behavior with regard to the high school last year
students in the classroom setting was defined. The population for this study
consisted of 1100 eleventh grade students from three different general state high
schools. These schools were selected at random at the beginning of 2007
academic year in Karsehir, Turkey. The sample consisted of 275 students (male
137& female138). The data were collected by means of unstructured interview
method. Qualitative content analysis approach was used to analyse data. It was
found that "behaving towards the students aggressively" was the most pointed out
negative teacher behavior. "Speaking fast" in teaching, "threatening the students
with low grades" and" making discrimination among the students" were the more
often expressed negative teacher behaviors by the students.

**********

Good behavior is a necessary condition for effective teaching and learning to take
place, and an important outcome of education which society rightly expects.
Society is expecting good order and good results from teachers, and will be
increasingly impatient and lacking in understanding if we do not provide them. So
looking hard at ourselves, our teaching, our institutions, our rituals and our effect
on pupils are becoming obligatory rather than just advisable, as we seek to
eradicate or prevent pupils' behaviour problems by various forms of intervention
(Charlton & David, 1997:5).

Student misbehavior is one of the most frequently cited problems occurring in
public schools today. In fact, teachers consider controlling student behavior to be
both one of their greatest challenges and the greatest deficits in their training and
skills. (Weigle, 1997).

Disruptive classroom behavior is a major factor contributing to teacher stress and
discontent and significantly affects teachers' capacity to maintain a productive and
orderly learning environment (Hawe, Tuck, Manthei, Adair, & Moore, 2000).
Educators and psychologists in the 1970's emphasized the importance of student
engagement and success in preventing the occurence of disruptive behavior in
classrooms (Berliner, 1985; Brophy, 1979; Emer, Evertson, & Anderson, 1980;
Evertson & Emer, 1982; Kounin, 1970; Rosenshin & Stevens 1986; Karadag &
Oney, 2006). Throughout the past 20 years there has been a marked increase in
the direct and indirect assessment and analysis of problem behavior in school
settings to determine the function of disruptive behavior and to develop more
targeted interventions based on these assessments (Lagland, Lewis & Sugai,
1998).

The Problem Behavior Checklist of Students are based on the resarch of Ronald
L.Partin (1999). Part in makes a clear distinction between the noneffective and the
most-effective teacher. His research on effective teachers suggests that they are in
control of their classrooms, but not obsessed with the idea of control. Partin's
resarch indicates that a necessary first step in establishing standards for acceptable
behavior in a classroom is to set some norms or rules of conduct to manage
student behavior. Motivation to comply with rules seems highest when they are
stated positively and convey what you do want to happen rather than trying to list
all the possible unacceptable behavior.

Discipline and classroom management is considered one of the most important
but difficult and complex issues for teachers. There are few children who come to
school without problems, and few schools succeed without helping children's
problem solving (Clark,1998).

Currently, there is an increasing trend within education which focuses upon a
more realistic and equitable perspective of the causes of pupil (mis) behavior in
school. This movement, called the systems' approach, has moved away from the
individual (pupil and teacher) towards an institutional focus(Charlton & David,
1997:10).

Lawrence and Steadman (1984) reminded us that disruptive behavior of this type
is often: frustrating, irritating and stressful and in extreme cases it may lead to
complete breakdown of the classroom order and, more seriously, of the teacher's
health.

One way to prevent problem behavior in the classroom is through the teacher's
instructional style, as flexible methods of instruction focus on the learner and
his/her interests and needs, raises the motivation to learn and naturally may reduce
misbehavior (Burden, 1995; Lambert & McCombs, 1998).

Research on classroom management has demonstrated the importance of
appropriately supervising not only academic, but social aspects of the classroom.
Several variables including student achievement, teaching effectiveness, and
teacher satisfaction appear to be influenced by how effectively classroom social
situations are managed. McCormack (1997) noted that classroom management is
part of the teaching process. Brophy (1993) mentioned that teaching effectiveness
depends on how the classroom is managed. Doyle (1986a) has found that student
misbehaviors may interfere with the learning process and in turn affect student
achievement.

The majority of teachers are reasonable people, often anxiously committed to their
work. Many can be pedestrian in their aims and imagination, and have the normal
feelings of lack of patience and fear of being seen to fail; everyday life will also
produce some who are under pressure, distracted, perhaps cynical and militant
(David, 1997:147)

Children's behavior at school appears to be strongly affected by 'within school'
factors. In the broadest context these factors are concerned with what schools
offer their pupils and how they offer it. While there is little doubt that aspects of
school policy and organization school ethos and the content/ delivery of the
curriculum make significant contributions to these offerings, we should not
underestimate the impact of teachers' behaviour--particularly their classroom
management skills--upon pupil behaviour (Charlton & David, 1997:207) The
increasing challenge to schools is to examine what they are offering their pupils,
how it is offered and whether it meets the needs of the pupils and the public.

Glenn and Nelsen's research (2000) found that good behavior must be developed
through a process that teachers and parents must model. They found that young
people need to realize their own potential, and that their realizations are observed.
Glenn and Nelsen (2000) stated that the underlying components in effective
management of student behaviors are modelling, setting limits, honetsy, and
problem solving. Adults need to model desired behaviors, and children learn best
by example.

Behaviour is neither entirely internally nor externally caused, but is the result of
the interaction between the individual and the environment (Alexander, 2000),
including physiological, physical and psychosocial factors (Evans et al, 1989).
This interplay of factors has been widely supported by educational psychologists
(Cochran-Smith, 2003) and is clearly presented in the learner-centred model of
teaching (Lambert & McCombs, 1998).

Teachers' primary responsibility is to help students learn in the classroom. It is
difficult for learning to take place in chaotic environments. Subsequently, we are
challenged daily to create and maintain a positive, productive classroom
atmosphere conducive to learning. On any given day, this can be quite a
challenge. In our attempts to face this challenge, we find ourselves making
common classroom behavior management mistakes.

Lawrence and Steadman (1984) noted in their research that: Many teachers are
understandably reluctant to acknowledge that the reasons for pupils' misbehaviour
may be found as often in their teaching as in the pupil's inability or failure to
learn. The most effective way of managing behaviour problems must surely be to
work to prevent them arising, and to prevent them arising, and to minimize their
occurence. In a well-known study Kounin (1970) reported that when attempting to
differentiate between more and less succesful teachers, he found no difference
between the two groups in terms of their effectiveness in dealing with behaviour
problems, but successful teachers were seen to be far more at preventing them.

The role which teachers' attitudes and values may play in the identification and
generation of behaviour problems can be equally significant. Teachers frequently
differ markedly in their tolerance of behaviour difficulties and it is not uncommon
for two teachers in the same school to have very different views about whether or
not a pupil has a behaviour problem. This does not mean that one is right and the
other is wrong; rather it reflects the different values and attitudes which the
individuals hold and the different expectations they have for the behaviour of their
pupils (Upton, 1997:112).

Much of the stress of teaching is related to bahviour problems in the classroom.
Sometimes these problems manifest themselves as physical or verbal abuse, yet
more often they present themselves as minor yet disruptive bahaviour. Many of
teachers could become defensive and irritated when confronted by students'
misbehaviour, and find it difficult to look hard at (ourselves) themselves and his
or her methods and attitudes.

The term classroom management is often used to describe the ways order can be
achieved (Emmer et al, 1994; Evertson et al, 1994). Classroom management refers
to the actions and strategies that teachers use to maintain order (Doyle, 1986).
Learning and order are closely related, as misbehavior (e.g. interference with
teaching, interference with the fights of others to learn, destructive or violent
behavior) and off-task behaviour (e.g. day-dreaming, not paying attention, playing
with other objects) interfere with the learning process.

One of the greatest challenges of a teacher is to maintain order in the classroom so
as to achieve academic objectives (Burden, 1995).

Responsibility for maintaining order in the classroom seems to be mainly that of
the teacher. However, this does not necessarily advocate high control teacher
methods; on the contrary, educational psychology suggests a low control approach
in the belief that pupils bear primary responsibility for controlling their own
behaviour and are capable of doing so (Burden, 1995). Behaviour problems are
assumed to be a result of erroneous beliefs, distorted thoughts and poorly
controlled emotional responses to stress. To address these problems an assessment
of their social perspectives ,beliefs and feelings is necessary (Nicols,
2000).Assistance should be provided through the establishment of a supportive
climate and training in important social skills (Skiba & Peterson, 2000).

When literature on undesirable behaviors in the classroom settings or classroom
management was examined, it was noticed that many researchers had focused on
to the subject of unwanted student behavior in the classroom and there was no
enough literature about negative behavior of teachers in the classroom.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to define the teachers' negative
behavior with regard to the high school last year students in the classroom setting.
The study was guided by the following guest ions:

a. What were the opinions of the high school last year students on their teachers'
negative behavior in classroom setting?

b. How was the negative behavior of male and women teachers graded by
students' opinions?

c. What were the opinions of male students on negative behavior of male and
women teachers?

d. What were the opinions of female students on negative behavior of male and
women teachers?

Methodology

Model of Research

To define the student expectations is a vital issue in teaching and it is necessary to
evaluate teaching process. When the researches about this scope were examined, it
was seen that they were generally carried out in the quantitative research models.
The basic factor in a quantitative research is the method. On the other hand,
qualitative research method is the more useful one to determine the underlying
factors in the teaching process. For this reason, in this research a qualitative
research model and situation analysis design were used in order to determine
negative behavior of the teachers observed by students in classroom setting. A
qualitative research generally includes interpreting various concepts, problems
and processes. The qualitative research process is a study in which researchers are
involved and reveal the inner connections among different data including different
dimensions (Miller & Dingwall, 1997).

Population and Sampling

The population for this study consisted of 1100 eleventh grade students from three
different general state high schools. These schools were selected at random at the
beginning of 2007 academic year in Kirsehir, Turkey. The sample consisted of
275 students (male 137& female138).

Instrument

The data was collected by means of unstructured interview method. Qualitative
content analysis approach was used so as to analyse data. Coding key was utilized
in the analysis of data as well. Students taken into the sample were given a sheet
of paper consisting of open-ended questions in order that they could write the
negative behavior patterns of their teachers in a free atmosphere created by the
researcher during the students' answering process. Data was based on the answers
of students. It is possible that students' answers could be colorable at some
situations, which is a limitation of this research.

Data Analysis

Qualitative content analysis approach was used in order to analyse data. Answers
of the students were collected under 30 main themes, which included at least two
related answers and the ones including only one related answer were excluded
from the list. The titles were listed in accordance with the number of the responses
concerning each theme. Coding key was used in the analysis of data.

Results

a. What were the opinions of the high school last year students on their teachers'
negative behavior in classroom setting?

Student opinions about negative behavior of the teachers and the frequency (f) and
percentage (%) rates were given in Table 1.

Table 1 gives list of negative behavior of the teachers with their frequency (f) and
percentage (%) rates. The data in Table 1 indicates that "Behaving aggressively"
is the most stated negative behavior of the teachers (%22.3) in the classroom
setting according to the students. "Speaking fast" in class was placed by the same
students in the second order (% 8.4) and "Threatening (with low marks)" was the
third (% 6.3). "Making discrimination among the students" (% 6.1) was the fourth
negative teacher behavior according to the students. These findings show that the
students mostly complained about the aggressive attitudes of their teachers. In a
research done by Malkoc-Istengel (2006), it was found that the teachers were at a
high level of stress. If a person has a high level of stress, he or she could behave
aggressively (Basut, 2006).

b. How was the negative behavior of male and women teachers graded by
students' opinions?

The opinions of the students on male and women teachers' negative behavior were
given in Table 2.

Table 2 gives a list of negative behavior of male and women teachers with the
frequencies (f). The data in Table 2 indicates that "Behaving aggressively" is the
most negative behavior for both the male (f=61) and the women teachers (f=37)
according to the students. "Speaking fast"(f=28) and "Applying physical
punishment" (f=19)were the second and third negative behavior of the male
teachers. "Threatening (with low marks)" (f=15) and "Favoring female students"
(f=14) were evaluated as the second and third negative behavior of the female
teachers by the students. It was very interesting that "Applying physical
punishment" and "Speaking on mobile in class" were only observed by the
students as negative behavior of male teachers. Similarly, "Dressing sexually" and
"Wearing high heels in classroom" were evaluated as negative behavior of the
female teachers.

c. What were the opinions of male students on negative behavior of male and
women teachers?

The opinions of the male students about the negative behavior of the male and
female teachers were given in Table 3.

Table 3 indicates a list of negative behavior of the male and women teachers
according to the male students with frequencies (f) of their opinions. The data in
Table 3 shows that "Behaving aggressively" is the most negative behavior of the
male (f=30) and the woman teachers (f=21) according to the male students.
"Speaking fast" (f=16) and "Humiliating" (f=14) were the second and third
negative behavior of the male teachers. "Favouring female students" (f=14) and
"Speaking fast" (f=9) were evaluated by the male students as the second and third
negative behavior of the female teachers.

d. What were the opinions of female students on negative behavior of male and
women teachers?

The opinions of the male students about the negative behavior of the male and
female teachers were given in Table 4.

Table 4 indicates a list of negative behavior of male and women teachers
according to the female students with the frequencies (f). The data in Table 4
shows that "Behaving aggressively" and is the most negative behavior of the male
(f=31) and the woman teachers (f=16) according to the female students.
"Insulting" (f=13) and "Speaking fast" (f=12) were the second and third negative
behavior of the male teachers. "Making discrimination among the students" (f=13)
and "Threatening (with low mark)" (f=11) were evaluated by the female the
students as the second and third negative behavior of the female teachers.

Discussion

According to the students, "Behaving aggressively" is the most pointed out
negative teacher behavior in this study. "S peaking fast", "Threatening (with low
marks)" and "Making discrimination among the students" were the more often
expressed negative behavior of the teachers. Classroom management is not only to
focus on student behavior or behavior management in classroom setting but also
to control teacher's own behavior. The teachers must know and pay attention to
how they will behave towards the students in the classroom settings and how
teaching will be organized for them (Sanford & Emer, 1988; Cohn, 1987).
Teachers' being in a merry and happy or in a safe and optimistic mode affects
their teaching process positively. Their emotional states and whether they are
relaxed in the class or not affect their decisions and attitudes in the classroom
setting (Basar, 1999).

Teacher's behavior shown in the classroom setting is divided into two parts as
"authoritarian" and "democratic" by Wubbels & Levy (1991). The authoritarian
teachers believe that the students must be under control and much freedom is not
good for them. This can make them careless. The democratic teachers believe that
the students must love the athmosphere of the classroom first, and for this, they
must provide a pleasant setting and give rewards as well. According to the
democratic teachers, they can increase motivation and success of the students only
in these ways. They are also more concerned with their students, trust and give
them responsibility.

Students who took part in this research said that the teachers behaved towards
them aggressively and in an authoritarian way. They pointed out that the male
teachers spoke faster in teaching and applied physical punishment. They also
stated that their teachers spoke on mobile phone in class. Dressing sexually and
wearing high heels were seen as the negative behavior of the female teachers. In
addition, "to threat to the students with mark" and "to be favour female students"
were the most expressed negative behavior of the female teachers.
According to the students, the male teachers behaved more agressively and they
humiliated the students in the classroom setting. With respect to the male students,
female teachers behaved less agressively but they favoured female students and
spoke fast in teaching process. Gender is an inborn feature and it can be easily
identified. This feature affects our roles and expectations in a society. Bennet
(1993) conducted a research on the primary school students from different
classroom levels and he found that the teachers behaved differently towards the
male students. According to his research findings, the teachers' perceptions of
male students were more negative than the female students. (Tauber 1997, 44).
Furthermore, Moore & Johnson (1983) and Tauber (1997) found that the teachers
had some prejudices related to the sexes of students.

According to the female students who took part in this research, the male teachers
behaved in an aggressive way. They considered "to insult" and "speaking fast" as
the typical negative behavior of the male teachers. In the same way, "to make
distinction among the students" and "to threat the students with the mark" were
the typical negative behavior of the female teachers. In his research, Rosenthal
(1974) found that the teachers behaved towards their students in different ways.
These differences were related with climate, feedback, input and out put
processes. The teachers provided a supportive climate in the classroom for some
students. They behaved more friendly towards them. They smiled and encouraged
them more. They were found to give more clear feedback to those students. They
rewarded them more and criticized less. This feedback was related with their
performance. Other students took feedback on their failure. These teachers usually
gave some students many rights to speak freely and opportunities for learning.
When these students hesitated to find the answer, they encouraged them and gave
clues. They also gave the second chance to them. (Jussim vd., 1998, 31-32; Harris
& Rosenthal, 1990, 107).

References

Alexander, P. A. (2000). Toward a model of academic development: schooling
and the acquisition of knowledge. Educational Researcher, 29, 28-33.

Basut, E.(2006). Stres, basacikmave ergenlik [Stress, coping and adolescence].
Cocukve Genclik Ruh Sagligi Dergisi, 13(1):31-36.

Basar, H. (1999). Sinif yonetimi, Istanbul: M.E.B. Yayinlari.

Bennett, M. & Galpert, L. (1993) Children's understanding of multiple desires.
International Journal of Behavioral Development, 16, 15-33.

Brophy, J. E. (1979). Teacher behavior and student learning. Educational
Leadership, 37, 33-38.

Brophy, J. (1983). Improving instruction: Effective classroom management. The
School Administrator, 40, 33-36.

Berliner, D. C. (1985). Effective classroom teaching: The necessary but not
sufficient condition for developing exemplary schools. In G. R. Austin & H.
Garber (Eds .), Re search on Exemplary Schools, Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Burden, P. R. (1995) Classroom management and discipline (New York,
Longrnan).

David K. (1997) Pastoral care in schools. Managing Misbehaviour In Schools.
Editors: Charlton T & K.David. Second Edition, London: Routledge.

Doyle, W. (1986). Paradigms for research on teacher effectiveness. Review of
Research in Education, 5, 163-198.

Doyle ,W. (1986) Classroom organization and management, in: W. C. Wittrock
(Ed.) Handbook of research in teaching (3rd edn) (New York, Macmillan), 392-
431

Cangelosi, J. S. (2004). Classroom management strategies: gaining and
mainstreaming students' cooperation (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Charlton T.&K. David. (1997) Ensuring Schools are Fit For The Future.
Managing Misbehaviour In Schools.

Editors: Charlton T & K.David. Second Edition, London: Routledge.

Clark. C. (1988) Discipline in Schools, British Journal of Educational Studies,
46:3, pp. 289-301

Cochran-Smith, M. (2003) Teaching quality matters. Journal of Teacher
Education, 54, 95-98.

Cohn, M. (1987). To be a teacher. Newyork: Random Hause.

Emmer, E., Evertson, C., & Anderson, L. (1980). Effective management at the
beginning of the school year. The Elementary School Journal, 80, 219-231.

Evertson, C. M. & Emmer, E. T. (1982). Effective management at the beginning
of the school year in junior high classes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74,
485-498.

Emmer, E. T., Evertson, C. M., Clements, B. S. & Worsham, M. E. (1994)
Classroom management for secondary teachers (Boston, MA, Allyn & Bacon).

Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T., Clements, B. S. & Worshame, M. E. (1994)
Classroom management for elementary teachers (Boston, A4A, Allyn & Bacon).

Evans, W. H., Evans, S. S. & Schmid, R. E. (1989) Behavior and instructional
management: an ecological approach (Boston, MA, Allyn & Bacon)

Glenn, H. Stephen, and Jane Nelsen. (2000) Raising self-reliant children in a self-
indulgent world: The breakthrough program no parent or teacher can afford to
ignore. 2d ed. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.

Harris, M. J. & Rosenthal, R. (1990). Four factors in the mediation of teacher
expectancy Effects. in R. S. Feldman (Ed). The social psychology of education:
current research and theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hawe, E., Tuck, B., Manthei, R., Adair, V., & Moore, D. (2000). Job satisfaction
and stress in New Zealand primary teachers. New Zealand Journal of Educational
Studies, 35, 193-205.

Jussim, L., Smith, A., Madon, S. & Palumbo, P. (1998). Teacher expectation s. in
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Nuri Baloglu, Ahi Evran University, College of Education, Egitim Fakultesi,
Terme Cad. Merkez, 40100/Kirsehir/Turkiye.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Nuri Baloglu at
baloglu@gaziedu.tr


Table 1
Student Opinions about Negative Teacher Behavior

Behavior                                f       %

Behaving aggressively                   98   22,3

Sneaking fast                           37     8,4

Threatening (with low marks)            28     6,3
Making discrimination (among the
students)                               27     6,1

Favoring female students                21     4,7

Using clang                             20     4,5

Insulting                               20     4,5

Applying physical punishment            19     4,3

Humiliating                             19     4,3

Coming to class late                    19     4,3

Lack of interest                        16     3,6

Assigning too much homework             14     3,1
Lack of examples in teaching           12      2,7

Sneaking on mobile in class            10       2,2

Not giving enough opportunity to
lake notes                              7       1,5

Being extremely authoritarian           7       1,5

Making students do too much
writing                                 6       1,3

Keeping students under pressure         6       1,3

Mocking                                 6       1,3

Dressing sexually                       6       1,3

Speaking in a low voice                 6       1,3

Lack of interest to male students       5       1,1

Speaking rudely                         4       0,9

Coming to class early                   4       0,9

Wearing high heels in classroom         3       0,9

Behaving conceitedly                    3       0,6

Making silly jokes                      3       0,6

Ignoring the students                   2      0,6

Nicknaming                              2       0,4

Making dull speech                      2       0,4


Table 2
Men and Women Teachers' Negative Behavior According To The
Students.

Behavior of Male Teachers         f         Behavior of Woman Teachers   f

Behaving aggressively             61        Behaving aggressively        37

Speaking fast                     28        Threatening (with low
                                            marks)                       15

Applying physical punishment      19     Favoring female students        14

Using slang                       16        Making-discrimination
                                            (among the students)         13

Humiliating                       14        Coming to class late         13

Threatening (with low marks)      13        Speaking fast                9

Insulting                         13        Insalting                    7

Lack of interest                  12        Being extremely
                                            authoritarian                7
Making discrimination
(among the students)              14        Mocking                      6

Speaking on mobile in clas        10        Dressing sexually            6

Lack of examples in teaching      8         Speaking in a low voice      6
Assigning too much homework     8        Assigning too much homework    6

Favoring female students        7        Humiliating                    5

Not giving enough                        Lack of interest to
opportunity to take notes       7        male students                  5

Making students do                       Wearing high heels
too much writing                   6     in classroom                       4

Keeping students                         Use slang                          4
under pressure                      6

Coming to class late               6     Lack of interest                   4

Speaking rudely                    4     Lack of examples in teaching       4

To come classes early              4     Making silly jokes                 3

Behaving conceitedly                3    Behaving conceitedly               3

                                         Make dull speech                   2


Table 3
The Opinions Of The Mole Student About Negative Behavior Of The
Teachers

Negative Behavior of                    Negative Behavior of
Male Teachers                  f        Woman Teachers                  f

Behaving aggressively          30       Behaving aggressively           21

Speaking fast                  16       Favoring female students        14

Humiliating                    14       Speaking fast                   9

Applying physical punishment   14       Coming to the class late        7

Making discrimination                   Assigning too much homework     6
(among the students)           11

Using slang                    8        Humiliating                     5

Speaking on mobile in                   Lack of interest to male
the class                      6        students                        5

Making students do too         6        Being extremely authoritarian   4
much writing

Keeping students under         6        Lack of examples in teaching    3
pressure

Lack of interest               5        Threatening (with low marks)    4

Threatening (with low marks)   4        Speaking in a low voice         2

Speaking rudely                4

Coming to class early          4




Table 4
The Opinions of The Female Students About The Negative Behavior
Of The Teachers

Negative Behavior of                    Negative Behavior of
Male Teachers                  f        Woman Teachers                  f
Behaving aggressively             31    Behavior aggressively             16

Insulting                         13    Making-discrimination
                                        (among the students)              13

Speaking fast                     12    Threatening (with low marks)      11

Threatening (with low marks)      9     Speaking fast                     8

Using slang                       8     Insulting                         7

Assigning too much homework       8     Mocking                           6

Lack of interest                  7     Dressing sexually                 6

Not giving enough                       Coming the class late             6
opportunity to take notes         7

Coming to the class late          6     Wearing high heels in             4
                                        classroom

Favouring female students         6     Using slang                       4

Applying physical punishment      5     Lack of interest                  4

Speaking on mobile in the         4     Speaking in a low voice           4
class

Lack of examples in               4     Making silly Jokes                3


Source Citation
Baloglu, Nuri. "Negative behavior of teachers with regard to high school students
in classroom settings." Journal of Instructional Psychology 36.1 (2009): 69+.
Gale Arts, Humanities and Education Standard Package. Web. 1 Apr. 2010.

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